Skip to main content

Full text of "The Diary Of A Country Parson"

See other formats


D I A 

R Y 





* The World’s Classics, No zSg’ 

‘Letters of Thomas Gray’ Selected, with an 
introduction, by John Beresford 


By R Cobden-Sanderson 

‘ Poems of Charles Cotton idjo-KjSy’ Edited, 
with an introduction and notes, by John Beresford 

‘ bo all the more thanks are due to Mr Beresford for this pious, 
Sthiiarly, and admirably produced resurrection, from the ordinal 
sole and single i68p edition, of his collateral ancestor’s poems ’ 
0£ORG& Sai^tsbury m Tlid ^atton and ydth-naeitm 

‘ Gossip of the .Seventeenth and Eighteenth Cen- 
turies ’ By John Beresford Second Impression 

‘Out of many a learned hisroiy of the period, which 
Mr Beresford so charmingly peoples, we have learnc fat kss 
than from these aoo companionable pages * 

TJje Times J tteravy Svpplemmt 

* A charming volume . the gleanings of a scholar * 

77;e Jlfaiuhrster Guardian 

By Samuel Woodforde, R A 



O F A 


The Reverend 





First editton^ April 1924 
Second impression^ June IQ24 




In Memory of many Good 

Talks of History, Books, 

and Men 

in a Wiltshire Garden. 


The Diary of the Reverend James Woodforde covers 
nearly every single day of the long stretch of years from 
1758 to 1803. It is written in a handwriting as clear as 
print, almost as small, and much more closely compressed, 
and the manuscript runs through some sixty-eight book- 
lets Were the whole to be printed, it would hardly be 
contained within less than a dozen stout volumes. This 
remarkable manuscript is in private hands, and its very 
existence is unknown even to the Historical Manuscripts 
Commission, who have cast their invaluable net over 
most of the private collections in this country 

My introduction to the Diary has been made through 
my friend. Dr. R E. H. Woodforde, of Ashwell, Herts, 
the great-great-great-nephew of the Reveiend James 
Woodforde, who now possesses the manuscript, and who, 
with much kindness, has allowed me to read it through 
and take extracts from it ^ 

I have dealt with the characteristics of the Diarist and 
the Diary in the Introduction, but there is one overriding 
charactenstic which I wish to emphasize at the outset. 
The Reverend James Woodforde was not in his own day 
a great or even a distinguished man, whatever place he 
may take hereafter in the world of letters. The passion 

^ Dr Woodforde possesses numerous portraits, records, and ancestral 
relics of idle Woodforde family I am indebted to him for much genea- 
logical and other information 


Prefatory Note 

for notoriety is wholly absent In the concluding words 
of a famous sonnet — ‘tranquillity is here’. To me this 
country voice, till now as unknown and as mute as those 
immortahzed in Gray’s Elegy, came with a wonderful 
and contrasting freshness 

One word as to my editorial method is necessary. 
As I have explained, if the Diary were to be printed 
in Its entirety, a dozen stout volumes at least would be 
required. One day I hope the whole Diary will thus be 
presented to the world. Meanwhile my transcriptions 
are sufficiently full, frequent, and continuous to present 
the character of the Diarist and his time in very intimate 
detail - In order to accomplish the essential project of 
a continuous narrative, I have hnked up intervening 
periods of days, weeks, or months, where necessary, wath 
a bnef account of what was happening in those inter- 
vemng periods And in the same way I have interspersed, 
though as rarely as possible — and more and more rarely 
as the Diary proceeds, such explanations of the historical 
scene as seemed hkely to assist the reader. Had the 
present edition of the Diary been a day to day transcrip- 
tion, this method would for the most part have been 
unnecessary, and foot-notes could have accomplished 
much, though by no means all, that an editor should 
supply for instance, the Diarist’s career at Oxford 
would not be intelhgible without some account of the 
University system in the eighteenth century, a subject 
altogether beyond the scope of a foot-note(seepp. 158-62). 
In a work of this character I would rather not be dis- 
tracted frequently by those compelhng foot-notes which 
one hates to read and fears to miss If the reader dislikes 


Prefatory Note 

me, he can see me coming, skip me, and proceed with 
the Diary. Only he must be careful how he skips, 
because in so doing he may lose the thread of the 

I have adhered to the Diarist’s speUing, which in 
accordance with eighteenth-century idiosyncrasy in this 
matter, was by no means consistent, especially in the 
case of proper names. 

This volume covers the period 1758-81. If public 
appreciation and support are forthcoming, a second 
volume will carry on the narrative through the years 
which follow, years pregnant with war, with peace, with 
the French Revolution, with the wars, excursions, and 
alarums arising therefrom — ^ripphng even to a Country 
Rectory, — and with the vanishing stream of human 
things, as viewed by that lovable being, the Reverend 
James Woodforde 


Ashwell End, 

Baldock, Hekts. 

Cbnstmas, 1923 










Part I : Oxford and the Somerset Curacies, 


Part H : Weston Longeville, Norfolk, 


INDEX . . 341-364 


Portrait of tlie Diarist. 

By Samuel Woodforde, R.A. . Frontispiece 

The Old Parsonage, Ansford 

Portrait of William Woodforde. 
By Samuel Woodforde, R.A. 

Portrait of Nancy Woodforde. 

By Samuel Woodforde, R.A. 

To face page 176 
>» j> 270 

» » 33 ^ 

Far from the madding crowd’s ignoble strife, 

Their sober wishes never learned to stray 
Along the cool, sequestered vale of life 
They kept the noiseless tenor of their way. 

(Elegy mitten in a Country Churchyard ) 


In the first place it will be convenient if I give some 
account of the family of the Reverend James Woodforde 
(1740-1803), specially as it will throw light on how the 
Diary came to be written at all. For James came of 
good literary stock. His earliest known ancestor was 
one John Woodforde of Scaldwell, Co. Northampton, 
who was living in 1513. His great-great-grandfather, 
Robert Woodforde (1606-54), Steward of Northampton, 
kept a diary in the days before the Civil War, a diary parts 
of which have been published by the Historical Manu- 
scripts Commission.^ By way of gossip it may be said 
in passing that this particular diary opens with an entry 
about a dispute, which had arisen between Robert’s 
wife and Robert’s mother, as to the preservation and dis- 
posal of some sugar plums. Robert, who was a grave 
man and of the Puritan persuasion, is much perturbed by 
this domestic difference, and enters a prayer in his diary 
that greater discretion may be vouchsafed to his wife 
in future. 

Robert’s son was the Reverend Samuel Woodforde, 
D D. and F.R.S. (1636-1701) who wrote A paraphrase 
upon the Psalms of David, and numbered among his friends 
Bishops Ken and Stillingfleet, the Poet Flatman, Cooper 
the famous Miniature Painter, Gilbert White — grand- 
father of Gilbert White the Naturalist — Dr. Sprat, His- 
torian of the Royal Society, Dr. Croone, Founder of the 
Croonian Lectures, Bishop Morley, and — more famous 
still — Izaak Walton. To Walton Woodforde dedicated 
two poems in 1670. Professor Saintsbury refers to him 
^ H.M.C , Ninth Report, App II, 493-9. 


m one of those erudite and delightful notes to his 
Caroline Poets.^ ‘ Woodford . though much forgotten 
now, must have been something more than an ordinary 
person. As such he might have been, as he was, a 
St. Paul’s boy and an Oxford (Wadham) man, a member 
of the Inner Temple, an early F.R S , and, later, a Canon 
of Chichester and Winchester. But as such merely he 
would hardly have been, in the Preface to his Para- 
phrases oj the Canticles, the first, and for a long time the 
onl7, “ ingoing ” critic of Milton’s blank verse. He does 
not take quite the right view of it, but it is noteworthy 
that he should have taken any view of an intelligent 

But more interesting and important than all this is the 
fact that both he and his wife wrote Dianes which I hope, 
in due course, to have an opportunity of editing.® 

Samuel’s son was Heighes Woodforde (1664-1724), 
Rector of Epsom and Canon of Chichester, and his son 
was Samuel Woodforde (1695-1771), Rector of Ansford 
and Vicar of Castle Cary in Somerset, whose second son 
was James, our Diarist. Of James’s father we shall hear 
something in the Diary , he was a good country parson 
as his father was before him. 

It pleases me to think that the Diarist’s ancestors were 
not only, in the best sense, respectable, but learned and 
good men, and that he clearly owed much to them. 
I confess to an old-fashioned belief in the profound 
importance of great-grandfathers ; but not in any 
snobbish sense. Whether a man’s great-grandfathers 
were Dukes or Dustmen is a matter of relatively minor 
interest ; the interest consists in finding out what manner 

^ Vol HI, p 306. There is a notice of this Woodforde in the Z) iV 5 

® An extract from Samuel’s diary appears in my Gosstp of the Seven- 
teenth ani Eighteenth Centuries, pp 55“^ Cobden-Sanderson, 1923) 



of men the great-grandfathers were, and to what extent 
their qualities have re-emerged in their descendants. 
I do not understand a certain modern school of thought 
which steadfastly ignores the past and, with child-like 
simplicity, believes it can instantly create something 
in art, literature, or politics which shall be completely 
new. It is an impossible theory, for the plain fact is 
that we cannot escape from the past, and progress consists 
but in a slow and gradual engrafting. Moreover, a dis- 
regard of great-grandfathers is pecuharly inopportune 
in an age when Science has demonstrated, even in Sweet 
Peas, the immense importance of pedigree. 

But apart from these considerations, the fact that 
the Diarist’s ancestors were what they were is of interest 
from an historical standpoint. In the famous third 
chapter of his History of England, Lord Macaulay has 
given a brilliant but devastating description of the 
condition of the Country Clergy during the latter part 
of the seventeenth and earlier part of the eighteenth 
centuries.^ The Country Rector was in general not 
regarded as, and indeed was not, a gentleman ; ‘ often 
it was only by toiling on his glebe, by feeding swine, 
and by loading dungcarts, that he could obtain daily 
bread ’ ; he was lU-informed, and grossly prejudiced, 
and he was a passionate supporter of the Tories. The 
great Historian contrasts with the Country Clergy 
the eminent Divines to be found ‘ at the Universities, 
at the great Cathedrals, or in the Capital ’. He gives 
a list of the men who flourished there towards the end 
of the seventeenth century ; and an exceedingly imposing 
list it is, not the least eminent name being that of Bishop 

^ Although he concentrates on the latter part of the seventeenth 
century, Macaulay, with a characteristic sweep of the pen, starts with the 
Reformation and runs into the reign of George II. 

3 B 2 


Burnet, who is generally acknowledged, by those who have 
studied his works and his life, to have been a very great 
man, a very excellent Bishop, and a very good Whig. 

It would be not only impertinent but idle to suggest 
that much that Lord Macaulay says of the Country Clergy 
IS not true. Lecky, while admittmg that ‘ Macaulay 
greatly understated the number of men of good family 
that entered the Church, and [that] his picture is, 
perhaps, in other respects a little over-colouied’, endorses 
‘ its substantial accuracy On the other hand, those 
who have made a special study of ecclesiastical historj' 
in this period present a less gloomy picture, and 
suggest that ‘ the wholesale censure of the whole body 
of the parochial clergy in the early part of the 
eighteenth century has been far too sweeping and 
severe ’.® The first and most formidable assailant of the 
Macaulay view of the Country Clergy was Churchill 
Babington in his brilliant Mr. Macaulay's Character of 
the Clergy in the latter fart of the Seventeenth Century 
considered, which was published in 1849. One of 
Macaulay’s and Lecky’s * main authorities is Dr. John 
Eachard,who in 1670 wrote an anonymous pamphlet on 
the grounds and occasions of the contempt of the Clergy 
A careful reading of Eachard’s witty work makes it plain 
that he did not intend every word he said to be taken 

^ Lecky’s England in the Eighteenth Century^ vol i, p 97 (foot-note) 

^ The English Church in the Eighteenth Century^ by J C Abbey and 
J H Overton, 2 vols , 1878 , vol 11, p 66 See also Hore’s The Church 
in England from William III to Victoria^ 1886, vol 1, p 299, and J W 
Legg, English Church Life from the Restoration to the Tractarian Move- 
ment^ 1914 

® Lecbjfs view, as already indicated, is more moderate than Mac- 
aulay’s nevertheless, though he had benefited by Churchill Babmgion’s 
book, xt does not seem to me that he quite adequately appreciated 
Churchill Babmgton’s scholarly and brilliant criticism 



hterallj ; his wit is of the Bernard Shaw type, only more 
amusing and less perverse. Nevertheless Macaulay accepts 
him implicitly. In a later pamphlet Eachard admits that 
the state of the Clergy ‘ does daily considerably improve ’ ; 
all he wanted to do was to hasten the process by fruitful 
criticism, which he made exceedingly humorous. 

In short, one is left -with an impression that, however 
true a considerable part of the Macaulay picture may be, 
it is not the whole picture. There is nothing to suggest 
that a great number, if not the greater number, of 
the Country Clergy had been educated at Oxford or 
Cambridge. In connexion ivith the latter University 
that wonderful work by J and J A. Venn, Alumm 
Cantabngienses, now being issued by the Cambridge 
University Press, will, in itself, afford a fair corrective 
of the Macaulay description. Nor would one have sup- 
posed that at least eleven of the twenty-two eminent 
Divines named by Macaulay were at one period of their 
careers simple Country Parsons,^ or that men of genius 
like Robert Herrick and Thomas Traherne spent their lives 
and died in their Country Parishes, both as it happens in 
the same year 1674, this is three years before the death 
of Barrow at Cambridge, with whose name Macaulay 
begins his list. Certainly, in the years immediately 
following, the Woodforde family, with its honourable 
clerical record, repeated through four successive genera- 
tions,® can be cited as a witness, as can the Wesley family, 
and there are numerous others,® that the light of the 
Anglican Church in the villages was not universally low. 

^ Beveridge, Burnet, Collier, Fowler, Patrick, Pearson, Pococke, 
South, StiUingfleet, Tenison, and TiUotson See D N B 

® Samuel Woodforde, D D , &c , was a Country Parson pwor to pro- 

® As, for instance, the Burton parsons of the parish of Sutton Montis, 
Somerset, to whom see a reference hereafter, p 112 



Of the Diarist himself and his Diary it is necessary 
to say little : they will speak for themselves. But this 
much may be said. The key-note of the Diarist’s life and 
character was and is tranquillity. Unlike Pepys he does 
not move in the great world, and again unlike Pepys he 
is_^ not minutely interested in himself With Pepys it 
is difficult to say which mood is the most entrancing, 
the mood in which he is absorbed in himself, or the mood 
in which he throws himself completely into the scenes 
of which he is a mere spectator. The Reverend James 
Woodforde holds a middle course. He is not uninterested 
in himself, and he is clearly interested in all the external 
affairs which touched his quiet life Though he is not a 
man of grand passions or brilliant qualities, his personality 
is such that the whole Diary is stpeped m a unique 
atmosphere. As you read his daily record, continuously 
kept for forty-three years, you realize that he is that 
very rare and beautiful bird — a typical Englishman. For 
the typical Englishman, in fact, is not every other man 
who passes in the street, but the man in whom are gathered 
together those various qualities which compose the 
national character , and this man is a rare man. The 
Reverend James Woodforde loved his father and his 
family and his home with a completely contented love , 
he loved good food and good drink ; he loved sport, 
specially coursing hares and fishing j he loved a country 
life ; he loved established institutions — therefore he 
will be found, on the one hand, reverently keeping 
the rehgious anniversary of the ‘martyrdom’ of King 
Charles I, on January 30th of each year, and, on the other, 
on the side of hberty and against King George III in 
the Wilkes controversy ; in short, he believed in Parlia- 
mentary government and in the Revolution of 1688, 
and is not a high Tory , he liked Lords but he is no snob ; 



he liked women but not in the amorous way , he has 
one love affair, and the girl failing him, he remains a 
bachelor to his dying day; he is most friendly to his 
fellow men, without distinction of class, and he is merciful 
to all animals ; finally, in religion, he loved the quiet 
way, that ‘ mean between the two extremes ’ which 
Bishop Saunderson explains in his beautiful preface to 
the Book of Common Prayer. 

Reading the Diary of the Reverend James Woodforde 
is like embarking on a long voyage down a very tranquil 
stream. There is no grand or exciting scenery; there 
are no rapids, nor is there any ultimate expectation of 
the sea. But there are green fields on either side, and 
trees, and a very pleasant murmuring of water, there 
IS the harmony which comes only from controlled move- 
ment, and there is peace. 

From the historical standpoint, the Diary is of the 
greatest possible interest as presenting a complete view 
of English village life in the second half of the eighteenth 
century. It answers for that period the question which, 
I must confess, is to me the most interesting question 
in history — ^how did plain people actually live their daily 
lives in the ancestral centuries. It answers the question 
mainly for village and country life, but there are also 
intimate views of University life, and hfe at Bath, Nor- 
wich, and elsewhere. 

This picture of village life as it was a hundred and fifty 
years ago is all the more interesting because village life 
was then the normal life. Mr. George Trevelyan empha- 
sizes this in one of his latest and most excellent books : 

‘ In the life of our day, the characteristic umt is the town, 
the factory or the trade umon. Then it was the country 
village. Village life embraced the chief daily concerns 
of the majority of Enghshmen. It was the principal 



nursery of the national character. The village was not 
then a moribund society, as in the nineteenth century ; 
nor was it, as in our day, a society hoping to revive by 
the backwash of life returning to it from the town. It 
contained no inspected school, imparting a town-made 
view of life to successive generations of young rustics, 
preparing for migration to other scenes. City civilization, 
with Its newspapers and magazines, had not supplanted 
provincial speech and village tradition.’ ^ 

Although we are concerned with a period separated 
from us by only five or six generations — our great- 
grandfathers, or our great-great-grandfathers, are in 
possession of the stage — ^it is necessary constantly to 
remember the prodigious difference in the setting of 
the whole scene. The following is a bird’s-eye view, 
taken at random during almost any part of the period 

England is governed by the Aristocracy and the King. 
The Rotten Boroughs return members at their bidding. 
Only the County Members are rather more fiec, and 
even their return is largely dependent on the support 
of the great lords , moreover, in any case, the county 
franchise is limited to forty shillings a year freeholders. 
The Prime Minister is the actual nominee of the King, 
not of the Party. Only members of the Anglican Church 
are legally eligible for national or municipal office, or 
for admittance to the universities; a certain number 
of Dissenters, however, manage to scrape in through the 
loophole of occasional conformity or the Indemnity Acts 
The criminal law is immensely rigorous, and thefts of the 
value of 401. or over are punished by death. There are 160 
capital offences. Small-pox carries off the thirteenth or 

^ Bntuh History m the Nineteenth Century, 1782-1901, by G. M. 
Trevelyan (1922), chap. i. 



fourteenth part of each generation.^ The Slave Trade is 
regarded as a legitimate commercial enterprise, and slavery 
itself as a respectable institution. The Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel owns slaves in Barbadoes, and 
Whitefield has slaves in Georgia.® Men are ‘ impressed ’ 
when necessary for the navy, and, by a variety of means, 
not seldom forced into the army.® France is regarded 
as the age-long enemy of England. Though the Jacobites 
cease, after the suppression of the dangerous outbreak 
of 1745-6, to be a serious political menace, the Catholics 
are hated or feared by the people, and subject to outbursts 
of mob violence, as in the Gordon Riots in 1780. The 
theory of Free Trade is but just born, and high Protec- 
tion — ^with the consequent smuggling — is practised uni- 
versally. ‘ If ’, says Lecky, ‘ the Wealth of Nations had 
been published a century earlier [it appeared in 1776] 
and if Its principles had passed into legislation, it is quite 
possible that the separation of England and her [American] 
colonies might have been indefinitely adjourned.’ ^ 
There is no system of pubhc health or public education. 

^ Bernouilh’s calculation Final Report of Royal Qiininission on 
Vaccination, p 13, 1896. 

® The slave trade was not abolished till 1807, and slavery itself survived 
till 1833-4 The anti-slavery agitation began in the second half of the 
eighteenth century, the Quakers, the Evangdicals, and the Poets being 
the pioneers of the movement 

® See in Lord Fitzmaurice’s Lije of Shettvrne, vol 1, p 417, some 
interesting correspondence between Chatham and Shelburne on the 
subject of the Press Warrants issued in the City in 1770-I Also for an 
instance of impressing a soldier, H M C , xzth Re fort. Appendix, 
Part III, p 70. Fortescue, speabng of the Seven Years War, says 
‘ Speaking broadly, it may be asserted that during this war the ranks 
were filled by compulsion far more than by attraction, and by com- 
pulsion so ruthless that recruits would resort to self-mutilation to escape 
service ’ {History of the Bntuh Army, vol 11, p 585) 

* Lecky’s England tn the Eighteenth Century, vol iv, p 46, ed 1896 



In the civil service promotion depends on patronage, 
and in the army on purchase. There are, of course, no 
railroads, and the roads, such as they are, are controlled 
by a net-work of turnpikes. Travelling is by horseback, 
coach, or post-chaise The existence of highwaymen 
adds a certain excitement to long journeys.^ 

This introduction to the Diary of the Reverend James 
Woodforde may now cease. Henceforth the Diarist shall 
tell his own story in the extracts from the Diary which 
I have made. These have been made so as to present 
a complete story of the principal events in his life, and 
I have endeavoured to select passages which throw a par- 
ticular light either on his own character, or the character 
of his family and his neighbours, or on contemporary 
events, or on the social life of the time. 

Finally it will be well to remember the bare outline of 
his life. He was born on June i6 (o.s ), 1740, at Ansford 
in Somerset, of which village his father was Rector, and 
also Vicar of the much larger village of Castle Cary He 
was educated at Winchester College, as his father had 
been before him. In 1758 he matriculated at Oxford, 
became a scholar of New College in 1759, and subse- 
quently a Fellow. His Oxford career ends in 1763, 
when he is ordained. The years from 1763 to 1773 
comprise the period of his Somerset Curacies. In 1773 
he returns to Oxford, where he resides as a Fellow acting 
also as a Proctor for most of the time In 1774 
presented to the college living of Weston in Norfolk, and 
after an interval of some eighteen months spent partly 
at his old home and partly at Oxford, he takes up his resi- 
dence, and there lives till his death on January ist, 1803. 

^ ‘ In 1775 the guard of the Norwich stage was killed in Eppmg Forest, 
after he himself had shot dead three highwaymen out of the seven that 
assailed him to rob the mail ’ (Mason, History of Norfolk^ p. 453) 





The Diary begins with some entries of account at 
Oxford, dated October 1758. Here are a few purchases 
of an eighteenth-century undergraduate. 

Oct. 19. 

A pair of Curhng Tongs 



Oct. 20 

Two Logick Books 




Oct. 25. 

Two Bottles of Port Wine 




Nov. 6. 

A Sack of Coal 




Nov. 7. 

A Musick Book 




May 25. 

A New Wigg 




June 16 

Had of my Father 




June 18. 





Jiiiy 4- 

Ester Oratorio 









July 6 

2 White Waistcoats 




He also notes that he has a ‘ superfine blue suit of 
cloathes, very good cloth ’ which cost los. and a 
chocolate suit ‘ bad ’ which cost 
The detailed Diary begins on July 21, 1759, with the 
laconic entiy . ‘ Made a Scholar of New College In 
August and September of this year he is at home at 
Ansford. The early entries in the Diary are very short, 
thus • 

1759. Aug 28. We [his Papa and he] ^ lodged at the 

^ Any words interpolated into the text of the Diary itself for explana- 
tion are shown in square brackets [ ] , ordinary brackets ( ) are the 
Diarist’s own. 



King’s Arms in Evershor, where we had exceeding 
good Port Wine. 

Sept. 5. I went to the Bear-baiting ^ in Ansford. 

Sept. 16. One Mr. Russ of Shepton Mallett who 
brought Miss Payne [a friend] came after her again, 
but he being so very drunk, and very late, we would 
not let her go. 

On October ist, he sets out on horseback with his 
father’s man for Oxford, the route being through 
Deptford, Yearnbury Castle, Maddington, Netherhaven, 
Everly (where he lodged that night at the Rose and 
Crown, Everly is about fifty miles from Ansford, 
a pretty long day’s stretch on horseback) ; then the next 
day through Sharvord, Winteibuin, Hungerford, New- 
town, Shapwick, Farnborough, Abbey Milton, Abbing- 
ton, to Oxford, which they reached on the evening of 
October and 
The Diary continues . 

1759. Oct. 6 Geree, Peckham and myself had a hogs- 
head of Port from Mr Cropp of Southampton. 

Oct. 8. Had of Mr Prince the Bookseller in New 
College Lane, a standish with sand. Ink, Wafers, and 
half a Hundred of Pens 

Oct. 14. Mr. Turner Junr of this College died this 
afternoon about 3 o’clock in a deep consumption. 
[He IS buried Oct. 17th at 10 o’clock at night in the 
Cloisters ‘ in a very plain and decent manner.’] 

Oct. 18 Very great rejoycmgs this night on the tabng 
of Quebec. 

^ A Bill ‘ against Bear-baiting and other cruel Practices ’ was defeated 
in the House of Commons by 50 votes to 32 as late as Qi M C , 
Tmlftb Report, Appendix, Part III, p 7) 



Oct. 30. Went with Masters a shooting to Stanton 

Nov. 10. John Atwell brought me up a Bed, 3 Blanketts, 
a Quilt, Bolster and Pillow, and a letter from my 
Sister Jenny, together wth a Hare which Esq. 
Newman sent me up, which I think is very kind 
Had another bottle of Hadley’s Wine 

Nov. 1 6 Gave away my snuff-box to a Particular Friend. 

Nov. 29. ... Mr, Messiter, Mr Philip Hays, and Mr. 
Holton of Mag Coll, spent the evening with me, and 
sat up till 2 o’clock in the morning. . . . Had 6 bottles 
of my wine. 

Dec. 3. I first began on the Spinnet, Mr. Philip Hays, 
my Tutor. 

Dec. 8. . . Had a Half-Crown Bowl of Punch from 
Kennerslys. I laid in Mr. NicoUs rooms with Mr. 
Hearst, who turned me out of Bed, and locked me 
out of the room naked. 

Dec. 10. I went with Mr Bertie, Gen. Comm. [Gentle- 
man Commoner] of this House, to see the man ride 
upon three Horses. 

Dec. 22. My great Aunt Ann Woodforde died of the 
small-pox at Bicester this morning. 

Dec 25. I received the Sacrament being Xmas Day 
The Warden dined in Hall with us. The Bursars 
give us Scholars 8 Bottles of Port Wine to drink at 
dinner time They likewise give us a qutr of a 
Cifeshire Cheese. We have 2 large Grace Cups 
between courses. We have rabbits for supper, i Rabbit 
between three at the expense of the Domus. Sent 
a letter to my Father. 

1760. Jan 21. Went and heard Doctor Blackstone's ^ 
Lecture on the Crown being Hereditary. 

^ See pp. 141-2, foot-note 



Jan. 30. Mr. Pye the Subwarden set me Part of the 
1st Lesson for this morning service to translate into 
Sapphic Metre, for not being at Prayers this morning. 

Mar. 3. Gave my imposition to Mr Pye, upon David’s 
Lamentation over Saul and Jonathan made by NicoUs 
in Sapphic Metre Had a Bottle of my Wine 

Mar. 22 Breakfasted at Tahourdin’s Dined at the 
Cross Inn with Mr. Ben. Bathurst, Ensign of the first 
Regiment of Foot Guards, who is come out to recruit. 
. . . N.B. We had Clarett, Madeira and Port to 

Ap. 29. Went and play’d Crikett, being the first time 
of our Clubb’s playing N B we play’d in Port 

May 14. Plaid at Crikett in Port Meadow, the Win- 
chester against the Eaton, and we Winton: beat 

May 20. Hooke, Boteler and myself went to Welch’s 
of Wadham College, where we designed to sup and 
spend the evening, but our entertainment was thus, 
one Lobster of a Pound, a half-pennyworth of Bread, 
and the same of Cheese, half of an Old Bottle of Ale, 
Half a Bottle of Wine, and a Bottle of Lisbon, and 
then we were desired to retreat, which was immediately 
obeyed. . . . N.B. A Wadamite. 

June 20. I declaimed in Chapel upon — An sapiens 
mutet sententiam . . affirmatur.^ 

On July 18, he leaves Oxford to spend the long vaca- 
tion at home, travellmg on horseback. Nothing notable 
happens during the vacation — ^much visiting of cousins, 

^ For an account of the Oxford curriculum in the eighteenth century, 
see pp 158-62 hereafter 



a little coursing of hares, and so on. Then, on October lo, 
he sets out for Oxford, the journey on horseback taking 
the usual two days. What with meals, the night’s 
lodging, tips to hostlers and maids, and turnpikes, the 
two days’ journey costs him ijs. <)d. for himseif and his 

1760. Oct. 25, N.B. King George the 2nd died this 
morning at nine o’clock, there being an Express j'ust 
arrived from London here this evening at five o’clock. 
Oct. 31. Went and saw King George the third pro- 
claimed King of England m High Street. 

Nov. I. Had a Suit of Mourmng for the King brought 
home this very night. 

Nov. 7. I declaimed in Chapel upon — ^Utrum immensas 
opes possidere alicujus periculo, vel securitati magis 
fere conducat. . . Periculo. 

This term he becomes acquainted with two Oxford 
girls, Nancy Bignell and her sister Betsy, with whom he 
takes numerous walks. The friendship appears to have 
been extremely innocent , he gives Nancy six white 
handkerchiefs to make for him, and later gives her and 
her sister Betsy each a silver thimble. 

1761 Jan. 2. For Ale in a House in Holinwell, where 
I took some verses from a Man, made upon Nancy 
Bignell and myself, pd. o. o. 4^. At cards with Brewer, 
Peckham and Williams, lost, o. 5. 6. 

Jan. 7. Peckham, Loggin and Webber went with me to 
Halse’s the Sadler, where I threshed his apprentice 
Crozier for making verses on me. 

Jan. 25. We went into second mourning for. his late 
Majesty, King George the second. Drank tea this 
afternoon at Tahourdin’s with George Weller. 



Feb. 2. . . . Went and saw Dumas alias Darking, a famous 
Highwayman, in the Castle. Gave a girl there, in 
for stealing a Shift o. o. 2d. 

Feb. 13. A Publick Fast for our Fleets and Armies . . . 

Mar. 6. Went up into the Hall this afternoon after the 
Judge was in, and I could not get a tolerable Place 
some time, but at last I jumped from two men’s 
shoulders and leaped upon the Heads of several men 
and then scrambled into the Pnsoneis Place where 
the Judge said I must not stay, so one of the Coun- 
sellors [i e. Barristers] desired me not to make a noise, 
and he would let me have his Place, which was im- 
mediately under the Prisoners and opposite the Judge, 
where I sat and heard three or four tryalls, and likewise 
condemnation passed on Dumas, alias Darking, alias 
Hamilton, alias Harris. Was up there from, 5 till 9, 
and then the Judge had finished everything i con- 
demned to die, 4 transported for seven rears, i burnt 
m the hand and acquitted. 

Mar II. . . . Baker andCrouchei both of Merton Coll: 
spent their evening in the B C.R. [Bachelors’ Common 
Room]. Croucher was devilish drunk indeed, and 
made great noise there, but we carried him away to 
Peckham’s Bed in Triumph. Baker laid with me. 

Mar. 22. Being Easter Day received this morning the 
Holy Sacrament . . . took a walk this evening with 
Nancy Bignell. 

Mar. 23. Mr. Darking alias Dumas etc , was hanged 
this morning about a quarter before eight, and after 
he was cut down he was carried by the Bargemen to 
St. Thomas Church to be buried. All the College gates 
was .shut from ten o’clock last night till nine this 
morning by an Order of the Vice-Chancellor and 



June 14. ... Hearst, Bell and myself, being in Beer, 
went under Whitmore’s window, and abused him 
very much, as being Dean, he came down, and sent 
us to our Proper Rooms, and then we Huzza’d him 
again and again. We are to wait on him to-morrow. 

June 15. We waited on Whitmore this morning and he 
read to us a Statute or two and says he shall not 
mention again provided the Senr. People do not. 
I am to read the three first Books of Hutchinson’s 
Moral Philosophy, and I am to give a summary 
account of them when I am examined for my De- 
gree. . . . 

On July 21st, 1761, he is made a Fellow of New College, 
and treats the Bachelors’ Common Room ‘ all the evening 
with Wine and Punch ’. The quantity of drink con- 
sumed by the eighteenth-century undergraduate appears 
to have been very considerable. The entries ‘ Had 
a bottle of my Wine ’ are frequent. On July 26th he 
notes that out of a half-hogshead of port ‘I have 12 
dozen and six bottles ’. On July 22nd, he makes an 
expedition to London with three other friends. They go 
by stage coach — ‘ in Bews Machine ’ — starting at five 
o’clock in the morning, and arriving about tea-time at 
Hyde Park Corner. They go down the river and sup 
at Vauxhall — that centre of eighteenth-century gaiety 
which readers of ‘Tom Jones, to say nothing of Vanity 
Fair, will remember. Next day they see the Duke of 
Cumberland, who finally smashed the Jacobite cause at 
CuUoden in 1746, ‘ ride in his coach and six through ye 
Park ’ ; ^ they continue the countryman’s usual London 

^ The Duke was a remarkable man Horace Walpole ranked him as 
one of the five great men he had known — the other four being Sir Robert 
Walpole, Granville, Mansfield, and Pitt, See Fortescue’s History of the 

17 C 


round — Westminster Abbey, the Tower, &c., and see 
a play. All in the Wrong, at the Theatre Royal, Drury 
Lane, in the evemng. Next day they return to Oxford. 
On August 26th (1761) he is back at Ansford. 

1761. Aug 26. ... I gave Jenny 3 yards of Riband 
I gave an Ivoiy Thimble to her. I gave her some 
Court Plaister ; dined, supp’d and laid at Home 
Septem. 5. Had a Letter from young Tom Rooke, from 
London for which I paid o. o. jd. For reading the 
news at Ansford Inn 0 o. 'jd. . . . 

Septem. 27. ... George Snooke, my Tenant at Sanforde, 
brought me over a fine large Hare 
Septem. 28. I paid Mr. Willmott for a Spinnett 
3 o. which Mama gave me. _ 

Oct. 3. I changed my Paper Snuff Box with Miss 
Nancy Rooke for one of hers by way of a Remem- 
brance of her 

On October 6th he sets out for Oxford. 

Octob. 17. ... I gave some verses on the King’s 

Marriage for Dean Whitmore. For Oysters this 
evening pd o. o. zd. I have been extremely well all 
day. I was at five o’clock Prayers this afternoon, 
where one Jones, a Famous Methodist was 
Nov. 4. ... Dyer laid Williams zs. 6 d that he drank 
3 Pints of Wine in 3 Hours, and that he wrote 5 verses 
out of the Bible right, but h^ lost. He did it in the 
B C.R., he drank all the Wine, but could not write 

British Army, vol 11, p S 7 S “7 John Wesley ‘ was agreeably surprised 
to find many of the books [in the Duke’s study] not only religious, but 
admirably well chosen Perhaps the great man spent many hours here, 
with only Him that seeth in secret ’ (Wesley's Journal, November 29, 



right for his Life. He was immensely drunk about 
5 Minutes afterwards. 

Nov. 19. ... Went this evening to Haw’s (a famous 
Methodist) Lecture in St Giles’s Church . . . very 
stupid, low and bad stuff. 

Nov. 27. ... I declaimed this morning in Chapel with 
Reynell, upon — ^An omnes artes habeant inter se 
quoddam commune vinculum ? I had Affirmatur. 

1761. Decern. 18. I was dunn’d this morning for half 
a Hogshead of Port, by Cropp’s Agent, Howard, 
call’d Lord Howard. It was not in my Power to 
pay it at present. 

1762. March 5. Judge WiUmott condemned one 
Shadrach Smith, a gypsy, for robbing a girl of 2 shil- 
lings and beating her in a very cruel manner ; this 
man’s son was the most principal Witness against 
his Father, and he it was that had him hanged, or 
condemned to be hanged, he insisted upon his son’s 
witnessing against, though the Judge was much 
against it. 

Between April and June of this year (1762) he is in 

the country, and the following entries are made at 

Ansford : 

Ap. 20. I began the Epistles of the G[reek] Testament 
to learn and read for Orders. Gave a Poor Man . . . 
o. o. 2. 

Ap. 24. I made a Contract with Mr. Owens to shave 
me and dress 2 Wiggs each time, twice a week, not 
reckomng my being from Home, at three shillings 
per Quarter per annum o 12. o. . . . 

June 12. I have been studying in my tent [He had put 
one up in the garden] all the day long the G. Testa- 

19 c 2 


ment. Sister Jenny and myself were invited this 
evening to Mr. White’s Sheep-sheering, but we could 
not go being Saturday night, which is a very improper 
time to spend the evening out anywhere. 

June 15. Went this morning early to Berkeley, where 
old Mrs Prowse lives, about two miles beyond Froom, 
and about sixteen miles from hence . I carried over 
with me three Mourning Rings that my Father gave 
me last night ; to deliver one to old Mrs. Prowse, 
one to her son the Major, and one to ye Major’s wife, 
in Remembrance of my late Uncle, the Treasurer, 
which were left them by a Particular Desire of my late 
Uncle the Treasurer [his Great Uncle Robert Wood- 
forde, 1675-1762, for many years a country parson in 
Cornwall andSomerset,and latei Canon and Treasurer 
of Wells ] . . N.B. Old Mrs. Prowse of Berkeley, 
and my late Uncle the Treasurer, were very Intimate, 
and corresponded, when my good Uncle was living. 
Major Prowse is son to old Mrs. Prowse. 

June 28. Went upon the grey horse this morning for 
Oxford by myself. 

The stay at Oxford was short, and on July 20 he is back 
at Ansford Parsonage again • the journey from Oxford on 
horseback cost exactly ^i, it would not have cost quite as 
much had he not ‘ treated ’ some friends at ‘ the Bear in 
Dropping Lane ’, the last stage before he reached home. 

July 28 Went with Papa and Jenny to Mr. William 

Melliar’s this morning, where we dined with a number 
of other friends upon half a Buck. . . We had a 
Minuet or two this afternoon by Holton, Couns[ellor] 
Melliar, Will: Melliar, and myself. . . . 

July 29. . , Papa had a letter from Cousin James 



Lewis at Nottingham, wherein he informs that he 
keeps a little school at Nottingham, and hkewise that 
he is in great want of money. He was a Private 
Soldier m the Army, and being wounded in the leg 
rendered him unserviceable, and therefore has a 
Pension of five Pounds per Annum from the Govern- 
ment • he has been rather wild in his time, which 
wildness has brought him to this. 

August I. ... Went this afternoon to Cary Church 
where Jerry Holton read prayers and preached for 
Mr Penny. Holton preached concerning Private 
Interest giving way to Pubhck Good in regard to 
our having an Water Engine to prevent Fire spread- 
ing .. . 

Aug. 2. . . Archdeacon Potter of Wells, and Brother-in- 

Law to Daniel Prince my bookseller in Oxford, called 
here this afternoon, but Papa was gone down to the 
Lower House, and Mama was walking m the Garden, 
and Jenny was gone to Castle Cary, and I was up in 
my room reading, so he did not stay long here. 

Aug. 7. . . Papa gave me a manuscript of Arch-Bishop 
Laud’s, concerning the Old and New Testaments, 
being some of his own Remarks concerning them.^ 

Aug. 12. ... Went with Mr. Clarke over to Ansford 
Inn to read the News, where I pd o. o. 4-J- . . There 

was a wedding dinner at Ansford Inn to-day, for some 
Shepton Mallett People. The Bride and Bridegroom’s 
names are these, the Bride was Miss Aimes, the 

^ Laud’s Complete Works, in seven volumes, have been published in 
the Anglo-Catholic Library edition, but I do not find therein anything 
corresponding to the Diarist’s reference here My friend, Dr. Woodforde, 
owner of the manuscript of the Diary and of numerous other manuscripts 
of the Diarist’s, has no manuscript of Archbishop Laud’s. Possibly this 
reference will supply a due which may lead to a very interesting dis- 
covery, assuming the manuscript has not been destroyed. 



Brideg. Cary. The whole set all are rank Presby- 

Aug. 26. ... We drank tea this afternoon at Mrs. 
Chiche’s with . . . [and] Mr. Whithead of Bristol, 
a man of gieat Fortune, near 15000^.^ . . . 

On August 30 he rides ovei to Bristol to see his brother 
John, who IS apprenticed there. Next day they ‘ took 
a ride down to King-Road, Sea-Mills and saw the T>ger 
that Captain Reed took lately, we saw the Captain. We 
went a board the Tyger, and the King George, and I pd 
o. I, o.’ 

Between September 13 and 19 he is at Winchester 
with his uncle Tom and cousin Frank, who is up foi 
election as a Scholar . they see him safely settled theie 
and return on September 19. 

Sep. 28 ... Painter Clarke gave me a ticket to go to 

Miss Chich’s Play (the Beggars Opera) this evening 
at Bruton, at her House and accordingly I went this 
evening to Miss Chich’s at Bruton, and saw the Play 
acted and it was done pretty well. Lady Ilchester, 
and her daughter ,Fanny a little girl, were there. 
Their house was quite full. . . . 

Oct. 3. ... We had news to-day of the Havannah, the 
Principal Port in the Island of Cuba in the West 
Indies, being taken by the English.® 

Oct. 9. ... I packed up my things for Oxford, this 

See pp 71-3 for some remarks on the value of money, and prices at 
this time. 

^ Havanna was captured from the Spaniards on August lo, 1762 
(towards the dose of the Seven Years War), the British troops suffering 
fearful losses both during and after the siege from sickness : one brigade 
of four battalions could not muster twenty men fit for duty. See For- 
tescue’s Htstory oj the Btituh Atmy^ vol u, p 551-3. 



afternoon and they were these — 9 Shirts — 9 Stocks — 
2 Cravats — 7 pr of Stocbngs, 2 White Handkerchiefs 
— 5 Coloured Handkerchiefs — 2 Night Caps — i Towel 
— 2 Pr of Breeches — besides the things that I wear, 
w* are i Pr of Leather Breeches — i White Coat — 
I Buff Waistcoat — i Great Coat. 

Nov. 26. ... I began this very day to take upon me 
the Stewardship of the College, viz: to see the Meat 
of the College weighed every day in Kitchen for one 
week and for which I receive of the Manciple at the 
end of the week o. 6s. 6d. All Fellows of this College 
above three years standing, and that here in College 
are, take the Stewardship by turns every week from 
Year’s end to Year’s end, and so on ad infinitum. 
Had a du nnin g Letter from Robinson & Hartley for 
the payment of ^£8. 15. o for half a Hogshead of old 
Port, that I had from Southampton last year. 

Dec. 24. ... I paid Mr. Pryer this morning our College 
Steward, for Mr. Hartley & Robinson of Southampton 
Wme Merchants, for half a Hogshead of Port Wine 
^5* o* • • • 

1763. Jan. 4. Went a skating this morning upon the 
River Thames. . . . 

[With an interval of a thaw from 7 th to loth he 
skates on the Thames till January 27th, on] 

Jan. 24. We skated down to Abington where we dined 
and for our dinners there etc. each of us pd. 2s 6d. 
We were going down about an hour and half ; N B. 
We walked above 2 miles out of it. It is about 10 
miles by water. 

Jan. 8. Pd. Rice for mending my Gown and a little 
np in my Coat o. i. o which is very exorbitant indeed 
and for the future will have nothing ever done by 
him any more in the World. 



Feb. 17 I dined at the Chaplain’s table with Pickering 
and Waring, upon a roasted Tongue and Udder, and 
we went on each of us for it o. i. 9* N.B. I shall 
not dine on a roasted Tongue and Udder again very 

Feb. 28. . Went with Dyer, Russell and Master 

after dinner down to the Castle to see the Prisoners ; 
where we drank two Bottles of Port and for Wine 
etc., pd 0. 1 . 6. William Cartwright, a young, good- 
looking Fellow, who IS in the Castle for a High Way 
Robbery, drank with us the last Bottle, and smoaked 
a Pipe with us, and seemed very soiry for what he 
had committed. We ga\ e him between us o. 2. o. . . . 

Mar. 29. ... Went and saw Peace proclaimed in High 
Street at twelve o’clock. 

This was the Peace of Pans, which concluded the Seven 
Years War. The French gave up Canada to us and 
abandoned all claims to India. We had become a great 
Imperial Power. 

May 2. Sale spoke to me this morning conceining the 
Curacy of Newton-Purcell, Mhich I ha\e promised 
him to take and serve the Sunday aftei Trmity 
Sunday ; it is about 20 miles from Oxford ; and 
I am to receive per annum for serving it, besides 
Surplice fees ^28. o. o. I am only to serve it during 
Mr. Sale’s Proctorship. 

May 5. ... This is the Thanksgiving day for the late 
Peace between France, Spain and England. 

May II. ... I was offer’d this afternoon by Fitch of 
Queen’s Coll a Curacy worth j^40 per annum, and 
to be enterd upon at Michaelmas — It is in Somersett, 
near Taunton, the name of the Place is Thurloxton, 



in ihe Gift of Fitch’s Father. I shall write to my 
Father concerning it to-morrow morning, I have 
got to the 20th of this month to consider of it. 

May 23. ... I went this afternoon at five o’clock to 
C.C.C. to Mr. Hewish the Bishop of Oxford’s Chap- 
lain, before whom I was exammed for deacon’s 
Orders, and I came of very well. I was set over in 
the middle of the fifth Chapter of St. Paul to the 
Romans and construed that Chapter quite to the 
end. I was quite half an hour exammmg. He asked 
a good many hard and deep questions. I had not 
one question that Yes, or No, would answer. . . . 
Mr. Hewish is a very fair Examiner, and will see 
whether a Man be read or not soon. . . . 

May 24. Breakfasted in my own Rooms again. Took 
a ride this morning towards Elsfield and round by 
Staunton upon the Grey. For half a pint of ale at 
Boys Water pd. 0.0. i. Gave Jackson’s other man 
for taking care of the Grey and saddle etc. o. 0. 6. 
For fruit pd o. o. i . For wine on the green pd o. 2. o. 
The reason of my paying so much was the Impudence 
of two Gentlemanlike Persons (whose names were 
Messrs. Mercer and Loyd) pushed themselves into 
the Temple in our Garden while Hooke and myself 
were drinking there, and drank two Bottles of Wine 
with us Mercer’s wife and 2 more Ladies were with 
us. Mercer (who wore a gold-laced Hat) was very 
drunk and very abusive to us and Mr. Loyd : Loyd 
is a Schoolmaster at Abington, and Mercer’s son went 
to School to him. Mercer’s son was with us. Mercer 
went away about ten o’clock this evemng, and made 
a great noise going through College. Mr Mercer 
behaved very much unlike a Gentleman. Loyd came 
into the B.C.R. afterwards with Hooke and myself , 



Mr. Loyd was drunk. Mercer broke two glasses in 
the Temple for which Hooke and myself pd. o. i. o. 
I went to bed at eleven and left Mr. Loyd in the 
B.C.R. with Hooke and some more Gentlemen. . . 

May 27. For an ounce of Green Tea pd o. o. 8. For 
an ounce of Bohea Tea pd o o \d. 

May 28. Went to Dr. Hunt’s of Christ Church, with 
NichoUs, Geree and Fitters, and subsciibed to the 
39 Articles before the Bishop. We paid Pope Beaver 
for our Letters of Orders, which we receive Monday 
next, in Doctor Hunt’s rooms , each ot us o. lo. o. 
. . . Oglander Senr. gave a very handsome glaxed 
Lanthorne for the use of the Bowlers to light their 
Pipes with, this afternoon in the Temple in the 
Green. . . . 

May 29. At nine o’clock, this morning went to Christ 
Church with Hooke, and Fitters, to be ordained 
Deacon ; and was ordained Deacon there by Hume 
Bishop of Oxford. There were 25 Ordained Deacons 
and 13 Priests. We all received the Sacrament. . . . 
We were in C. Church Cathedral from nine o’clock 
this morning till after twelve. For wine this after- 
noon in the B.C.R. pd o. o 6. 

June I, I took my B.A. Degree this morning. . . . 
Reynels, myself, Lucas, Peckham and Webbei treated 
(as IS usual) the B.C.R after dinner with Wine, and 
after Supper with Wine and Punch ail the evening. 
We had 27 People in the B.C.R. this evening. . . . 
I sat up m the B.C.R. this evening till after twelve 
o’clock, and then went to bed, and at three in the 
morning, had my outward doors broken open, my 
glass door broke, and pulled out of bed, and brought 
into the B.C.R. where I was obliged to drink and 
smoak, but not without a good many words. Peckham 



broke my doors, being very drank, although they were 
open, which I do not relish of Peckham much. 

June 2. Several of our Fellows went at four o’clock in 
the mormng, for Stow, and all drunk; some in 
a Phaeton, some in a Buggy, and some on Horse 
back. I went as far as Weston on the Green with 
them upon my Grey, and then returned home, and 
was home by nine o’clock this morning, and break- 
fasted in my room. 

June 4. Dined in Hall , and after dinner went with 
Cotton to Newton-Pur cell, my Curacy, and which 
I am to serve to-morrow. Supp’d and spent the 
evening, at Cotton’s Mother’s, with Cotton and his 
Brother, and his Mother and his four Sisters. Cotton’s 
Sisters are very agreeable Ladies. Laid at Cotton’s 
Mother’s at Newton-Purcell. Cotton’s Mother’s 
House and Furniture is rather bad ; they are gomg 
out of the House soon. 

June 5. Breakfasted at Cotton’s Mother’s, wath Cotton 
and his Brother and his four Sisters. At eleven 
o’clock went to my Church, and read Prayers and 
preached my first Sermon. Cotton’s Family and 
about twenty more People were all that were at 
Church. Did Duty again at two o’clock ; and then 
dined at Cotton’s Mother’s with Mrs. Cotton, and 
her four Daughters, and her youngest son; the 
eldest son was out preaching and reading prayers. 
Set out this afternoon for Oxford, and got home 
about eight o’clock. . . . Gave Cotton’s maid bemg 
the only Servant o. i. o, 

June 6. Had a Letter from Fitch, with a Promise from 
his Father of my taking the Curacy of his at Thur- 
loxton near Taunton. 

June 25 th. . . . Oglander Junr. and myself tryed this 



evening some of our Strong Beer in the BCR. and 
it is pretty good, but I am afraid it will never be 
better. It is some of Whitmore’s brewing when he 
was Bursar. . . . 

June 29. ... For a Pocket Pistol alias a dram bottle 
to carry in one’s pocket, it being necessary on a 
Journey or so, at Nicholl’s pd o. i. o. 

July 3. Went this morning to Ardington by Wantage 
in Berks for Mr. Sheffield, who desired me to change 
Churches with him for this Sunday, it is about 
twelve miles of Oxford : I preached and read Praj-ers 
there m the morning and Churched a woman ; and 
read Prayers there in the afternoon. Coming out 
of Church in the morning a woman that I had 
Churched gave me in the middle of the Church 
o. o. 6. which I received and pocketed. I dined at 
the Squire’s whose name was Clarke, who behaved 
extreamly civil and genteel indeed. Foi going thro’ 
three Turnpikes this morning between Oxford and 
Ardington pd. o. o. 5. 

. . . My horse fell down on a Trot as I was going, 
and threw me over his head but (I thank God 
Almighty) I received no hurt. . . 

July 16. ... For throwing some Wine last night in 
Bedford’s face in the B.C.R. I was sconced a Bottle 
of Wine, which I pd this evening to the B.C.R. 

July 26. Paid Baggs at the Coff. House (a very impudent 
Fellow) a little Bill of o. 6. 7. N.B. I do not intend 
dealing with him again very soon for his Impudence 
to me yesterday morning. 

Aug, 3. Spent the evening at Rice’s, my quondam 
Taylor, with himself and wife, in High Street. They 
had provided a handsome supper for me (viz) a neck 
of Lamb and tarts, but I had supp’d at College. 



I smoaked a Pipe with Mr. Rice, and finished a Bottle 
of Wine between us, and his Wife, and then I de- 
parted. . . . 

Aug. 17. Dined in Hall at the High Table upon a neck 
of Venison and a Breast made into Pasty, a Ham and 
Fowls and two Pies. It is a Venison Feast which we 
have once a year about this time ... 2 Bucks one 
•year, and i Buck another year is always sent from 
Whaddon Chase and divided between the Wardens, 
the Senr Fellows, and us. For an ounce of Indian 
Bark to put into my Pipe when smoaking pd. o. o. 6 L 
It gives the tobacco a pretty smell and taste. 

Aug. 21. Went to Chesterton again this morning and 
did the Duty of the day there. Dined at Mr. Pryor’s 
again, and with him, his brother the Lawyer, his 
Sister and Niece and Mr. and Mrs. Weaver, Miss 
Goff, Mr. Payne a Baker at Brackley, an everlasting 
Spunger, but a droll Fellow, and Mr. Banks of our 
College. . . . 

The reference to the presence of a baker at this highly 
respectable tea party — ^we take it Mr. Pryor himself was 
a person of some social standing, he was certainly an 
educated man, for he had been at Winchester College 
■with the Diarist’s father — ^is a little surprising to modern 
notions. As we shall come across other instances later 
on of a similar mingling of classes, it may be well to 
consider the matter. 

Until the time of the Industrial Revolution, towards 
the end of the eighteenth century, English society was 
essentially feudal It is true that the feudal framework 
in its political and economic aspects had almost wholly 
disappeared. But the social conception, the conception 
of mankind as arranged in completely separate classes, 



remaiaed. So rooted and universal was the class con- 
ception, that any other notion seemed merely repulsive. 
There had been spasmodic stirrings of a new spirit in 
the Middle Ages and later, the Peasants’ Revolt, for 
instance, and more obviously during the Cromwellian 
period. But these stirrings were followed by a return 
to the old tranquillity. Chaucer’s Canterbury Pilgrims 
nde happily down the road in complete inequality and 
in complete harmony. For it is not the existence of 
class, but the consciousness of its existence, which creates 
that most insidious social disease — snobbery. And snob- 
bery IS relatively a modern disease, though there are 
earlier instances of it, of which the following is one. 
The Duchess of Buckingham is writing to the Countess 
of Huntingdon, the friend of Whitefield and founder of 
the famous ‘ Connection ’ : ‘I thank your ladyship for 
the information concerning the Methodist preachers. 
Their doctrines are most repulsive, and strongly tinctured 
with impertinence and disrespect towards their superiors, 
in perpetually endeavouring to level all ranks and do 
away -with all distinctions. It is monstrous to be told 
that you have a heart as sinful as the common wretches 
that crawl on the earth. This is highly offensive and 
insulting, and I cannot but wonder that your ladyship 
should relish any sentiments so much at variance with 
high rank and good breeding.’ ^ The disease is develop- 
ing very fast in Jane Austen’s day, assumes fearful 
proportions in the Victorian era, and shows but 
superficial signs of abatement in these last Georgian 
days. ‘ The political spirit of the eighteenth century 
was based not on the equality but on the harmony 
of classes.’ So says Mr. George Trevelyan, and the 

^ Quoted m The Church of England tn the Etghuenth Century, p 124, 
hj Alfred Plummer, D.D. (1909). 



statement applies, with even greater force, to the social 

Therefore, although, most unfortunatel7, the majority 
of the nominal gentry do not ask their baker to tea to- 
day, or entertain the neighbouring farmer to supper, or 
dine with their tailor, we must not be surprised if that 
wholly admirable custom prevailed in the days of the 
Diarist. It IS, indeed, a remarkable paradox that the 
unquestioned acceptance of inequality should lead to 

We return to the Diary. 

Septem. 3. Went this morning to Draton (two little 
miles beyond Abingdon) and talked with Mrs. Bacon 
about serving that Church to-morrow. She says that 
she -will give me half a guinea, a dinner, and stabling 
for my horse, therefore I promised her that I would 
serve it to-morrow and the next Sunday. Mrs. 
Bacon behaved very handsome to me ; she has 
a school of twenty-two young Ladies. After drinking 
a glass of Mountain and eating a bit of crust of bread, 
I returned to Oxford, and dmed at New Coll, in ye 
Hall Mrs. Bacon pressed me to dine with her, but 
I had ordered in Hall, and I cotild not. . . . Besides 
our Common Dinner we had a brace of birds called 
Graus, that came from Wilhams Junr. out of Wales, 
as a present to Webber for reading for him during 
his absence in Chapel. 

Septem. 7. ... Had three bottles of Wine out of my 
room in ye B C.R. this afternoon and Waring had 
another, out of his room Waring was very drunk 
and Bedford was but little better. N.B. I was very 
sober, as I had made a resolution never to get drunk 



again, when at Geree’s rooms in April last, when 
I fell down dead, and cut my Occiput ^ very bad 

On September I2th he leaves Oxford, having com- 
pleted his course. He spends the rest of the month 
quietly at home with one or two excursions to Sherborne 
and Bristol. He preaches for his father now and again 
at Ansford, does a little shooting, training a new dog 
given him by his tenant’s brother, whose name is Snooke, 
and with his family visits ‘ Mr. Hoare, the Banker’s 
gardens at Stourton ’. . . . ‘ The Temple of Hercules in 
the gardens must cost Mr. Hoare 0,000, it is exces- 
sively grand The grotto where the sleeping Nymph 
laid struck me much more than anything there.’ 

He gives his sister, Jenny (October 1st) a present of 
four hundred needles, four papers of pins, and two 
steel-top thimbles which he had bought at Oxford for 
her for 4^. 2d. On October 7th he sets out for Thur- 
loxton, near Taunton, to take up his curacy ; he arrives 
on the 8th, and after various vain attempts to find 
lodgings, he goes to the squire of the parish, ‘ whose 
name is Cross, and he took me at the very first word, 
and likewise my Horse ’. He arranges to stop there on 
these terms : ‘ that I should live as he does (which is 
very well I am sure) that I should have my linnen washed 
by him, and that he should keep my horse (corn excepted) 
£21. o. o and that for every day that I was absent, 
I should be allowed for each day o. i. if which per year 
is £21.’ He notes that ‘ Mr. Cross has a noble house, 
good enough for any Nobleman ’. Mr. Cross is married 
and has three children and another is coming. He 
spends his time partly at Thurloxton with the Cross’s 

^ 1. e the back of his head. 



and partly at Ansford, riding to and fro. On October 27th 
‘ a hare being found near here, Mr Cross and myself 
went out and coursed it before breakfast and killed 
it, with Mr. Cross’s dogs, and a good course it was. 
Gave the man that found her o. o. 6 as is always cus- 
tomary.’ He notes on November. 4th that he has to 
return to Thurloxton from Ansford ‘ to-morrow being 
the fifth of November, to read Prayers there ’. The 
congregation was small. ‘ The Ringers desired me to 
give them something to drink, it being customary, there- 
fore I sent them, it being a custom, o. i. o.’ 

Nov. 6. Breakfasted, dined, supp’d and laid at Mr 
Cross’s. Read Prayers and preached this morning at 
my Church of Thurloxton, it being Sunday. I like- 
wise read Prayers there this afternoon. After the 
afternoon service, I privately baptised Mrs. Cross’s 
late [1. e. lately born] child, which was a boy, and by 
the name of Richard, in Mrs. Cross’s bedroom in 
this house. One Farmer Major, of this Parish, spent 
the afternoon and evening here, drinking with Mr. 
Cross all the time, neither of them eat any supper, 
and I left them drinking when I went to bed, which 
was about 10. 

Nov. 1 6. ... I lent Doctor Clarke a pamphlet called 
a sure Guide to Hell this evening, and a very good 
moral book it is, taken properly. 

On November 29th he arranges with the old Rector 
of Babcary for the curacy of that place — ^it being only 
six miles from Ansford — at ,^5 a quarter, the surphce 
fees, Easter offerings, and free use of Parsonage, gardens 
and stables, &c. He is to give up Thurloxton curacy on 
January 9th next. On December 5th he receives seven 

33 D 


letters applying for his vote in connexion with the election 
of a new Warden of Winchester College, ‘ as all Wardens 
of Winton College are elected by the Fellows of New 
College The election was to be at New College on 
the loth December. Accordingly he sets out for Oxford 
on the yth He is much solicited at Oxford for his vote 
by the three candidates, Hayward, Lea and Sale, all of 
New College He decides to vote for Sale and secondly 
for Mr. Lea. He gives an elaborate description of the 
election on December loth in New College Chapel , 
54 Fellows were present, and, after morning service, 
received the Sacrament before proceeding to elect The 
Sub-Warden then read the Statute ‘ de Electione Cus- 
todis Collegii propc Winton ’ Then five scrutators 
were chosen and ‘ went up to the Altar to a table within 
the rails and then began the Scrutm} and we all in turns 
voted for a Warden Finally, Lea was elected He 
returns to Ansford on December 14th. 

Dec. 26. ... Two of Mr. Cross’s Tenants (one a Farmer 
and the other a Taylor and Millei) . . . supped and 
spent the evening with us — they lay at Mr. Cross’s 
this night. 

On December 30th he rides over to Babcary to see his 
new cure. He sees Farmer Bower, apparently the prin- 
cipal parishioner, who is much vexed to hear there is 
only to be one service on Sunday. Woodforde agrees to 
have two if his salary is increased to ;^30 per annum. 

1764. Jan. 2. ... One Farmer John Major dined and 
spent the afternoon here; Mr. Cross sat drinking 
with him from lo in the morning till 8 at night. . . . 

Jan. 8. ... I dined at Mr. Sanford’s (a Parson) at 



Walford with Mr and Mrs. Sanford and about ten of 
Mr. Sanford’s children. We had a very elegant 
dinner, and in a very noble, spacious Parlour. . . . 

Jan. 9. Breakfasted at Mr. Cross’s. After Breakfast 
Mr. Cross and me settled matters, and I paid him for 
my Board 59 days at the rate of i. lid per day . . . 

Jan. 12 ... After breakfast I rode upon Cream to my 

Curacy at Babcary about six miles from hence, where 
I dined upon a Sheep’s heart that I carried there in 
my pocket, at the Parsonage house, where I am to be 
when I go to Babcary on any occasion. 

Jan 15. ... After Breakfast I went upon Cream to my 
Curacy at Babcary, where I read Prayers and Preached, 
read Prayers in the morning and preached in the after- 
noon. This IS the first Sunday I ever officiated at 
Babcary Church , and I like it very well. . . I was 
rung into the Parish by Mr. John Bower’s order, who 
gave the Ringers a pail of Cyder on purpose to ring 
me into the Parish. They gave me another ring this 
afternoon after Service, and for which I gave them 
26. . 

Jan. 21. Breakfasted and dined at home After dinner 
I set forth for Babcary, where I supped and laid in 
the Parsonage House. I hired Ned Dyke and his 
horse this morning to carry some cyder etc., to 
Babcary for me. I carried three dozen and nine 
bottles of cyder, and eight bottles of strong beer, 
with a little jar of pickled oysters, some cheese, and 
some cold tongue to Babcary, all which were given 
by my Father 

Feb. 4. ... Went this afternoon from Babcary to East 
Charlton which is about one mile, to Parson Gapper’s 
to thank him for serving my Church at Babcary for 
me last Sunday and there I drank tea this afternoon 



with Mr. and Mrs. Gapper. They pressed me very 
much to sup there and spend the evening and lay 
there but I could not. 

Feb. 20. . . I have been very busy all this day in plant- 

ing my Peas and Beans and Radishes, and Spanish 
Onions, in my garden at Babcary. . I was sent this 
afternoon to a Poor Woman that lives by the Church, 
to come and pray by her — ^which I did. . . 

He goes to Oxford on February 27th to ‘ determine ’ 
for his degree meanwhile Parson Gapper carries on at 

Mar 26. I churched a poor woman at Babcary yester- 
day and she gave me sixpence, which I sent to her 
again. Mr Gapper has been so good to serve my 
Church for me during my absence, and I sent him 
yesterday a genteel note to thank him . . . 

April 14. ... Went to Parson Gapper’s this afternoon 
at East Charlton, about one mile from Babcary, to 
desire him to administer the Sacrament for me next 
Friday being Good Friday, which he promised me he 
would. I am to serve Keenton for him, about a mile. 
I spent a good part of the afternoon with him and 
his wife and children, and one Miss Curtiss of Shepton 
Mallet their relation, a fine Lady. 

April 16. . .1 brewed a quarter barrel of ale to-day. 

... I gave Mary Creech [the old woman who looked 
after him at Babcary Parsonage] and her daughter 
a pair of garters each which I bought of an Irish 
Traveller that came to the door and for them I paid 
o. o. 6. 

April 30. ... I got up this morning at two o’clock to 
get or make a sermon for Farmer Bertelet’s funeral 



this afternoon, and hy twelve o’clock I had finished 
almost all of it. ... I buried Farmer John Bertelet this 
evening at six O’clock and preached a Funeral Sermon, 
the Church was exceedingly thronged with people. . . . 

[He receives lor. 6 d. for this sermon on May 6th 
from Mrs. Bertelet, the widow.] 

May 9. . . One Miss Moore (a very giddy, merry, but 
very pretty girl, who was lately moculated) dined 
with us [at Ansford] 

On June 14th there is a small dispute about payments 
for Babcary curacy, and one, the Reverend Mr. Hopkins, 
proves to the Diarist that for certain early weeks in 
1763-4 the payments are due to him (Hopkins). Every- 
thing IS settled amicably, and the Diarist notes, ‘ I never 
saw so bold a man in my life as Mr. Hopkins is, and very 
droll he is. I thought I must have burst my sides by 
laughing in hearing him talk ’ On June i8th the Diarist 
and his sister Jenny sup at Mr. William Melliar’s, ‘ Coun- 
sellor [Barrister] Gapper of Wmcanton ’, among others, 
being of the company. On June 22 he gives a bachelor’s 
supper party at Babcary, and his guests ‘ plaid at Fives 
in Babcary Churchyard this evening, and I lost there 
with Mr. Lewis Bower at betting with him o. i. 6. 
The gentlemen pleased me much by seeing them so well 
pleased with the homely entertainment.’ 

On July 28th he inducts Mr. Richard Cheese, who 
‘ seems a very good kind of man, and much approved of 
by the Parish into the Rectory of Babcary. Mr. Hill, 
the old Rector, had died : hence the change. ‘ Mr. John 
Bower is to rent his tythes etc , and is to give him per 
annum 100. ©. o. I am to be his curate, and to have 
per annum, besides the house and stable, gardens and 
Easter offerings, the sum of 30 o. o.’ Mr. Cheese’s home 



was at Bentley near Alton in Hampshire, where he returns 
on July 31. 

What that good Bishop and great historian, Bishop 
Burnet, described in 1708 as ‘ the scandalous practices 
of non-residence and pluralities ’ were, unfortunately, 
marked features of the eighteenth-century Church 
system. The practice was not confined to the ordinary 
clergy — the worthy Mr. Cheeses of the Church. Bishops 
were offenders on an almost princely scale. Thus Bishop 
Watson (1737-1816) of Llandaft, speaking of his income, 
says : ‘ The provision of ^^2,000 a yeai, which I possess 
from the Church, arises from the tithes of two Churches 
in Shropshire, two in Leicestershire, two m my Diocese, 
three in Huntingdonshire, on all of which I have resident 
Curates ; of five more appropriations to the Bishopiic 
and two more in the Isle of Ely as appropriations to the 
Archdeaconry of Ely.’ ^ This Bishop paid occasional 
visits to his diocese, but actually resided in the Lake 
District. Here he says his time was ‘ spent partly in 
supporting the religion and constitutions of my Country, 
by seasonable pubhcations, and principally in building 
farm-houses, blasting rocks, enclosing wastes, making bad 
land good, planting larches, etc. By such occupations 
I have recovered my health, preserved my independence, 
set an example of a spirited husbandry and honourably 
provided for my family.’ His agricultural experiments 
were, indeed, of scientific utility 

^ Anecdotes of the Life of Rtchard Watson, Bishop of Llandaff, vol 11, 
P 349 (i8i8) This statement occurs in a letter of the Bishop’s to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, dated May 18, 1808. But Bishop Watson 
uses his own case as an example of the evil of pluralities, made necessary, 
as he points out, through the disendowment of so large a part of ecclesias- 
tical property at the Reformation He does not, however, suggest any 
going back on the past, but a thorough reform of Church finance an 
exceedingly able letter. 



Bishop Thomas Newton of Bristol, whose Account of 
His Life is not only historically important but most 
entertaining, held the Bishopric of Bristol and the 
Deanery of St. Paul’s at the same time without the 
smallest qualm of conscience. Bishop Newton, however, 
until he was an old man of seventy-two, resided a con- 
siderable part of the year at Bristol, and laments that his 
example was not followed by the Dean and Prebendaries, 
who were shamefully neglectful of their duties. 

But we should obtain an entirely wrong notion of both 
these Bishops if we merely regarded their lives from this, 
the plurahst aspect Both were men of marked abihty, 
who devoted a great part of their time, as so many 
notable eighteenth-century Bishops did, to theological 
and political writing : they regarded their episcopal pens 
as more important than their episcopal crooks, and, in the 
circumstances of the age in which they hved, there was 
much to be said for this view.^ Bishop Watson was 
admired by such diiferent men as Gibbon and Wilber- 
force, and he was one of the few Anglican clergy who 
opposed the policy which lost us the American colonies. 

‘ I had made ’, he says {Anecdotes of the Life of Richard 
Watson, Bishop of Llandaff, vol. i, p. 71), ‘ no scruple of 
everywhere declaring, that I looked upon the American 
war as unjust in its commencement, and that its con- 
clusion would be unfavourable to this kingdom.’ 

As to Mr. Cheese, the non-resident Rector of Babcary, 
we should note the Diarist’s remark that he ‘ seems 
a very good kind of man, and much approved of by the 
Parish ’. 

^ Deists, Theists, Atheists, Socinians, Unitarians, with all these the 
Church had to battle, for the whole basis of Christianity was questioned. 
The philosopher Bishops Berkeley and Butler pre-eminently held the 
Christian fort 



Aug. 1 8. ... I have made a promise to-day concerning 
a certain thing (in eating) ; which every time I break 
that promise I pay — i — o. 

Aug. 19. ... After the Afternoon Service [Babcary] 
I went with the Captain [Rooke] to Parson Gapper’s 
at East Charlton, where we spent the remaining part 
of the afternoon, with him and his wife. The 
Captain went afterwards to Somerton, and I returned 
to Ansford — and the first news I heard was, that poor 
Miss Milly Chiche (a niece of Mrs. Chiche’s) was 
dead; and she died about ii o’clock this morning. 
I hope to God that she (poor dear creature) is happy. 
I believe verily that she was good to everyone, but 
herself, and I am afraid that drinking was her death . . 
Sep II. ... After dinner I ivent to East Charlton to 
have my Testimonium, for Priest’s Orders, signed by 
Mr. Gapper, who did it : and at the same time 
I desired him to serve my Church for me on the 
Ordmation Sunday which is the 23 of this month, 
and which he promised me I spent this afternoon 
at Mr Gapper’s, with him, his wife, and his brothei 
from Shepton Mallett, Doctor Gapper, who is an 
Apothecary there. . . . Mr. William McUiar and his 
wife sent their compts to-day to all our family, and 
desired that we should dine with them to-morrow 
upon a fine haunch of venison. 

Oct. 4. . . Drank tea this afternoon at Mrs. Clarke’s 
with her, Lady Powel (the Bishop of Wells daughter) 
who has two children inoculated by Doctor Clarke, 
and Jenny Clarke. . . . 

Dr. Clarke was the Diarist’s brother-in-law, being 
marned to his sister, Sobieski Woodforde; and the 
inoculation which he practised on an extensive scale — 



he had a special hospital for the purpose — ^was inocula- 
tion of the virus of small-pox. Inoculation of small-pox 
as a preventive of that disease was introduced into Eng- 
land early in the eighteenth century, mainly through the 
influence and example of that remarkable person, Lady 
Mary Wortley Montagu.^ It was fairly widely practised, 
and was generally successful in its effects on those mocu- 
lated. It came, however, to be regarded as a public 
danger owing to the fact that, through lack of pre- 
cautions, the inoculated persons were apt to infect those 
not inoculated with the virulent small-pox. So far from 
abating the scourge of small-pox, inoculation was held to 
have mcreased it. At the end of the eighteenth century 
one-tenth of the population are said to have died of 
small-pox. It was then that Jenner made his great dis- 
covery of the value of the inoculation of cow-pox as 
a preventive of small-pox, and practically freed the 
civilized world from its most mortal enemy 

To return to the narrative. The Diarist is becoming 
increasingly anxious about his mother’s health during 
October, and on October 30th she and his father set out 
for London to see a specialist there. On October 29th 
he enters this simple prayer : ‘ O Almighty Lord God, 
let It be thy good pleasure to restore my dear Mother to 
her former health • but if thou hast otherwise decreed it, 
not my will but thine be done.’ He is left in charge of 

^ For a brilliant portrait and account of Lad^ Maiy Wortley Montagu 
(1690-1762) see Leigh Hunt’s essay in his Men, Women, and Books The 
League of Nations Union would do well to issue as a separate leaflet 
Lady Mary’s remarks on war ‘ I cannot think we are older, when 
I recollect the many palpable follies which are still (almost) umversally 
persisted in * I place that of war as senseless as the boxmg of school- 
boys , and whenever we come to Man’s estate (perhaps a thousand 
years hence) I do not doubt it will appear as ndiculous as the pranks of 
unlucky lads ’ (jLetters, vol 111, p 141, Lord Wharnclifl^e’s edition) 



the house (October 20) ‘ with all the keys, and I will 
take great care to be faithful in the trust committed 
to me.’ 

On December 4th he marries his first couple (at 
Ansford), an old farmei widower of eighty and a widow 
of seventy. 

Dec. 8 . Had a very satisfactory letter from Papa 

this morning, to inform me that all the danger is over 
with Mama. . . . Thanks, do I return, most unfeigned 
to Almighty God for it 

Dec. 24. . . the new Singers came very late this even- 
ing, and they sung a Christmas Carol and an Anthem 
and they had cyder as usual and o 2. o. The old 
Singers did not come at all, and I have heard that 
they have given it over. 

Dec. 25. . . Fifteen poor old People dined here as 

usual being Xmas Day. We had for dinner to-day 
a large Rump of Beef of thirty pound roasted, and 
three large plum puddings. Fine beef it was 
1765. Jan 9 . Mr Bridges Priest Vicar of the 

Cathedral at Wells called upon me this afternoon, 
and laid at our house all night. I took him with me 
up to Mr. Clarke’s where we supped and spent the 
evening. . . . Mr. Bridges made himself very dis- 
agreeable to all the Company, and exposed himself 
much. We had great part of Cato^ performed this 
evening, and done tolerably well. 

Jan. 10. ... Mr. Bridges breakfasted with me, and 
afterward he went home to Wells. I am not sorry 
for it. 

Jan. i6. ... Papa and Mama returned this afternoon 
with their maid Elizabeth Clothier, from London, 

^ Addison’s tragedj 


perfectly well and easy ! Blessed be God for all great 
mercies bestowed upon me a miserable and sinful 

Jan. 29. ... Mr John Penny sent me a small plumb 
cake and a pair of wpiite] gloves this morning, I buried 
his little maid this afternoon at Cary Church. . . . 

Feb. 4. Breakfasted, dined, supped, and laid at Babcary 
again. I had a view taken this day (by Roger Coles, 
Carpenter at C. Cary, and Robm Francis, Mason at 
Ansford) of the Parsonage House etc. at Babcary by 
order of my Rector Mr. Chese, and they have been at 
It all the day, and they brought in a very fair account, 
and the least they vpill do it for, which was m the 
whole exactly 109 o. 10. They dined with me here, 
as did my Clarke Sam. Hutchins, as he assisted them, 
and we had a fine leg of mutton boiled, brought from 
Ansford on purpose . — Mr. Cheese desired a dinner 
for them, and liquor, for which I have charged 
Mr. Cheese o 8. o 

I gave each of the Artificers o 5.0 

Gave their assistant Sam Hutchms o. i. o 

They staid here till 10 o’clock this evening. 

Feb. 5 Breakfasted, dined, supped, and laid at Babcary 
agam. I have been busy to-day m pruning the apple 
trees m my garden there. . . . 

Feb. II. Breakfasted and dined at Babcary. 

. . . For things that my old Woman at Babcary has 
bought me this last week — ^paid her o. o. 7^ 

Viz. for half a pound of Butter . o. o. 4 

For one pound of beef Stakes . o. o. 3 

For some Cream . ,0.0. o^ 

Gave Mary for her trouble . . 0.0. 4^ 

In another entry (February 18) he gives ‘for four 



eggs 0.0. I ’ and Cheese per pound. Candles, on 
the other hand are per pound. 

These prices give some mdication of the immense 
difference in the purchasing power of money a hundred 
and fifty years ago — as far as concerns these particular 
commodities. English butter is to-day (1923) about 
three times the 1765 price, English beef steaks about 
eight times, eggs (they are still dear in February) about 
eight or nine times, cheese about six times. Among the 
articles named we score only in candies, which can now 
be purchased for 5 Jd. per pound. Candles in the Diarist’s 
day were, however, heavily taxed, which largely accounts 
for the high price. 

Feb. 1 1 (conttnued) For laying a wager w ith Betty Crich 
. my old Woman’s daughter concerning fiosty weather 
last Thursday, and losing with her paid o. o. 6 
Feb. 12. . .1 went to enquire when Mr Burge went 
to London (but he went last Sunday) as my Father 
and Uncle wanted to send five guineas to Cousin Bob 
Woodforde, who was last Thursdaj- appointed Sur- 
geon’s first Mate to the Hussar Frigate 28 Guns, 
now cruising on the Coasts of Ireland, and as he must 
go to her, he begs a little money of them to go. 

Feb. 17. Breakfasted, dined, supped, and laid at Bab- 
cary. I performed the duty of the day there. I 
churched a poor woman, and for doing it this morn- 
ing she gave me o. o 6. As she was poor and has 
a large family, and is a very honest woman, I sent it 
her back to her house and gave her besides o. o. 6. 
Feb. 28. ... Spent part of the afternoon at Mr. Lewis 
Bower’s with him, his brother, Parson Gapper of 
East Charlton, and one Mr. Taunton a Roman. 
Mr. Taunton is a young sensible man of gieat wealth. 



March 4. ... After dinner I returned to Ansford where 
I supped, spent the evening and laid. On my return 
home I called upon Mr. Andrew Russ at Clanville, 
and spent the remaining part of the afternoon with 
him, Mr. Dod a Baker and a Roman Catholick, 
Mr. Thomas and Seth Burge. Mr. Dod and myself 
touched a little upon Religion, which I own was not 
nght at aU. 

For going thro’ Avord Turnpike paid .001 

March 18 Breakfasted, dined, supped, and laid again 
at Babcary. I brewed half a Hogshead of strong Beer 
to-day for my Rector Mr. Cheese, and I had three 
Bushels and a half of Malt and three pound of old 
Hops. I afterwards brewed half a Hogshead of ale 
with the grain and Hops for myself, and added to 
the grains half a Bushel of fresh Malt, which I owe 
one Mrs Cooke for, of West Camel. Gave my old 
woman the grains which she sold to one Solomon 
Arthur for o. i. o. . . . 

March 25. ... I received this morning of Elizabeth 
Clothier my mother’s maid, the sum of ten pounds, 
to keep for her, and I shall give her ten shillings per 
annum, which is at the rate of five per centum for 
the use of it ; I do it purely to encourage her to be 
careful, and to make her saving. . . . 

March 27. ... I christened two children (Twins) of 
Robin Francis’s this afternoon at Ansford Church for 
my Father by the names of Joseph and Mary, being 
born on Lady Day last . . . 

March 30 ... I had my face and head shaved at Bruton 

by one Hitchcock, who lives with one Grey a Barber 
there, and he shaved me exceeding well. I gave him 
o. o. 6 . . . . Coming from Bruton my horse threw me, 
but I thank God, I received no manner of hurt. . . . 



April 4. . Gave Betty Crich ray old %voman’s daughter 

o. o. 6 to get her spinning work done in proper time, 
as I had hindered her. 

April 7. . . My Clarke Sam Hutchins sat up all last 

night drinking therefore he did not attend at the 
Holy Sacrament [it was Easter Day] — for which I 
gave him a severe lecture, and he promised me never 
to be guilty of the same again, which I hope he will 
not. I had a piece of roast beef for dinner to-day, 
and I had my Clarke Sam Hutchins, and his cousin 
Thomas Hutchins my gardener to dine here to- 
day. . . . 

April 18. ... Mr. Penny is presented to the Living of 
Evercreech, to hold it for a minor (Justice Robbard’s 
son of 12 years old), and is therefore going to quit 
ray Father’s curacy at C. Cary, which I am to under- 
take for him, and Babcary too, but I cannot ser\c 
Babcarv but once a Sunday . . . 

On April 29 he goes to Oxford, and stajs there till 
May 23, reading his ‘ Wall Lectures ’ for his M A. 

May 23. I got up this morning at 3 o’clock and went 
to the Star Inn in the Corn Market where I took 
Coach and set forth for Bath, which goes there to- 
day. Gave our Porter for calling me this morning 
o. o. 6. Gave a Porter for carrying my Portmanteau 
to the Star i. o. There were only two more in the 
Machine beside me. One was (I believe) a dissenting 
Minister, and the other an Oxford old Lady who is 
gging to Cirencester. We breakfasted at Burford, for 

^ See pp 158-62 for an account of the course for the B.A and M.A 
degrees at Oxford m the eighteenth centuiy. 



which as we treated the Lady cost each of us o. i. 6. 
We took up at Burford two more passengers, one was 
a servant man of Major Hargrove who is at Bristol 
and his man is going to him ; the other was a stranger 
of Burford a young woman going to Cirencester. 
Both the women left us at Cirencester, and then 
there was only myself, the Major’s Servant, and the 
dissenting Minister, a very well behaved man. I paid 
my remammg part of the fare at Burford [He 
had paid on the 13 th in advance] and for -my 
portmanteau the overweight o. 10. 6. We dined 
at Tetbury with a stranger, a tradesman. For my 
dinner and drinking afterwards paid o 2. o. We got 
into Bath this evening about seven o’clock, and we 
put up at the King’s Arms in Broad Street, where 
I supped and spent the evening and laid. My Father’s 
man met me here this evemng with horses. 

May 24. ... We got home to Ansford to dinner, where 
I dined, supped and laid at my Father’s house. 
Blessed be Almighty God for sending me safe home 
to my dear Parents again 

On May 26 he begins his curacy at C. Cary, and gets 
20. o. o. a year from his father for it : this means he can 
only take one service at Babcary on Sunday. 

May 27. Breakfasted, dined, and laid at home again. 
Brother John dined, breakfasted, and laid here again. 
After dmner Jack went to Wincanton to a Pony Race, 
and he did not return till after ten this evening. 

I am greatly afraid Jack is rather wild, but I hope not. 
May 28. . . Brother John spent the evening at the 
Fair [at Castle Cary]. 

May 29 . I read Prayers this morning at C. Cary, 



it being the commemorating the Restoration of King 
Charles the Second. 

June 6. ... Gave my old woman’s daughter a Fairing 
as she goes to Camel Fair to-day, which was o. i. o. 
Gave my Clark there [Babcary] and one Thom 
Hutchins o. i o to lay out at Camel Fair. 

June 23. ... I buried poor Will. Burge this ctening at 
Ansford Church for my Father. I hope he is happy. 
Poor Will, went with me the very last time that 
I went to Oxford, and I liked him mjjch. . . 

June 24. ... I read Prayers this morning at C. Cary 
it being St. John’s Day. Coming from Church 
I called in at Stephen Gibb’s at C. Cary, and I prayed 
by his wife who is veiy ill I gave poor Stephen 
Gibbs, to buy something for her i. o 
July 8. . . Brother John breakfasted, dined, supped 

and laid here agam. Brother John is \er\ indifferent 
by his being too busy ivith Girls . . . 

On July nth he gives a dinnei party at Babcary to 
fourteen C. Cary gentlemen, ‘ one of whom ’, he observes, 
* was not invited ’. 

We all spent the greatest part of the afternoon in 
the Churchyard at Babcary, where we were diverted 
by some of the Gentlemen playing at Ball,^ at which 
I won a betting o. 2. 9 The Gentlemen seemed well 
pleased at the Entertainment, which gave me infinite 
satisfaction. A terrible accident happened whilst we 
were at dinner, which many of us went to see the 
Body , viz. a Poor Boy was dragged and killed by 
a Horse about half a mile from us on the Ilchester 
Road. The boy was about fourteen years old. I hope 

^ ‘ Fives,’ I fear against the church wall. 



to God the Poor Boy is happy. There was no bone 
broken, neither was his skull fractured, but he is dead. 
We all came home singing, and I thank God well. 
My Brother John was indisposed, therefore he could 
not go. . . . 

July 23 ... Dined and spent the afternoon at Mr. 

Clarke’s. . . . One Farmer Tottle of Avord, a Clergy- 
man’s son, a very hearty man and within one year of 
fourscore, spent the afternoon at Mr. Clarke’s as did 
another Farmer. 

July 26 . . For three framed pictures for my Tent of 

a Boy, paid 3. o. N.B. They are new fashioned 
pictures of their Majesties, Mr. Pitt and Mr. Legge, 
Prince Ferdinand and the Marquiss of Granby. 

Of these celebrities it will be unnecessary to say any- 
thing of ‘ their Majesties ’, King George III and his 
Queen, or of Mr. Pitt, the elder of course, made Earl of 
Chatham in the middle of the following year, 1766. 

Mr. Legge, Prince Ferdinand, and the Marquis of 
Granby are, however, to-day no more than names to 
nine out of ten persons, whether educated or otherwise, 
and the following biographical snapshots may, perhaps, 
help the reader to understand why our Diarist hung their 
pictures in his tent. 

Henry Bilson Legge was born in 1708, the fourth son 
of the first Earl of Dartmouth. He owed his start in 
political life to Sir Robert Walpole, to whom he was 
private secretary. After holding a series of posts of 
minor importance he became Chancellor of the Exchequer 
in 1754, George HI, who disliked him, making it a 
condition that ‘ Legge should never enter his closet ’. 
With two intervals — ^in 1755 and again in 1757, he 
was Chancellor of the Exchequer until 1761. He was 

49 E 


dismissed in that year by George III because he refused 
to pay a large sum to the Landgra^^e of Hesse. He 
shared in a measure in Pitt’s popularity, whose colleague 
he was. 

If not an eminent statesman he was no fool, and 
Horace Walpole regarded his death in 1764 as a severe 
loss to the Whigs. His unpopularity with George III 
doubtless increased his popularity with the public, and 
the Diarist, who was a moderate Tory if not a Whig, 
would like to have in his tent the picture of a man who 
resisted the dangerously encroaching power of King 
George III In conclusion, I cannot resist quoting 
a slightly cynical reference made to him by Lord Shel- 
burne in a letter addressed by the latter to Lord Bute 
on October 6, 1761 • ‘Mr. Legge, whatever opinion 
your Lordship, I 01 some others ma;y have of him, is 
a Gold Box ; one Box is out and another put m his place.’ 
Shelburne means that Legge will be of \alue, merely as 
being a popular commoner, in a Ministry too freely 
composed of nobles.^ 

Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick was bred, to quote his 
contemporary, Lord Shelburne, ‘ not only in the camp 
but in the Court of Prussia ; he was in all respects an 
experienced soldier, and a proud high man.’ “ He 
commanded the Allied Forces against the French in the 
Seven Years War, and won a succession of now' almost 
forgotten victories, among them Minden, 1759, Velling- 
hausen, 1761, Wilhelmstall, 1762, in five campaigns 
against superior forces. The great historian of the 
British Army refers to Ferdinand as a soldier ‘ who, 
little though we know him, was the greatest commander 

^ Lord Fitzmaunce’s Life of Shelburne, \o 1 1, p 90 See also the 
D N B 

® Fitztnaurice’s Life of Shelburne, vol i, p 244 



who led British troops to victory in Europe between 
Marlborough and Wellington. . . . British troops may feel 
proud to have so served under so able a soldier and so 
great and gallant a man in the Campaigns which they 
fought in Germany for the conquest of their own 
Empire.’ ^ 

John Manners, Marquis of Granby, was the son of the 
third Duke of Rutland, and was born in 1721. He 
started his career in politics, then entered the army, and 
finally reverted to politics agam. But it is as a soldier, 
not as pohtician, that his name is notable. He commanded 
a regiment, which he had himself raised, at Culloden in 
1746, and when the Seven Years War broke out he 
entered the fray. He was present at the battle of Minden 
in 1759, which was won by Prince Ferdinand of Brujis- 
wick, largely by British valour, and despite the disgraceful 
conduct of the British commander. Lord George Sack- 
ville, afterwards court-martialled. But it was at Warburg 
in the following year that he made his name, when he 
led a magnificent and devastating cavalry charge which 
overwhelmed the French. He contmued to distinguish 
himself as commander of the British troops under Prince 
Ferdinand till the end of the war. He died in 1770. 
Lord Acton, in his lecture on Frederick the Great,® thus 
characteristically refers, in the course of his remarks on 
the Seven Years War, to Lord Granby : ‘ When the 
Marquis of Granby did better at Warburg, the joy was 
great, and he became a popular hero; His hat and wig 
were blown off as he led the charge, and his portrait, 
bareheaded, in a high wmd, is at Trinity, and was on 
the sign of many an inn, especially of a well-known one 
at Dorking, in Mr. Pickwick’s time ’ 

^ Fortescue’s History of the British Army^ vol ii, pp 567-8 

^ Acton’s Lectures on Modem History^ pp 290-304. 

51 E 3 


July 30. . . Jack made Papa this evening very angr\ 

and uneasy by his defending suicide and talking so 
saucy to him. Jack is much altered indeed within 
these two years. I am afraid he will be ever miser- 
able, but God forbid ! 

Aug. 13. . .1 went to C Cary Church this morning 
and christened a child of Mr. Seth Burge’s by the 
name of Mary Russ From church I went to Seth 
Burge’s, where I dined, spent the afternoon, supped 
and spent the evening. 

Mem: We were to have had a Ham and Fowls for 
dinner there, but the maid forgot to boil the Ham. 

Sep. 10 . . Jack supped out and did not come home 

till just 12 o’clock. It IS not well of him to stay so 
late as Mama is so bad 

Sep. 20 ... Papa and Brother John had some words 

this evening, but it ended very well between them 
at last. 

‘Sep. 26. ... Spent the afternoon at the Lower House ^ 
with Brother John and one Cass Thomas of Ever- 
creech of whom my brother John bought a mare this 
afternoon and saddle and bridle for the sum of 
8. 8. o. . . . 

Sep. 28. ... Dr. Clarke’s cook maid, Mary, was this 
morning found out in concealing a dead child in her 
box of which she had delivered herself yesterday 
morning, whether she murdered it or not is not yet 
known, but will be tried by the Coroner and Jury 
next Monday 

Sep. 30. The Coroner, Mr. Norton with the Jury took 

^ The Lower House in Ansford was part of his mother^s estate , she 

was a local heiress, and he lived here with his brother John until his 

father’s death. This house, of which the present owner of the diary has 

a pleasant picture, no longer exists* 



inquest this afternoon upon the deceased child (a boy) 
of Dr. Clarke’s maid, Mary, and brought her in not 

On October 6, he takes service at Babcary for the last 
time, being succeeded by a Mr. Colmer. Most of October 
is spent in getting mto the Lower House. Carpenters 
at work, &c. 

On November 5th he enters that he reads prayers at 
Castle Cary Church (‘ being Gunpowder Treason Plot ’). 

Dec. I. ... I read Prayers and preached this afternoon 
at C. Cary Church. Mrs. White, Mrs. Sam White, 
Mr. Andrew Russ, Mr. James and Richard Clarke and 
Brother Heighes, supped and spent the evening with 
us at the Parsonage. My father 3 id not come down- 
stairs all the evemng on account of the Company 
and Mama bemg ill. It vexed my Father and Mother 
greatly to have company brought to the house by Jack 
on a Sunday, and especially as my Mother is so bad. 

Dec. 4. ... Brother John went out early this morning 
and did not return all day and night. He is gone 
a Courting. . . . 

Dec. 19. ... Jack kept me up very late this evening 
at the Lower House by not coming home till past 
12 o’clock. 

1766. Jan. 25. ... I had a letter from Mr. Rice, my 
taylor m Oxford, to whom I am greatly in debt, it 
was a very civil letter. pSe had written to explain he 
couldn’t pay him yet.] 

Jan. 30. ... I read prayers this morning at C. Cary, 
it being K. Charles’ Martyrdom. Papa gave me a 
large cheese for the Lower House this morning. 
I dined, supped and spent the evemng at Parsonage. 



Feb. 4. ... Our dear ]Mama is much worse and daily 
taking her leave of all of us 

On February 6 he enters : ‘ Poor Mama glows weaker 
and woise daily. The Parsonage is a \ery melancholy 
house now indeed ’ 

Feb. 7. Poor Mama sent for me and Jack this 

afternoon up into hei room and \ei\ solemnly took 
her leave of us ; therefore I do not believe she can 
eicist very long in this world. . . 

Feb. 8. It pleased Almighty God of his great good- 
ness to take unto himself mv deai good Mother this 
morning, about 9 o’clock, out of this sinful world, 
and to deliiei her out of her miseries She went 
out of this world as easy as it w'as possible for any- 
one. I hope she is now eternally happy m everlasting 
glory. . . . 

O Lord God Almighty send help from Thy Holy 
Place to my dear Father, and to all my deal Mother’s 
relations, to withstand so great a shock, and to live 
and dye so easy as she did. 

On February 12 his mother is buried in the vault in 
the chancel of Ansford Church, ‘ very decently and well. 
. . . We had all Crepe Hatbands and Cloaks ’ and the pall 
bearers likewise. 

She left her whole estate between the Diarist, ‘ Sister 
Jane, and Brother John.’ 

Feb. 14. ... Papa gave me this afternoon my money 
box that Poor Mama kept for me from a Boy in which 
was half a guinea, two half crown pieces, a sixpence, 
two small silver coins and id. 



Feb. 17. ... One Robert Galpme, an old School Fellow 
of mine at Winton College, who was expelled genteely 
from It, and whom I have not seen this ten years, 
called upon me this evemng at Parsonage and spent 
the former part of the evening with us there. . . 

Feb. 20. ... Galpine (I believe) is in the capacity of 
a servant to Mr. Meach of Serne in Dorset an Apothe- 

Feb. 22. ... I dined, supped and spent the evening 
at Parsonage. Mr. Richard Clarke, Junr and one 
Mr. Strong a Butcher at Pool, an acquaintance of his 
supped and spent the evemng with us. Mr. Richard 
Clarke makes too free (I think) with our house. 

On March 25 he enters that Elizabeth Clothier gives 
him another ,^10 to keep for her at 5 per cent. Also 
Ehzabeth Crich gives him ^20 to keep for her at 5 per 
cent. He is to have half a year’s notice before repayment 
of principal. 

April II. Gave the Bath Newsman for Mr. Pitt’s 
speech o. i. o 

It is by no means plain which of Pitt’s speeches is 
here meant Is it the famous speech of January 14, made 
in course of the debate on the Address, when the great 
commoner denounced the Ministry, ‘ every capital 
measure they have taken is entirely wrong ’, vindicated 
the Americans, and urged that ‘ the Stamp Act be 
repealed, absolutely, totally and immediately ’ f Or the 
much less famous speech of February 21st when the Bill 
for repealing the Stamp Act was introduced ? Or the 
speech which astomshed the House on March 10, when 
he praised the hated Lord Bute and urged a sort of 
Coalition Ministry composed of King’s Friends and the 



people’s Friends? Or is it some speech at Bath whither 
he had gone, ‘ the sum of things is that I am fitter for 
a lonely hill in Somersetshire than for the Affairs of 
State ’ he had written to Lord Shelburne on Febiuary 24 
On the whole we think the first-named speech is meant, 
for the debate on the Address had been surreptitiously 
printed in Paris. ^ 

June 23. . .1 went this evening with Miss Rooke and 
Jenny to see a Play (the Orphan or Unhapp) marriage) 
to the Court House at C. Caiy, performed by some 
strollers, and they did it pretty well. . . . 

July 4. I dined and spent the afternoon at Justice 
Creeds, with him, his Father, one Farmer Clarke of 
Lovington, Tenant to the Justice, Miss Molly Pew, 
and Sister Jane, we went in the evening to a play 
called Love in a Village I paid theie o 1.6. The 
Justice treated the Ladies at the Pla) . . 

July 18 ... I went to a Play at the Court House at 

C. Cary (called the Provoked Husband 01 a Journey 
to London) this evening with Aunt Tom, jenn) and 
Mrs. Clarke and Brother Heighes and his little boy, 
Billy, with little Sam. Clarke. 1 paid for going in, 
being Mrs. Midnight’s benefit, 0. 2. o Foi cherries 
for myself and many others there paid o 2. o The 
Company was greatly disturbed at the Plaj' by the 
noise of an insolent, saucy mobb on the outside of the 
Play House. 

This and other references in the Diary to the visit of 
strolling companies of players to so remote and relatively 

^ Albert von RnvilleS William Pitt^ Earl of Chatham^ 3 vpls , translated 
1907, vol ju, pp i 66~74, Fitzxnauncc’s Shelhume^vol 1, p 264, The 
Parhamentary History^ voL xvi 



unimportant a township as Castle Cary throws into 
prominence the different, and in so many aspects better, 
conditions of country life in the eighteenth century as 
compared with to-day. Castle Cary had m i8oi a 
population of 1,281 persons,^ and we shall probably not 
be far wrong if we assume it numbered not more than 
1,200 persons in 1766. What villages or townships to- 
day of this size have the opportunity of seeing the plays 
of Shakespeare or ‘The Beggars’ Opera (we shall see that 
these are referred to in later entries) and aU sorts of other 
plays, excellent or otherwise ? This is an apt illustration 
of the deplorable decay of country gaieties following on 
the abnormal and dismal development of industrial life 
in towns. 

July 19. I went and read prayers to a poor woman in 
C. Cary (John Baker the Thatcher’s wife) who is 
extremely bad and I am afraid in a deep consumption 
— a very honest and good woman as well as her 
Husband is a man. (They are a very happy couple). . . . 
July 21. ... I paid Maby the Overseer this morning 
for a Quarter’s Taxes for our Estate, late my Mother’s 
2. 2. 2i-, that is for Land Tax . . . o. 18. i. To Six 
Poor Rates — 2. 8f per Rate — 0. 16. 3. To window 
tax, 19 in number o. 7 lof. 

As regards the Land Tax and the Window Tax here 
referred to, a word of explanation may be helpfid. The 
Land Tax at this date (1766) was to all intents and pur- 
poses merely a tax on real property at the rate of in 
the pound on the annual value of the property. The 
high rate of 4J. was due to the financial burden imposed 
by the Seven Years War, The lowering of the tax to y. 

^ Phelps’s History oj Somersetshire, vol 1, p. 375. 



ummportant a township as Castle Cary throws into 
prominence the different, and in so many aspects better, 
conditions of country life in the eighteenth century as 
compared with to-day. Castle Cary had in i8oi a 
population of 1,281 persons,^ and we shall probably not 
be far wrong if we assume it numbered not more than 
1,200 persons m 1766. What villages or townships to- 
day of this size have the opportunity of seeing the plays 
of Shakespeare or ^he Beggars’ Opera (we shall see that 
these are referred to in later entries) and all sorts of other 
plays, excellent or otherwise ? This is an apt illustration 
of the deplorable decay of country gaieties following on 
the abnormal and dismal development of industrial life 
in towns. 

July 19. I went and read prayers to a poor woman in 
C. Cary (John Baker the Thatcher’s wife) who is 
extremely bad and I am afraid in a deep consumption 
— a very honest and good woman as well as her 
Husband is a man. (They are a very happy couple). . . . 

July 21. ... I paid Maby the Overseer this mornmg 
for a Quarter’s Taxes for our Estate, late my Mother’s 
2. 2. 2f, that is for Land Tax ... o. 18 i. To Six 
Poor Rates — 2 Sf per Rate — o. 16. 3. To window 
tax, 19 in number o. 7. lof. 

As regards the Land Tax and the Window Tax here 
referred to, a word of explanation may be helpful. The 
Land Tax at this date (1766) was to all intents and pur- 
poses merely a tax on real property at the rate of 4J in 
the pound on the annual value of the property. The 
high rate of 4^. was due to the financial burden imposed 
by the Seven Years War. The lowering of the tax to p. 

^ Phelps’s History of Somersetshire, vol 1, p 375. 



m 1767 caused the then Chancellor of the Exchequei to 
attempt taxation in America with ultimate consequences 
of disaster. But the tax in the time of William and Mary 
(1692) had been a genuine income tax, including personal 
as well as real property Somehow the ‘ personal ’ part 
shpped out silently, but Pitt had the precedent of 1692, 
to say nothing of more ancient enactments, when between 
1799-1802 he introduced our friend, the income tax, 
which with an interval of absence from 1815 to 1842, 
has continued to dog our steps, and pester us with shame- 
less importumties 

The Window Tax was the immediate successor of the 
Hearth or Chimney Tax, and appeared in 1696. At that 
date houses with less than ten windows paid 2J., and from 
ten to twenty, 2J., and 41- additional But the tax 
steadily increased, notably during the Seven Years War 
and the Napoleonic Wars — ^Pitt’s 1792 exemption of 
houses with less than seven windows being short lived 
The tax was not repealed till 1851, when it sank beneath 
its load of unpopularity and evil Health results. The 
yield of this odious tax in 1850 was, however, ;£i,7o8,504, 
and as the Chancellor of the Exchequer could not afford 
to lose so large a sum, another old friend was revived, 
the Inhabited House Duty.^ 

July 22. ... I dined, supped and spent the evening at 
the Parsonage. Mr. Clerke the Player, alias Mrs 
Midnight spent the afternoon at Parsonage. . . . 

July 30 For a pr of new Paltry Slippers of Dunford at 
C. Cary paid 0. 5. o. N.B. I shall never have any 

^ If any reader is hungry for further information on these or any other 
taxes he should consult that fascinating work taxation and Taxes tn 
England^ by Stephen Dowell (4 vols , 1888), on which the above com- 
ments are based 



more dealings with him, I believe, for he is not only 
extortionary, but also very impudent. 

Aug. I. ... I gave a poor old wounded soldier o. o. i. 

Aug. 3. . . I buried a little maid of Phill Stockman’s 
this evening at C. Cary that died in the SmaE 
Pox. . . . 

Aug. 5. ... I had some talk in C. Cary Churchyard 
with a Methodist stranger. Mr. John Burge and 
Mr. James Clarke supped and spent the evening at 
Parsonage. My father would not see them which 
occasioned very high words between him and Jack 
after. My Father’s temper of late makes me quite 

Aug. 12. Lerft Jack this mormng, which makes me very 
poor, 2. 12. 6. Jack went to Lydford Fair this morn- 
ing and was out all day and night. 

Aug. 19. ... Henry Fitch Esq., of High HaU, Wim- 
borne, Dorsett sent for me this afternoon to Ansford 
Inn, on his road to Bristol, where I spent part of the 
afternoon with him. He drank tea with us at the 
Parsonage this afternoon. Fitch is an old school 
fellow of mine when at Winchester, and is now Gent. 
Comm, of Queen’s College, Oxon. He has lately had 
a bad fall from his horse, which gave him a violent 
pain in his breast, therefore is going to the Hot Wells 
at Bristol to drink the waters. 

On August 22, being the Bishop’s Triennial Visitation, 
which the Archdeacon took, the Bishop ‘ being very old ’, 
they had the usual service at Castle Cary Church, at 
which the Diarist read the prayers. They dined at 
Ansford Inn, and the Archdeacon treated him, ‘ bemg 
the Reader, for my dinner and for hquer as long as he 
stopped. I paid myself afterwards for wine etc., o i. o ’. 



Aug. 25 . . After breakfast I went with Brother John 

to Wells to have Counsellor Andrew’s opinion of my 
Mother’s appointment to me, Brother John and 
Sister Jane, which we had satisfactorily. We paid the 
Counsellor for his opinion in writing i. i. o.^ 

Between September i and September 4 they (he and 
his brother John) go to Winchester ‘ to the Election ’, 
and on September 4 he notes, ‘ I gave Brother John this 
afternoon o. 5. o his money being all gone. N.B. High 
time to decamp.’ 

Sept. 12. ... I spent the afternoon at Dr. Clarke’s. . . . 
Brother Heighes came in at the latter part of the 
afternoon to us, rather merry and exposed himself 
greatly by his talk to me. . . . 

Sep. 14. ... Mr. James Clarke who went to Kingsgate 
in Kent to my Lord Holland after Mr. MeUiar on 
Mr. Chiche’s account, which is 180 miles, returned 
this afternoon (Sunday) about one o’clock with Mr. 
MeUiar. Mr. James set out from Ansford last 
Thursday 10 o’clock in the forenoon, there and back 
again is near 400 miles. . . I was taken extremely 
bad this evening just after I was in bed in a faintmg 
fit, but, I thank God (through Jack’s assistance etc.), 
I soon got better. If my brother had not laid in the 
same room, I do believe I must have expired this 

Sept. 29. [At dinner with the Creeds.] — N.B. We had 
a Pine Apple after dinner, the first I ever saw or 

Oct. 5. ... Mrs. Grant of Henbridge spent this after- 

^ Counsellor is an old fasMoned atle for a barrister. Now instead of 

employing ‘ counsellors we employ ‘ counsel ’. 



noon at Parsonage, she came to talk with my Father 
about Jack and her daughter, Nancy, which I hope 
now will soon be settled to their satisfaction. 

Oct. 1 8. ... I entirely forgot that this was St. Luke’s 
Day, and therefore did not read Prayers at C. Cary 
which I should have done otherwise. As it was not 
done willfully, I hope God will forgive it. 

On October 31, he borrows £ 2^0 of Mr. Robin White 
to pay for ‘ Oxford Debts ’. He tries to get Mr. Leach 
of Avord and Mr. Gapper of Yarlington to take his 
services during his absence in Oxford, and other parsons 
too, but fails for a vanety of reasons : Mr. Gapper 
because he already preaches three times on Sunday, 
Mr. Leach because his mother has just died ; so he has 
to defer his j'ourney to Oxford. 

Dec. 2. Luke Barnard came to hve with me as a servant 
this day. I am to give him per annum three pounds, 
a coat and waistcoat and hat besides victuals and 
drink, washing and lodging. . . . 

Dec. 22. ... I paid Mr. White for my half Pig — 85 p* 
weight I. 3. o. . . . 

Dec. 29. ... Jack did not come home till after one 
o’clock in the morning, and therefore kept me awake 
almost all night. He was at Farmer Cocks of Grove 
a dancing there. 

1 767. J anuary i . I read Prayers this morning at C. Cary 
Church being New Year’s Day. I dined, supped and 
spent the evening tiU 10 o’clock at Parsonage, and 
after ten I went over to Mr. Clarke’s new Hospital 
where I spent the whole night and part of the morn- 
ing till 4 o’clock a dancing, on account of Mr. James 
Clarke’s apprenticeship being expired. A great deal 



of company was there indeed, viz , etc. . . . We had 
a very good band of musick, 2 Violins and a Base Viol. 
We were excessive merry and gay there indeed. [He 
observes that Brother Heighes ‘ exposed himself 
greatly ’ ] 

Feb. 3 . . I spent the evening and supped at Ansford 

Inn, there being a Masquerade Ball there this even- 
ing, and very elegant it was, much beyond my 
expectation in all respects. . . Parson Penny, Gapper, 
Baily, Witwick and Overton and myself were the 
Clergymen that were there. . . . Brother John [was 
in the character of] a Counsellor, Brother Heighes, 
King Richard the Third , John Burge, Othello , 
Sister Jane, Shepherdess ; Sally Clarke, Diana Trapes ^ 
. . cum multis aliis, all in very rich dresses but in 

no particular characters. ... I did not dance the 
whole evening. We had good musick viz., four 
Violins, a Bass Viol, a Taber and Pipe, a Hautboy 
and French horn played by Mr. Ford. 

Feb. 9 ... I got up at 3 o’clock this morning to brew 

a hogshead of strong beer. ... I was busy all day at 
the Lower House, and therefore stayed there the 
whole day, and did not go to bed this night as we 
could not tun our liquor tiU near two in the morning. 

Feb. 12. I got up before one this morning and brewed 
a 3 quarter barrel of strong beer and some small beer 
and had it all cool and tunned by four o’clock in the 
afternoon . . 

On February 16 he takes Miss Jordan to Wincanton — 
the Bear, to a concert and ball, ‘ a very genteel ball ’ ; 
he danced every dance with Miss Jordan from 10 to 4 in 
the morning ‘ (the best dancer in the room) ’. 

^ Who will be remembered as a character m Gay’s Beggar’s Opera 



March 7. . . I have taken for these last three mornings 

one hour before breakfast, the second rind of Alder 
stick steeped in water, and I do really think that I 
have gained great benefit from it, half a pint each 
morning ; it must be near the colour of Claret wine. 
N,B. Very good to take every Spring and Fall. 

Under date March 15 and 18 he refers to the ‘un- 
generous ’ action of his uncle who had been to see 
Mrs. Powell at Harding near St Albans, Herts, patron 
of Ansford and Castle Cary livings, to try and get them 
for his son, thus supplanting the Diarist. He refers 
bitterly to his uncle. 

March 24. I was Weeded this morning by Mr. James 
Clarke, and had two ounces of blood taken from me, 
for which I gave him 2. 6. 

N B. My blood was very rich and, therefore, 
proper to be bled. 

April 9. Mrs. Grant of Hambridge came early this 
morning on horse back to the Lower House and gave 
it to Jack for breaking of the Love Affair with her 
daughter. Mrs. Grant is too selfish. 

Jack does not appear to have been perturbed as he 
dined at Ansford Inn with friends and then went with 
them to Yeovil, ‘ where he remained aU night 

April 10. ... Jack did not please at Parsonage this 
evenmg being very much disguised in Beer, but it 
is but seldom and I hope will be more seldom, the 
more so the better 

April 14. I read prayers this morning again at C. Cary 
Church. I prayed for poor James Burge this morning, 



out of my own head, hearing he was just gone off 
almost in a consumption. It occasioned a great 
tremulation in my voice at the time. I w'ent after 
prayers and saw him, and he was but just alive. He 
was a very good sort of a young man and much 
respected. It was the evil which was stopped and 
then fell upon his lungs. Grant O Almighty God 
that he may be eternally happy hereafter. . . . 

On April 20 his father with Jane and John set out for 
London; his Father is going to see Mrs. Powell at Harding, 
Herts, about the Livings The Diarist himself sets out 
for Oxford on April 21. On May 3 he had a new wig 
and his ‘ Tupee ’ cut off and head shaved He parted 
reluctantly with his tupee. 

On May 23 he took his M.A. degree and stood the usual 
wine. Rum Punch, &c., to the M.C R. and B.C R. 
[Masters’ and Bachelors’ Common Room]. On June 2 
he returns by coach and postchaise via Bath to Ansford, 
which he reaches on June 3. 

July 6. ... I sent a letter this morning to Mr. Millachip, 
Brazier in High Street Oxford, to send me a dozen 
spitting boxes. . . . 

He buries a number of people during these months as 
a fever rages in Castle Cary. 

July 24. ... Aunt Anne, my Father, Sister Jane and 
Brother John dined and spent the whole afternoon 
with me at Lower House and indeed they did me 
great honour by doing so 

JV.R. My father sent me down a couple of fowls 
ready roasted, and I gave them a fine ham, some 
beans, some greens, and a good rich raisin pudding. . . . 



August I. ... I received a letter . . . from Edward, 
Bishop of Bath and Wells to desire me to transmit 
to him a correct list of Papists or reputed Papists 
with an account of their age, sex, occupation and time 
of residence in the Parish of Castle Cary, with all 
convenient expedition at Wells, in order to its being 
laid before the House of Lords next Session. 

Sep. II. ... I dined and spent the afternoon at 
Justice Creed’s with him, his father. Parson Gapper, 
etc. We had a noble pine apple after dinner. . . . 

Sep. 30. ... I went a fishing this morning in our great 
pond in Pond Close, with a net of my Father’s and 
we caught in about two hours, 5 brace of tolerable 
Tench. My father was with us and I am afraid 
caught cold there . . Jack returned from Taunton 
this evening with his cockade [as an ensign in the 
Somerset Militia], and I thank God is brave. 

Oct. 10. . . . My Father let Jack have this morning 
60. o. o to equip himself for the [Somerset] Militia, 
he being an Ensign in it. 

Oct. II. ... Mr. Will Melhar sent me a note this 
morning, to desire me to be at the meeting of the 
Gentlemen etc., of this County, at Bridgwater to- 
morrow, to put in nomination two proper Persons 
to represent this County in Parliament, the ensuing 
Parliament ; and it was so civil a note that I could 
not refuse him. . . . 

Oct. 12. . . . After breakfast, about six o’clock, I set 
forth for Bridgwater in Ansford Inn Post-chaise, in 
which I went to Piper’s Inn, where I took another, 
and went to Catcott to Mrs. Wm. Melliars there, 
where I made another breakfast, with Mr. Wm. 
MeUiar, his wife and daughter, Agatha Clarke and 
Counsellor MeUiar. 




. . . After breakfasting at Catcott, I went to 
Bridgwater in Pipers Inn Chaise, Mr. Wm. Melliar 
and his brother went with me in Counsellor Melliar’s 

. . . There was scarce ever seen so numerous an 
assembly on such an occasion. We put up our horses 
at the Globe Inn in Bridgwater. We dined at the 
Swan, with near fourscore gentlemen of the first 
rank in the Country. For our ordinary we each paid 
o. 3. o, for wine, fruit and servants, pd o. i. 6. 

At 2 o’clock we all went to the Town Hall, and Sir 
Charles Tynte and Mr. Cox, Lieutenant Colonel of 
the Somerset Militia, were the two Persons put in 
nomination, they having by much the majority. 
Mr. Trevilian opposed them, and is determined to 
stand the Poll at the Election, though desired by 
his friends to relinquish it then. Mr. Mildmay, 
Sergeant Burland, Sir Abraham Elton, the Sheriff, 
Mr Proviss Junr of Shepton Mallett and Peter Taylor 
spoke in the Hall for Sir Charles and Mr Cox. SirWm. 
Haugh (a very mean Fellow) and Major Putt and 
Mr. Allen, both very cleaver men, for Trevilian We 
were all handsomely squeezed in the Hall. Sir Charles 
Tynte spoke and cleared himself from the imputation 
he laid under concerning the Cyder Tax. Mr. Cox 
spoke and most elegantly and genteelly Old Mr. Cox 
spoke very well with regard to his son. At the Globe 
Inn in Bridgwater, Barber etc , pd 0. 2. 6. 

I returned in the evening in Piper’s Inn Post- 
chaise which I kept there, with Mr Melliar and his 
brother to Catcott, where I supped and slept at Mr. 

I gave Pipers Inn Post-chaise man o. 2. 6. 

At Whist this evening at Catcott with Counsellor 



Melliar against his brother and his wife, won 
o 2. 6. 

Oct. 20 ... I buried poor Richard CoUins, late 

servant to Uncle Tom, this afternoon at C. Car7, 
who died mad in the Fever that rages in these parts. 
It is called the putrid Fever. ... 

Oct. 23. Young Mr. Thos. Francis died this morning 
in the Fever. He has had the Fever most violently, 
quite frantick From this Fever good Lord deliver 
us, if it be Thy good will . . . 

Oct. 24. An old Hare and a young Hare were seen in 
my garden to-day. . . 

Oct. 25. I read Prayers and preached this morning 
at C. Cary Church. It being the King’s accession 
to the Throne. I read the Service appointed for it 
throughout, to the sermon. I did not use to read 
this service on common days, but as it happened now 
on a Sunday, I was obliged to, as directed. This 
day did not use to be a Prayer day on common days 
for years back at C. Cary, that is not since George 
the 2nd. . . 

Nov. 7. Brother John returned this morning from 
Taunton, and he dined supped etc., at Parsonage and 
slept at the Lower House Jack becomes his regi- 
mentals very well. . . 

Nov. 24. . .For five gallons of Rum, being part of 
a Puncheon, divided among several gentlemen at 
Dr. Clarke’s this morning at 8. 9 per gallon pd 2. 3. 9. 

. . . Colonel Cox’s brother and Mr. Wm. Melhar 
waited on me this morning at the Lower House, and 
desired my vote for Sir Charles Tynte and his brother, 
Colonel Cox, which I promised him. They stayed 
with me but a little time. 

Nov. 28. . . I lent Mrs. Melhar the 3 last volumes of 

67 F 2 


the Conniseur, this morning, and she lent me the six 
volumes of Tom Jones. 

Dec. 3 My man Luke Barnard, acquainted me this 
morning that he did not like his wages, and unless 
I would raise them, he must leave me, which he is to 
do at Lady Day next, and his year being up yesterday, 
I am to give him at the rate of five pounds a year till 
Lady Day without any new cloathes etc. I am not 
very sorry. He is a willing fellow but indolent and 
too fond of Cyder. He is going to farm, that is 
the reason of his leaving me . . . Mrs. Melliar was 
J-oshonahly frightened into a fit by a cat after supper 
at the Doctor’s [where there was a party], but soon 
well. . . . 

Dec. II. I dined, supped and spent the evening at 
Justice Creeds, with him, his father, Mrs. Betty 
Baker, her three nieces of Bridgwater, that is. Miss 
Baker rather ordinary. Miss Betsy very pretty, and 
Miss Sukey very middling, rather pretty than other- 
wise, all very sensible and agreable, and quite fine 
ladies, both in Behaviour and Dress and Fortunes. . . . 

Dec. 22. ... Great Bandying at Ansford Inn to-day on 
account of Mr. Trevelyan’s (Candidate for the County 
of Somersett at the coming Election) giving a dinner 
to his friends, which were the lower sort of People. . . . 

Dec. 26. ... Jack supped and spent his evening at 
the Catherine Wheel and was out late. It is very 
disagreeable, his way of life. 

1768. Jan. 4. ... Jack did not come home till near 
four m the morning. He was much in liquor and 
quite unhappy. The Devil has had great power 
over him to-day. O Lord, grant him strength from 
Thy Holy Place, to withstand him better pro futuro. 

Jan. 6. I read prayers this morning at C. Cary Church 



being Epiphany. I had a small congregation, it being 
excessive cold, as cold and severe weather on all 
accounts as in the year 1740. . . . 

On January 12 he enters that he buried a man found 
dead in the snow 

Feb 3. . . One Sarah Gore, came to me this morning 

and brought me an instrument from the Court of 
Wells, to perform publick Pennance next Sunday 
at C. Cary Church for having a child, which I am to 
admmister to her publickly next Sunday after Divine 
Service [which accordingly was done after the sermon 
on Sunday Feb 7] 

Public Penance for such sins as formcation and slander, 
mediaeval though the practice may seem to modern 
notions, was occasionally practised throughout the 
eighteenth century How often it is impossible to say 
Several instances are quoted in Abbey and Ovei ton’s 
admirable work, ‘The English Church in the Eighteenth 
Century^ and two or three more have been unearthed 
by Dr. Wickham Legg.® The Diarist does not give us 
any idea that he thought the custom rare, and it may be 
that It was more common than has been supposed. The 
ordeal was terrible enough, and it is not without reason 
that the phrase ‘ to put on a white sheet ’ has survived. 
For that is what 'the Penitent wore, standing in the 
middle of the church and confessmg. Dr. Legg has 
discovered examples of the form of confession. Thus in 
the course of one actually used in 1733, the woman 
says, ‘ I ... do here, in the presence of Almighty God, 
^ Vol 11, pp 506-9 

* English Church Life, (1914), pp 257-9 278-80 



and this congregation, humbly confess and acknowledge, 
that I have most grievously offended his Divme Majesty, 
in defiling my body, by committmg the heinous sin of 
fornication, with William, for which, my said foul 
offence, I am heartily sorry, and do sincerely repent 
thereof, and beg of God, mercy and forgiveness, for the 
same . . , ’ And in 1 8oi a man confessed as follows : 

‘ Good People Whereas I contrary to good manners and 
Christian Charity have unjustly reproached and defamed 
Elizabeth Bridges ... by saymg to her “ You are a strum- 
pet and I knew you when you lay on the Botley Road ”, of 
which I am convicted m the said Court [the Archdeacon’s 
Court] by my own confession and by the decree of that. 
Court am come hither to acknowledge my Fault, which 
I heartily do, and am sorry I have so defamed and injured 
the said Elizabeth Bridges, and do hereby ask forgiveness 
of the same.’ 

Feb. 17. . . As I returned from Church [it was Ash 

Wednesday] I went into Ansford Inn and read the 
Commendatory Prayer to poor Mrs Perry, who was 
j'ust departing this life and who died j'ust as I had 
finished. She went off extremely easy, without any 
visible emotion at all. I hope she is gone to unspeak- 
able joys of Eternity. Lord, make us wise to consider 
our latter end and live good lives. . . . 

Feb. 25. ... I sent two spitting Basons to Counsellor 
Melliar this morning at Gallhampton, as a present. . . . 

Feb. 28. I read prayers and preached this morning 

at Ansford Church Brother John spent his whole 

day with Mr. Wright at Ansford Inn. My father and 
Doctor Clarke had a few words coming out of Ansford 
Church this morning, but all things were made up 
before they parted and the Dr. came and smoked 



a pipe with my Father at Parsonage m the afternoon, 
with his wife . . . 

March i . ... Great dinners etc , given to-day at 

the George Inn and the Angel by Sir Charles Tynte’s 
and Mr. Cox’s friends, viz. by Lord Ilchester, Lord 
Berkeley of Bruton and Mr. Mildmay, but neither 
were there. There were a great multitude of all sorts, 
gentle and simple Mr. Cox himself was there. Bells 
ringing etc , and a great procession through Town 
with Musick playing and guns firing. They all came 
up in the afternoon as far as Justice Creeds, and Mr. 
Cox himself being there, we [the Diarist was dining 
with Justice Creed] both went out and spoke to 
him, and we both went back with him, with the 
Procession down to the George Inn, where we drank 
success to him, and was there for an hour in the large 
room with the multitude till Mr. Cox made a very 
handsome, sensible and genteel speech, and then 
he withdrew as did we immediately. Brother John 
dined and spent the evening with the multitude. 

March 2. . . Esq. Farr went and drank one bottle 

of Port with me at the Lower House this afternoon. 
He has got £1000 per annum and lives in a very 
handsome manner in Dorsetshire. . . . 

It is clear that the Diarist regarded a Squire with 
£i,ocx> a year as a rich man. The sum is so small as 
compared with present ideas of a rich man’s income that 
we may as well pause to consider what the equivalent 
of £1,000 a year in 1768 would be in present values. 
Despite the difficulties of estimating the variations in 
the purchasing power of money at different periods ^ we 

^ Readers interested in this bewildering subject should, as a pre- 
liminary, consult Cunningham’s Grewth of English Industry and Cmmeree, 



would hazard the estimate that the rough equivalent of 
£i,ooo a year (net) in 1768 would be at least £5,000 
a year (net) to-day, January i, 1923. In making this 
estimate we have had regard to the fact that a Curate’s 
pay, for instance the Diarist’s, a hundred and fifty years 
ago was not much more than £50 a year , that an 
agricultural labourer, according to Arthur Young, at 
Taunton in 1770 got is. a day with Cyder thrown in , 
that Squire Weston was regarded as one of the richest 
men in Somerset with his estate of ‘ upwards of £5,000 
a year’, and that Fielding makes the landlady say to 
Tom Jones in the inn on the road to Bristol, ‘ And yet, 
I warrants me, there is narrow' a one of all those officer 
fellows but looks upon himself to be as good as arrow 
a squire of £500 a year ’ (book viii, ch. ii ) ; that the 
Diarist only paid his servant-boy about £5 a year w ages, 
that the prices of a variety of essential food-stufts w ere 
at least five times less than to-day (see p. 44) — on the 
other hand, the price of wheat per quarter in the ten 
years from 1763 to 1773 averaged (early in March, mid- 
way between Harvests) from 38J. 6d to 45J. a quarter 
at Mark Lane,^ and the price to-day for English Wheat 
at Mark Lane is from 41 to 44J, a quarter.® 

Of course travelling was much more expensive than 
now, and one could not get the same general comfort 
for one’s money, but in so far as comparison is possible 
I do not think we should be far wrong in multiplying 
1 768 incomes by five in order to get the modern equivalent. 
From this time, however (mdeed the process began a year 
earlier), prices rise steadily, by 1803, when the Diarist 

Modern Tunes, Part II, Appendix G, p 937, and the Dtcttenary of 
Pohtual Economy, articles on wages and prices, &c. 

^ Thorold Rogers, History of Agncultural Prices in England, vol vii. 
Table of Wheat Prices ® The Times, December 30, 1922 



died, they had practically doubled — according to Arthur 
Young’s computation. 

March 4. ... I lent Brother John this afternoon at 
Lower House, to pay his expenses at Ansford Inn last 
Wednesday night, i . i . o. 

N.B. It was the last guinea I had, but it was 
proper so to do, that he might fay no means appear 
shabby . . 

March 15. Justice Creed made me a visit this morning, 
and my Brother gave him a song, w'hilst James Clarke 
performed on his Base Viol. . . . 

March 17. ... Great rejoicings this day at C. Caiy, 
on account of Mr. Trevylyan’s declining standing 
the Poll for this County of Somers ett after so much 
hurry and disturbance. So that Sir Charles Tynte 
and Mr. Cox are to be our members. May they make 
great and worthy Representatives. . , 

March 21. I got up very early this morning and after 
breakfast I set out for Oxford for the University 

He got safely to Oxford on Mr. Francis’s horse, lent 
for the occasion, and Sir Roger Newdigate is elected, much 
to his satisfaction. He returns to Ansford on March 26. 

March 29. ... My Father would not play cards, it 
being Passion Week and the Justice [Creed, who was 
visiting there] was not very pleased. 

N.S. No cards this week at Parsonage which I 
think IS not amiss, though there might be no harm. - 
April 5. ... My tenants from Sandford Orcas came to 
me this morning and paid me their rents in ail 
4. 17. o . . I gave them all a dmner , a loin of veal 
’ 73 


roasted and a good plumb pudding for their prompt 

April 6 . . . . My new Boy . . . [George Hutchins] came 
home this morning. . . I settled as underneath with 
his Father for wages. — ^To give him per annum 2. 2.0. 
To let him have (that is, only to lend it him durmg 
the time he lives with me) a coat, a waistcoat and 
hat etc. He is to find himself in shoes, breeches 
and shirts and if I buy them for him to deduct it 
out of his wages. He is a likely boy and bears a good 
character. . . 

April 14. I made a visit this mommg to old Mr. Creed 
in South Cary. I made two dinners this day, one at 
the Lower House by myself to teach my new Boy to 
wait at table and another at Parsonage. . . . 

I went over to C. Cary this night after eleven 
o’clock and privately baptised a child born this day 
and very dangerously ill in convulsions, by name 
George, of Perry’s a Mason and a poor man in South 

Mem ' Never did I any ecclesiastical duty with more 
pleasure as it gave such great satisfaction to its Parents, 
and that they were so good and charitably disposed 
to have it done. The poor innocent Babe was taken 
with a violent fit, immediately after I had named it, 
and I really thought was dead, but it pleased God to 
restore it again, which was undoubtedly a blessing 
from Heaven for their goodness. Blessed is the man 
whose strength is in thee, in whose heart are thy ways ! 
Great is Thy Mercy O Lord God of Hosts ! 

April 15. . . . The poor little Infant which I privately 
baptized last night departed this world this after- 
noon. . . . 

April 17. . . After Cary Service I buried that little 



Infant which I privately named two days ago, — 
2 days old, a very happy turn for the dear Innocent. 
April 19. ... We had some Country Dancing and 
Minuets at Lower House [where he was giving a 
party]. I danced Country dances with Mrs. Farr 
and Miss Payne. I danced one Minuet with Mrs. 
Farr at last. I gave Stephen Bennett the Fidler 
o. 2. 6. We were very merry and no breaking up till 
2 in morning. I gave Mrs. Farr a roasted Shoulder 
of Mutton and a plum Pudding for dinner — Veal 
Cutlets, Frill’d Potatoes, cold Tongue, Ham and cold 
roast Beef, and eggs in their shells. Punch, Wine, 
Beer and Cyder for drinking. 

May 9. ... I never saw a Peacock spread his tail 
before this day at Justice Creeds and most Noble 
it is. — How wonderful are Thy Works O God in 
every Being. 

May 13. . . . Terrible Riots in London^ by the Paper 
have been and likely to be. 

May 22. ... My Poor Father and Jack had a dispute 
this evening. O that Jack was but well settled in 
Life, what pleasure would it give us all. . . . 

May 23. I rec** a note from my Father this morning 
by Sister Jane and wherein he insists on Jack’s not 
coming to this house again for some time, as he 
disturbed him so much last night that he could not 

On May 26 a ‘ very fine Tench (above a pound) which 
Jack also caught [a brace of Tench had been sent to 
Justice Creed] was sent up to my Father ’. The Father 
sends £20 to the Diarist to give Jack. 

^ These were the Wilkes Riots on May 10 in St George’s Fields See 
pp 91-2, 



June 25. At Back Gammon with my father to-day 
lost o. o. 6. A betting with Brother John at Drafts 
and at Back Gammon with my Father lost what he 
owed me, — 2. 6. 

On July 14th and i6th he buries two small children 
who died of small-pox and observes ‘ I must say it is 
very cruel of Robin Francis not to have had them 
inoculated, as Dr Clarke would have done it for a mere 

July 18. ... The Church Wardens of C. Cary (Mr. Seth 
Burge and Dav^ Maby) waited on my father this 
afternoon for leave to dig up the Fives-Place m Carj^ 
Churchyard, and it was granted. . . . 

On July 23 his great aunt arrives to stay at the Par- 
sonage from Bath , she beats him greatly at Back Gammon. 
He says, later, ‘ My great Aunt is an extreme sensible 
old Lady.’ On July 29 he dines and spends the after- 
noon with Justice Creed, his, the justice’s, father, and 
Parson Gapper of Yarlington. Constant hospitality is 
interchanged with the neighbours in all these years. 

Aug. I. . . . Dr. Clarke had a letter this evening from 
Dr. Dimsdale from Hartford who is just going to 
embark for Holland, and from thence is to go by land 
to Petersburg in Russia, to inoculate the Empress 
of Russia and her son. It is a pity but James Clarke 
had went with him. 

Thomas Dimsdale (1712-1800) was a medical prac- 
titioner at Hertford and made his name by his advocacy 
of inoculation, his book The Present Method of Inoculation 

^ Sec pp. 40-1 for rcnwrki) on inoculation. 



for the Small Pox^ published in 1767, passing through 
numerous editions. In the year following the publication 
of this work ‘ he was invited to quote the author of 
the graphic account in the Dictionary of National 
Biography, ‘ to St. Petersburg by the Empress Catherine 
to inoculate herself and the Grand Duke Paul, her son. 
The Empress herself seems to have placed perfect reliance 
on the Englishman’s good faith, but she could not answer 
for her subjects. She had, therefore, relays of post 
horses prepared for him all along the line from St. Peters- 
burg to the extremity of her Dominions, that his flight 
might be instant and rapid in case of disaster. Fortunately 
both patients did well, and the physician was created 
a Councillor of State with the hereditary title of Baron, 
now borne by his descendant. He received a sum of 
£10,000 down, with an annuity of £$ 00 , and £2,000 
for his expenses. The Empress presented him with a 
miniature of herself and her son set in diamonds, and 
granted him an addition to his family arms in the shape 
of a wing of the Black Eagle of Russia.’ 

He again went to Russia to inoculate other members 
of the Royal Family in 1784. Baron Dimsdale sat for 
Hertford in two Parliaments, 1780 and 1784, wrote 
various additional works on inoculation, established a 
hospital for inoculation at Hertford, and died in 1800 
aged eighty-eight He was a Member of the Society 
of Friends. 

On August 6 the Diarist goes with Justice Creed to dine 
at Stourton with Mr. Hoare,^ ‘ a tall thin Gentleman, and 
very familiar and as rich as any man in the Kingdom 
and his pictures and furniture equally good. 

‘ N, B. Servants wear Ruffels, but not suffered to 
take vails.’ ® 

^ Of the famous banhng house 


® Tips. 


On August 9 Mrs. Melliar gives a public breakfast 
in the Cary Vicarage garden in honour of Lord Stavor- 
dale’s coming of age. ‘ His Lordship is on his travels 
abroad.’ Among the guests Mr. and Mrs. Gapper and 
Miss Gapper. ‘ There was dancing after breakfast in 
the garden till three in the afternoon ’ Later there was 
a ball at Ansford Inn. The Diarist plays at Quadrille 
with Mrs Melliar, Mrs. Gapper, and Mr. Scrogg and 
loses 6 d. 

Justice Creed was not at these festivities, there being 
‘ a misunderstanding between the Houses ’ . On August 1 3 
some things he has ordered from Oxford arrive, among 
them 8 Pewter dishes and one dozen plates, ‘ all engraved 
with my arms ’. 

On August 17 he sets out for Oxford with his bo), 
George Hutchins, ‘ my George ’ — for the election of 
a Warden of New College: Oglander elected, not his 
friend Sale. He notes on August 21 that they dine in 
College ‘ now at three o’clock everyday, Sundays excepted, 
which is half after three then ’. He reaches Ansford 
again on August 24. 

Aug. 29. ... Justice Creed called upon us this evening 
and he desired me to dine with him to-morrow with 
the Lady of the Manor (Mrs. Powel) who came to 
her Steward’s (Uncle Tom’s) this afternoon. 

Sep. 6. Both Bath Aunts and Maid set forth this 
morning after breakfast for Bath where I hope they 
will get safe. Thqr went in Old Down Chaise. I 
took my leave of them this morning at Parsonage, 
where my great Aunt treated me and others with 
chocolate. . . 

Sep. 7. I went out after breakfast, a coursing on 
Mr. Francis’s Horse with Mr. Hindley and Mr. Ander- 



ton to S. Barrow, we killed a brace of young fine 
hares . 

Sep. 13. I caught 4 brace of Tench very fine ones out 
of our Pond-Close this morning in less than an hour, 
by my Father’s drag net, that I boriowed. Mr. Hind- 
ley, Justice Creed and Sister Jane supped and spent 
the evening with me at Lower House. I gave them 
for dinner, a dish of Tench, Ham and Fowls, roasted 
Leg of Mutton and an Apple Pudding. They had 
Wine, Punch, Beer and Cyder to drink. At Quadrille 
this evening with the above won — 2. o. I sent my 
father a brace of the best Tench and alive . . . 

I invited Dr. Clarke and wife to dine with me, but 
they did not choose to come, not being agreeable. 

Sep. 14. ... Sister Jane made a visit this afternoon 
with her sister to the new married couple at Ansford 
Inn. Mr. Hindley and Justice Creed called at 
Parsonage this evening in their Chair to ask me to 
dinner to-morrow to talk about going to Wells with 
them Friday, concerning the Gallery work, to wait 
on the Bishop, but I shall not go (I believe) nor 
interfere at all concerning it, but to live peaceably 
with all men. He is a little unreasonable to desire it, 
as I must then fly in the face of allmost all my Parish- 
ioners. Great and many are the divisions in C. Cary, 
and some almost irreconcilable. Send us Peace 
O Lord ! With Thee 0 Lord all things are possible. 

Squire Creed’s man, for some reason, had been kept 
out of the gallery by the singers and the Squire wanted 
to have the gallery taken down. 

Sep, 17. ... I dined, supped and spent the evening 
at Justice Creed’s with him, his father and Mr Hind- 



ley. Nothing transpired of what they did at Wells. 
They behaved very respectively towards me. . . 

Sep. 23. ... Russell of New Colb dined and spent the 
afternoon with me at Lower House. He has lately 
been presented to three Livings ^ worth 
annum by Portman. I gave him for dinner a roasted 
neck of Pork and some hashed Mutton . . 

Sep. 24. ... My father had a letter from Brother John 
at Taunton this evening, and in it one to Jenny, he 
sent home for five guineas. 

N. B. My father was very angrj' indeed with him, 
as he had twenty pound of him when he went down 
to Taunton. Such extravagant demands cannot but 
hurt him greatly I wish with all mv heart he would 
but consider. 

Sep. 29. . I buried Tho® Roach of Bruton, who died 

in the Small Pox there, a poor wild creature he has 
been, this afternoon at C. Cary. I had a black silk 
hat band and a p*" of black gloves sent me for burying 
him by his good brother, who was at the expense in 
burying him handsomely. He died not worth a 
shilling, his brother supported him for some time. 
His brother has behaved surprisingly kind to all his 
relations, and is worth a good deal of money by his 
diligence, goodness and benevolence. 

Mrs. Carr and Miss Chambers [guests of Squire 
Creed’s where the Diarist and his sister were dining] 
did not behave quite so genteel to Jenny this evening 
as I expected. . . . 

Oct. 9. ... David Maby [also Church Warden] the 
Clerk dined with us, being Sacrament Sunday. 

Oct. 12. ... I walked this afternoon to Yarlmgton 
and christened a child for Parson Capper, by name 

^ For observations on pluralism see pp 38-9. 



Lucy. I drank tea this afternoon with Mrs. Gapper, 
and her mother-in-law, old Mrs. Gapper aged 83 
and a fine old lady she is indeed of her age. 

Oct. 26. I had a poor little cat, that had one of her 
ribs broke and that laid across her belly, and we could 
not tell what it was, and she was in great pain. I 
therefore with a small pen knife this morning, opened 
one side of her and took it out, and performed the 
operation very well, and afterwards sewed it up and 
put Friars Balsam to it, and she was much better 
after, the incision was half an inch. It grieved 
me much to see the poor creature in such pain 
before, and therefore made me undertake the above, 
which I hope will preserve the life of the poor 

Nov. 5. I read Prayers this morning at Cary being 
the 5 of Novem the day on which the Papists had 
contrived an hellish plot in the reign of King James 
the first, but by the Divine hand of Providence was 
fortunately discovered. 

I dined supped and spent the evening at Parsonage. 
The effigy of Justice Creed was had through the 
streets of C. Cary this evening upon the [Fire] 
Engine, and then had into the Park and burnt in 
a bonfire immediately before the Justice’s House, for 
his putting the Church Wardens of Cary into Wells 
Court, for not presenting James Clarke for making 
a Riot in the Gallery at Cary Church some few Sundays 
back. The whole Parish are against the Justice, and 
they intend to assist the Church Wardens in carrying 
on the cause at Wells. The Justice is now at Lord 
Pawletts at Hinton. 

Nov. II. ... At Whist this evening with James 
Clarke, Brother John and Brother Heighes, at which 

81 G 


we laughed exceedingly, I lost with them in the whole 

o* o* 6« • • • 

Nov. 22. I married Tom Burge of Ansford to Charity 
Andrews of C. Cary by License this morning. The 
Parish of Cary made him marry her, and he came 
handbolted to Church for fear of running away, and 
the Parish of Cary was at all the expense of bringing 
of them to, I rec^ of 3 Mr Andrew Russ the overseer 
of the Poor of Cary for it o. lo. 6. . . . 

Dec. I. ... Cousin Bob Woodforde I heard to-night 
had got the Place that he stood for at Winchester, 
which was an Apothecary to the County Hospital 
of Hants, which I was very well pleased wdth, as 
I wrote in his behalf. 

Dec. 9 I paid Mr. Gay this morning, the Bath 
Newsman for two little pamphlets he brought me 
from Bath, namely High Life below Stairs and Low 
Life above stairs — 2. o. 

Dec. II. I read Prayers and preached this morning 
at C. Cary C[hurch]. N.B. Justice Creed was at 
Church and behaved very shy to me. . . . 

[On Dec. 19. Old Mr. Will Burge ‘ desired me to 
visit Mr. Creed soon ’.] 

Dec. 24. ... It being Christmas Eve we had the New 
Singers of C. Cary this evening at Parsonage, and 
they having been at great expenses in learning to 
sing, my Father and myself gave them double what 
we used to do, and therefore instead of one shilling 
we each gave o. 2. o. 

Dec. 26. I was very bad in my throat all night, but 
towards the morning was rather better, only extremely 
hoarse. . . I could not go to read Prayers this morning 
at Cary though it was St. Stephen, which I hope will 
be forgiven. . . . Sister Jane visited me this morning, 



and she being deaf and I not able to speak, was good 
company. . . , 

1769. Jan. I. ... My ring which I had lost, was 
unaccountably found m httle Sam: Clarke’s breeches, 
he knowing nothing of it. I gave him o. i. o. 

Jan. 2. We had the fine Mummers this evening at 
Parsonage. . . . 

He had been visiting a lot — the usual round of parties, 
and on January 11 enters — *I am heartily weary of 
visiting so much as I have, but if did not it would be 
taken amiss in some ’. 

On January 13 his mother’s estate, all in land and house 
property at Ansford, is divided into three lots and he and 
Sister Jane and Brother John draw the lots out of a hat. 

On January 23 he goes to Bath on horseback with his 
boy George. They stay at the Bear Inn till January 27 
when they return to Ansford via Radstock. At Bath 
he sees his great aunt, and his friends Squire Farr, his 
wife, and daughter. He does the usual Bath round — 
the Pump Room, a ball at Simpson’s Rooms ‘ very 
elegant indeed makes various visits to old friends of 
his Father in a ‘ Chair ’. He sees ‘ The Clandestine 
Marriage’ at the Play House. He visits the Octagon 
Church in Milsom Street and does not approve ; ‘ It 
is a handsome building, but not like a place of worship, 
there being fire-places in it, especially on each side of the 
Altar, which I cannot think at all decent, it is not liked.’ 

On February 3 he gives a large supper party at the 
Lower House followed by a dance. The music was a bass 
viol and a violin j those ladies who did not dance played 
at quadrille. * I danced a Minuet with Mrs. and Miss 
Melliar, and a few Country Dances with Miss Aggy 
Clarke and Miss Plummer.’ 

83 G 2 


The company were well pleased with their entertain- 
ment : he gave them an excellent supper which included 
Veal Cutlets, Oysters, ‘ a very fine large Ham Tarts, &c., 
Punch, Wine, Beer, and Cyder. 

Feb. 5. From henceforth O Lord give me grace to 
walk m thy ways more circumspectly than I have 
done lately. 

On February 9 a meeting at the George Inn of some 
of the leading Cary parishioners including the Diarist 
composes the approaching Law Suit between Justice 
Creed and the Church Wardens, the agreement (this 
proposal had been rejected two days before) being ‘ that 
as the Gallery at Cary Church was large enough to 
contain between 3 & 4 score people, and the Singers 
being not above 30 in number that there should be a 
partition made in the gallery for the Singers, and the 
other part open to any body and also for Mr. Creed to 
pay his own costs and the Parish the other ’ 

Feb. II. ... Jack and I had a few words this evening 
at tower House and indeed I was more to blame 
than him, being passionate. Keep me O Lord from 
Passions of every kind pro future. 

Jack refuses to breakfast at the Lower House on account 
of this. On February 19 he enters ‘ Jack’s stomach is 
not come down yet to breakfast at L.H. He breakfasts 
now at Parsonage ’. However, he returns to breakfast 
at L.H. on February 22. 

Feb. 26. ... The 36 Psalm was sung this afternoon 
in Cary Church by the Singers. Done out of Pique 



to old WiUm. Buige.^ Old Mr. Bulge concerns 
himself too much with the Singers. 

On February 19 old Burge had annoyed the singers 
by sending some persons into the singing pait of the gallery 
contrary to the recent agreement. 

March 7. . Poor Mrs. Pearce (Miss Rooke that was) 

is no more, she died yesterday, she met I am afraid 
with a bad husband. 

March 10. One Farmer Wittys of Butly whom I 
never saw but once before called upon me this 
morning, and desired me to lend him thirty Pound, 
but it was not convement — ^Very odd indeed. . . . 

On March ii Brother John is advanced 
cash, 95 guineas and 5 shillings, by his father to enable 
him to stock his share of his mother’s estate, which he is 
going to manage himself 

March 12. I read Prayers and preached this morning 
at Ansford Church. I read prayers and preached this 
afternoon at C. Cary Church. 

Mem : As I was gomg to shave myself this morning 
as usual on Sundays, my razor broke in my hand as 
I was setting it on the strop without any violence. 
May it be always a warning to me not to shave 
on the Lord’s Day or do any other work to profane 
it pro future. 

I dined, supped and spent the evenmg at Parsonage. 

On April 5 he notes that a serving boy is not enough, 

^ ‘ My heart sheweth me the wickedness of the ungodly that there 
IS no fear of God before his eyes . . He imagmeth mischief upon his 
bed, and hath set himself in no good way ; neither doth he abhor any- 
thing that IS evil ’ (Psalm xiavi. Prayer Book version). 



now Brother John is taking his share of the estate, so 
George Green becomes their new servant ; John pays his 
wages and the Diarist keeps him. 

April 8. ... I buried a little boy of Willm. Speeds this 
evening at Ansford, who died of the Evil aged 13 . . . 

May 2 ... Brother John went to Gannards Grave 

tins morning to see a famous Boxing match between 
Parfitt Maggs and one Darck a Londoner and the 
Londiner [sic] beat Maggs. 

May 14. ... I wore my gown and cassock for the first 
time this year. 

May 27. ... Dr. Clarke had a letter this evening from 
Baron Dimsdale at Hartford, who is lately returned 
from Russia, from inoculating the Empress and Grand 
Duke there, and with success. He gave the Dr a 
fine description of the Empress.^ 

May 29. ... I read Prayers this morning at C. Cary, 
being 29 of May the R^toration of King Charles II 
from Popish Tyranny. . . . Jack brought home with 
him from Ansford Inn [where there had been ‘ great 
cock fighting ’], after 10 o’clock this evening. . 

Dr. John Graunt, Mr. James Graunt, Joseph Wilmot, 
and Janes, all of Ditchet, which supped and stayed 
till 3 in y* morning, quite low life sort of people, 
much beneath Jack. I really wonder Jack keeps such 
mean company. . . . 

June 3. ... The transit of Venus over the face of the 
Sun I saw this evening between seven and eight 
o’clock at Mr. Clarke’s. It appeared as a black patch 
upon a fair Lady’s face. It will not happen again 
they say, till the year 1874. . . . During the transit 
it was remarkably cold indeed. . . . 

^ See pp. 76-7 preceding. 



Between June 9th and i6th the Diarist is ill with 
a violent rash on hk face, hands, breast, arms, &c., and 
all the symptoms, as he describes them, of scarlet fever 
or measles : sore throat, headache, weak eyes, fever. 
Dr. Clarke, however, merely tells him to keep warm 
indoors and eat as much as he likes, ‘ not to live low, 
but encourage the rash ’. All this time he sees relations 
and friends constantly, and after some strong purges 
he IS well again and out on the i6th. 

June 17. ... Jack made a terrible noise at Lower 

House with all the folks there. I got up out of my 
bed and came down at twelve at night and found the 
house in an uproar. Jack abusing of them all in a 
terrible manner. Very bad work indeed of a Saturday 
mght in a Parson’s House, it disturbed me all night. 

N.£. We must part 

On June 19 he notes that Jack ‘ made a riot ’ at the 
Parsonage ‘ bemg in want of money 

June 21. ... I played with Mr. James Clarke at 

Battledor and Shuttlecock, and we kept the cock up 
once upwards of 500 times 

On June 27 he goes to Oxford to be ‘ sworn in Poser 
to Winton Coll next Elect ’. He is duly sworn on 
June 29. He goes back via Stonehenge ‘ to show my man 
the great Stones there’ and arrives at home on the 
1st July On July 4 he sups with Justice Creed, whom 
he had not seen since the gallery trouble, except by 
accidental meeting, and was ‘very graciously received 
by them ’. 

July 18. ... For two three Pound and twelve shilling 



Pieces of Miss Rooke this morning at* Lowei House, 
gave her Seven new guineas of George the Third, 
the present King of England. 

He and his sister and Miss Rooke (who is staying at 
the Parsonage) went all the w'ay to Stock in Dorsetshire, 
1 8 miles away post-chaise, to see little Jenny White 
because her mother w'as anxious about her. She was 
staying with the Farrs and they found ‘ the little maid 
very hearty and well’. They went unknown to Sister 
White ‘ who was greatly rejoiced at our excursion when 
she knew it 

July 29 ... I drank tea this afternoon with Dr Arnold 
and Dr Clarke at Justice Creed’s with him and his 
father. Dr. Arnold is a mighty, sensible, agreeable 
and affable man. 

Aug. I. ... Alexander, the Window Surveyor of the 
Hundred of Catsashe and who lives at Someiton 
with Dav^ Maby the Collector viewed the windows 
at Lower House this afternoon, and he brought m 
one window more than usual.^ 

Aug. 7. ... I thank God ! My Sister White was this 
morning about 9, brought to bed of a fine little maid 
and is brave in her condition. Blessed be God for 
all his mercies to us. . . . 

Aug. 10. ... N.B. I invited Dr. Clarke and Mr. White, 
and neither came either to dinner or supper. I think 
to return the Compt. to Dr Clarke, as for Mr. White 
he was detained involuntarily. 

On August 19th he notes that his father gave back 
to Jack all his ‘notes of hand’ ;^3i9, &c. + £180, &c. 

* See pp 57-8 preceding 


besides, making £s^ ‘ he designed foi 


On August 28 he goes to Oxford preparatory to going 
to Winchester to act as Poser at the Election of Scholars 
for New College, September 5-8. The Diarist giv^ 
a very full account of the manner of the election, but for 
lack of space we are unable to transcribe it here. 

He reaches Ansford again on September 9. 

Sep. 20. ... Jack went to Sherborne this morning 
with Andrew Russ and bought a Lottery ticket, 
number 36,739 for ^^15. i. 6. Jenny and myself are 
to have share in it as promised. . . . [But, alas ! on 
Nov. 23 they are notified that the ticket was drawn 
a blank.] 

Lotteries were held in England under authority as 
early as the sixteenth century. During the whole of the 
eighteenth century they were very commonly sanctioned 
by Act of Parliament, the prizes being in the form of 
annuities. The Government reaped a handsome revenue, 
running into several hundreds of thousands of pounds, 
from these State lotteries. They were, however, sup- 
pressed in 1826. Lovers of Charles Lamb will remember ' 
a delightful reference in an essay to the interest and excite- 
ment of a lottery, and the beautiful but vanishing vision 
of wealth it held out. 

Sep. 22. ... Great rejoicings at Cary to-day being 
the Coronation Day. Beils ringing all day, Cudgell 
playing at Crokers, a very large bonfire on the top 
of the hill and very grand fireworks in the evening 
with firing of many guns. All at Mr. Creed’s, 
Mr. Hindley and Mr. Potts and Duck’s expense. 



I was at all. At the Cudgell Playing I gave o. 4. 5. 
The fireworks were sent from London and were 
Sky-Rocketts, Mines, Trees, Crackers, Wheels and 
divers Indian Fireworks. Old Mrs. Burge and 
daughter etc., etc., etc., drank tea and coffee, supped 
and spent the evening at Justice Creed’s. We did 
not break up till near two in the morning. E^ery- 
thing extremely handsome and polite indeed 

Sep. 23. Great doings again to-day at Cary in the 
Park. At one o’clock there was a shift run for by 
women. There were five that started for it, and won 
by Willm. Francis’s daughter Nan of Ansford — ^her 
sister Pegg was second and therefore had ribbands. 
I never saw the Park so full of people in my life. 
The Women were to run the best of three half 
mile Heats : Nan Francis run a Heat in three 
minutes. . . . 

Oct. 1. ... I read Prayers, churched a woman [and] 
read the Act of Parliament against profane swearing 
as directed by Law. . . 

Oct. 18. After breakfast went with Mr Creed in 
his Chair to Wells with a great possy from Cary to 
attend at the County Meeting to consider of a proper 
Petition [concerning the late violation of the freedom 
of Election] to his Majesty in the present crisis of 
Affairs. We went to the Swan, where we dined with 
upwards of a hundred Gentlemen of the first rank in 
the County. We had a very respectable meeting on 
this occasion. Mr. Coxe, Mr. Smith, Members for 
Bath, Mr. AHeft, Member for Bridgwater, Mr. Sey- 
mour, Mr. Creed and Mr. Sansom and Revd. Mr, 
Wainhouse spoke on the occasion upon the Petitions 
that were presented to the Publick. Mr, Coxe’s 
Petition with some alteration was approved of most, 



and agreed in the Town Hall to be presented to his 
Majesty by proper Persons. - . . 

Britons never will be slaves was played during 
dinner. . . . 

This reference to the ‘ late Violation of the freedom 
of election ’ is of course to the famous Wilkes case. Ever 
since 1763, when John Wilkes (1727-97), then a Member 
of Parliament, had proceeded in his journal, the North 
Briton^ from violent attacks on the King’s Minister, Bute, attack on the King himself, he had been an exceed- 
ingly popular figure. The Secretary of State, Lord 
Halifax, had caused him and his papers to be seized, and 
though his imprisonment was declared illegal and he was 
released he found it safer to fly to France. He was then 
outlawed. In 1768 he came back and was immediately 
elected as its representative in the new House of Commons 
by the County of Middlesex. But he was still under 
sentence of outlawry and was imprisoned. Reference 
has already been made (in the Diary) to the Riots of 
May 10, 1768, on account of this imprisonment. Shortly 
after this he was released only to be imprisoned again 
on the count of libel. Meanwhile the House of Commons, 
packed as it was with the King’s friends, corrupt and 
unrepresentative, expelled him. Twice running Middle- 
sex again returned him. The House tyrannically quashed 
both Elections, declared that Wilkes was incapable of 
sitting in the present Parliament and that the minority 
candidate, Colonel Luttrell, should sit as the representa- 
tive for Middlesex. No wonder the Diarist and the good 
country gentlemen of Somerset discoursed their dinner 
at Wells to the strident accompaniment of * Britons 
never will be slaves ’. For they realized that George III 
was gradually furbishing up that old, over-weening, 



royal prerogative which had led to the Revolution of 
1688, and that the House of Commons in its present 
form represented not the country but the King. And for 
the time the King won. From 1770-82 he and Lord 
North misruled England and lost America. But thence- 
forth the royal wings were clipped, and Wilies in the 
latter year at last succeeded in carrying through the 
House of Commons his motion expunging from the 
lecords the old resolutions of expulsion. 

Oct. 29. ... I privately baptised Fanny Collin’s child 
this morning at Parsonage when I came from Cary 
Church, by name Michael. 

Nov. 4. ... I received of Miss Rooke this afternoon 
the sum of one Hundred Pounds, for which I gavfe 
hci my note of hand to pay on her demand with 
lawful Interest for the same, and Sister Jane was 
a Witness to it . . . 

Nov. 12. I read Prayers and preached this moinmg 
at C. Cary Church. I was disturbed this morning 
at Cary Church by the Singers. I sent my Clerk 
some time back to the Cary Singers, to desire that 
they would not sing the Responses in the Communion 
Service, which they complied with for several Sundays, 
but this morning after the first Commandment they 
had the Impudence to sing the Response, and there- 
fore I spoke to them out of my desk, to say and not 
sing the Responses which they did after, and at other 
places they sang as usual. The Singers in the Gallery 
were, John Coleman, the Baker, Jonathan Croker, 
Will® Pew Junr., Tho* Penny, Will® Ashford, Hooper 
the Singing Master, James Lucas, Peter, Mr. Francis’s 
man, Mr. Melliar’s man James, Farmer Hix’s son, 
Robert Sweete and the two young Durnfords. 


« * • 


Nov. 13. ... We had news this morning of Mr Wilkes 
gaining his point against Lord Halifax and 4000 pound 
damages given him. Cary and Ansford bells rung 
most part of the day on the occasion. Miss Rooke, 
Jenny, Mr. Richard Clarke Junr., Brother Heighes 
and Brother John dined, supped and spent the evening 
with me. I gave them for dinner a couple of rabbits 
smothered with onions, a roasted leg of mutton and 
some mince pies. 

The reference ‘ to Mr. Wilkes gaining his point against 
Lord Halifax ’ is to the conclusion of the long-drawn-out 
action — ^it had been dragging on vsiith deliberate ministerial 
postponements for six years — ^in which Wilkes had sued 
Lord Halifax for the seizure of his papers in 1763. 

The verdict was given on November lo, 1769. Doubt- 
less the Diarist and his relations and friends dining 
together on the 13th, the day the news reached Somerset, 
consumed those ‘ rabbits smothered with onions ’ with 
a very particular rehsh. 

Nov. 20. ... Brother Heighes and John dined etc., 
at Lower House again, and they kept me up till 
2 in the morning being very quarrelsome especially 
my brother John. 

N. B. It is too much indeed for me. 

Nov. 21. ... My brother spent the evening at the 
Angel at Cary and returned very much disguised in 
liquor, and stayed up late. 

Nov. 26. I read Prayers and Preached this mornmg 
at C. Cary Church. N.B. No singing this morn- 
ing, the Singers not being at Church, they being 
highly affronted with me at what I lately had 
done. ... 



Dec. 17. ... The Singers at Cary did not please me 
this afternoon by singing the 12 Psalm, New Version,^ 
reflecting upon some People. . . . Some people have 
been about my Father’s house again this evening, 
about 8 o’clock. Jenny and the maid being at the 
Little House, some person or another came to the 
door of it and rapped against it three times with a 
stick. What it means I know not. Brother Haghes, 
Jack and myself all armed, took a walk at twelve this 
evening round the Parish to see if we could meet any 
idle Folks but we did not, and therefore came home 
about two. We waited at my Father’s some consider- 
able time, till Brother Heighes was very uneasy, being 
cold in his feet. 

Dec. 23. To a fatted goose at nine pence per pound 
pd. — 2. 9. 

Dec. 24. To Cary Singers this evening being Xmas 
Eve at Parsonage after giving them a Lecture con- 
cerning their late behaviour in Church, on promise 
of amendment gave o. 2. o. 

On December 27 he has some poor Ansford people to 
dinner, and sends ‘ some victuals ’ to other poor persons, 
and in addition gives a shilling each and a loaf ‘ being 
Xmas time’. He also entertained several of his near 
relations at dinner ; ‘ I had a noble Surloin of Beef 
rosted and a plumb pudding boiled for dinner ’. 

^ ‘ Help me, Lord, for there is not one godly man left for the faithful 
are mimshed from among the children of men 

‘They talk of vamty every one with his neighbour they do but 
flatter with their lips, and dissemble m their double heart 

‘ The ungodly walk on every side when they are eaalted, the children 
of men are put to rebuke.’ — ^Psalm xii (Prayer Book version). 



1 770- Jan. ii. ... I dined, spent the afteinoon and 
part of the evening at Mr. Creeds . . . and there saw 
the King’s last speech, which he spoke in Parliament 
last Tuesday, which is not at all satisfactory. . . . 

The King’s speech on opening the Session of Parliament 
on Januarj' 9, 1770, began as follows ^ 

‘ My Lords and Gentlemen • — It is vi ith much concern 
that I find myself obliged to open the Session of Parlia- 
ment, with acquainting you, that the distemper among 
the Horned Cattle has lately broke out in this Kingdom, 
notwithstanding every precaution that could be used for 
preventing the infection from foreign parts. . ’ 

After this curious and, indeed, ridiculous opening the 
King proceeded to state that ‘ it has always been my fixed 
purpose to preserve the general tranquillity, maintaining 
at the same time, the dignity and honour of my crown, 
together with the just rights and interests of my people 

He passed on to observe on ‘ the state of my govern- 
ment in America ’ where ... * many persons have em- 
barked in measures highly unwarrantable, and calculated 
to destroy the commercial connexion between them 
and the Mother Country ’. He concluded with a brief 
exhortation to the House of Commons to grant any 
necessary supplies, and * to cultivate that spirit of har- 
mony which becomes those who have but one common 
object in view ’ . . . 

Not a word did he utter on the burning question of 
the day — ^liberty of election — though Lord Chatham was 
not slow to pound the Government thereon. We cannot 
wonder that our Diarist as an ardent supporter of Wilkes 
and Constitutional Liberty was disgusted, and that his 
disgust was widely shared is proved by the fact that the 

^ Parltamentary History, vol. xvj, pp. 642-4. 



Session came to be mockingly nicknamed ‘ The Horned 

Cattle Session 

Jan. 14. ... Mrs. Melliar sent a note to my Sister 
Jane this afternoon to desire her and my Brother 
John to spend the evening with her to-morrow.^ 
Brother Heighes and myself were both excepted 
out of it. 

Jan. 19. ... I dined upon a roasted Pigg and spent the 
afternoon at Mr. Creed’s with him and his Father. 
It was very kind of him to send to me. To Mr. 
Creed’s servant maids, Sarah and Unity, gave o. 2. o. 

Jan. 22. . . . For a Summons Warrant against Robt. 
Biggin and his brother Nathamel ... for shrowding 
an Ash Tree of my Sister Jane Woodforde’s last 
Thursday night, to appear before the Justice, next 
Friday at 2 aft. pd. o. o. 6 

Jan. 23. ... I sent the Summons Warrant this after- 
noon by Wm. Corpe to the Tithing man, Tho® 
Taylor and it was served this evening. 

Jan. 24. I was sent for just at dinner time to Sutton 
about a mile of, to go and read Prayers by a poor 
young woman, Sally Bond that was, and who married 
Farmer Wittick of Sutton, being very ill ever since 
she laid in, and now more likely to die than hve. She 
was quite light headed and therefore very melancholy 
to behold. I also privately named her Infant by 
name, Sarah. . . . 

Jan. 26. At two o’clock this afternoon I went up to 
Justice Creed’s and heard my Wood Stealers examined 
before the Justice. Robert Biggm was found guilty 
and his brother Nath* was acquitted, therefore 
Robert was ordered to pay me six shillings by the 

i Very rude written in margin, 




9 of February, if he does not he is to be whipped 
from Cary Cross to Ansford Inn 
Feb 12. ... I went to Mr. Will™ Melliar’s and Mr. 
Creed’s and Mr. Clarke’s to desire all three of them 
to drink a dish of coffee with me this afternoon at 
Lower House and if possible to reconcile all animosities 
m Caiy and to stop and put an end to all Law Suits 
now' subsisting. It was agreeable to all Parties for 
Mr. Creed and Mr. Melliar to settle all matters and 
to make Peace Mr. Creed and Mr. Melliar agreed 
to meet each other this afternoon at my house. I 
dined and spent part of the afternoon at Mr. Creed’s 
with him and his Father, and after the Justice took 
a walk with me to my house and drank a dish of coffee 
with me. Mr. Will™ Melliar and Dr Clarke also 
drank a dish of coffee with me and after coffee we 
talked over the Parish Affairs. After much altei cation 
it was settled for Peace. The terms were these as 
underwritten. . . 

That all Prosecutions between the contending 
parties in the Parish of Castle Cary, and all ani- 
mosities between the Houses of Creed and Melliar, 
should from that time cease, and be buried in the 
Gulf of Oblivion. . . . After the above [numerous 
technical details of settlement of Prosecution costs 
etc., etc.] was agreed to by all four and Mr. Melliar 
had made a Memorandum of it in writing, Mr. Creed 
and Mr. Melliar hobbed and nobbed in a glass of 
Wine and drank success to Peace. . . 

Jack came home a little merry this evening and he 
laid me a wager of one guinea that he would not from 
this night get drunk all the year 1770, that is, as not 
to be able to tread a Scratch. . . . 

Feb. 13. ... To a wager with Brother Heighes that 



he could not walk the Scratch this night at lo o’clock, 
lost o. o. 6. 

Feb. 28. ... I buried poor Tho® Barnes this afternoon 
[who had been ‘ a long time kilhng himself by 
Liquor ’] at Cary, aged 48. A great many people 
attended him to his grave. He was, I believe, no 
man’s enemy, but to himself a great one. . . . 

March 8. ... Very unsuspected news from Miss Rooke 
from Somerton this evening. 

April i8. . . I dined at old Mr. Will™ Burge’s being 
the day of Mr. Wilkes’s enlargement, and spent the 
afternoon and former part of this evening there with 
old Mr. Will™ Burge etc., etc. . . . Cary bells ring all 
day upon the occasion Two British Flaggs also 
displayed, one at Cary Cross and another on Cary 
Tower. A hogshead of Cyder given to the Populace 
at the Cross. Many loyal toasts and worthy men 
drank upon the occasion, and Mr. Burge’s house 
handsomely illuminated in the evening. The Flagg 
on the Tower had on it Liberty and Property, the 
small one had on it Mr. Wilkes’s Head and Liberty. 
Everything was conducted with great decorum and 
broke up in good time. We had for dinner [apparently 
for 15 people] a boiled Rump Beef 45 pd. weight, 
a Ham and half a dozen Fowls, a roasted Saddle of 
Mutton, two very rich puddings, and a good Sallet 
with a fine cucumber . . . [see pp. 91-2 preceding]. 

On May 10 he notes the death of old Mrs. Gapper 
(at the age of 84) mother of the Parson, whom he 
bunes at Yarlington on May 16, receiving ‘ a black 
silk Hatband and p*' of gloves ’. 

May 19. ... Something very agreable and with which 
I was greatly pleased happened this evening. It gave 

99 H 2 


me much secret pleasure and satisfaction. [The 
Diarist does not anywhere reveal what this was.] 

May 26. ... Brother John spent his evening at Cary, 
came home merry, and kept me up very late and also 
made me very uneasy. Brother Heighes was also 
quite happy again this evening It is at present a \ ery 
disagreeable way of living for me. 

Between May 14 and June 6 Cary enjoyed the 
presence of a theatrical company who acted in the Court 
House and attracted large audiences. Amongst the plays 
performed were ^he Beggars^ Opera, Hamlet, Richard 
the 7 htrd, and various other plays and ‘Entertainments’, 
including one called Chtononhotonthologos. 

June 7. . . Mr. Hindley, Mr. Hayes, the Justice and 
myself drank coffee this afternoon with Mrs. Mclliar 
at Mr. Will™ Melliar’s with the Countess of Ilchestcr, 
Counsellor Melliar etc., etc. 

June 9. Mr. Browning one of the Players who came 
this morning to cut my Brother John’s Hair, being 
a Tonsor, Mr. John Perry of Hatspen, who came to 
buy the heifers of Jack, and Mr. Perry Landlord of 
Ansford Inn all breakfasted with me this morning 
at L. House on Tea.^ ... 

June 27. ... This very day I am thirty years of age. — 
‘ Lord make me truly thankful for thy great goodness 
as on this day shewed me by bringing me into this 
world, and for preserving me to this day from the 
many and great dangers which frail mortality is every 
day exposed to , grant me O Lord the continuance 
of thy divine goodness to me, that thy Holy Spirit 
may direct me in all my doings and that the remaining 

^ A luxury, being very expensive. 



part of my days may be more spent to thy Honour 
and Glory than those already past.’ . . . 

July 4. After breakfast walked up to Justice Creed’s 
and about 8 o’clock went with the Justice in his Chair 
to Horsington and made Mr. and Mrs. Spencer there 
a morning visit who were both at home with their 
two sons and five daughters, the two eldest Miss 
Spencers are very fine young Ladies about 15 years 
old. The eldest entertained us upon the Guitar and 
sang charmingly with it. Mr. Spencer has a noble 
house and everything in the neatest manner. . . 

July 12. ... Took a walk in the evening with Sister 
Clarke, Jenny Clarke, Sam: Clarke, Nancy Clarke, 
Sister Jane and Brother Heighes. I gave them all 
a peep through my fine spying, to see King 
Alfred’s Tower, now erecting by Mr. Hoare on 
the very highest part of Kingsettle Hill about 7 
miles of. 

July 15. I read Prayers and preached at Cary Church 
and whilst I was preaching one Tho“ Speed of Gall- 
hampton came into the Church quite drunk and crazy 
and made a noise in the Church, called the Singers 
a Pack of Whoresbirds and gave me a nod or two in 
the pulpit. The Constable Roger Coles Sen'’ took 
him into custody after and will have him before 
a Magistrate to-morrow. . . 

Aug. I ... I dined and spent the afternoon at 
Justice Creed’s with him, his Father, Lord and Lady 
Paulett, and their two sons. Lord Hinton and Master 
Vere Paulett, who are both going to Twyford School 
in Buckinghamshire kept by Mr Cleaver 

Lord and Lady and sons are very affable, good 
natured People. . . . 

Aug. 28. For Pope’s Works, 10 volumes of Brother 



Heighes this evening, I gave him, and they were 
second hand and thiid i i. o ... 

Sep. 5. . . The Duke and Duchess of Beaufort in 

a coach and six went through the Parish this after- 
noon in their road to Weymouth. Parson Penny 
[their chaplain] was with them and went with 
them. . . 

On September 9 he notes that he goes with his sister 
Jane in their father’s chaise to drink coffee with Justice 
Creed, the Diarist being dressed ‘in my Gown and 
Cassock — It was Sunday. 

Octob 4. ... The Duke and Dutchess of Beaufort 
and children whom Mr. Penny is with most part of 
his time, are all to sleep at Ansford Inn to-riight, 
it being their road from Weymouth to Badminton. . . 

Oct. 12. ... Mrs. Carr, Miss Chambers, Mr. Hindley, 
Mr. Carr, and Sister Jane dined, supped and spent 
the evening wdth me, and we were very merry. I 
gave them for dinner a dish of fine Tench which 
I caught out of my brother’s Pond in Pond Close 
this morning, Ham, and 3 Fowls boiled, a Plumb 
Pudding ; a couple of Ducks rested, a roasted neck 
of Pork, a Plumb Tart and an Apple Tart, Pears, 
Apples and Nutts after dinner ; White Wine and red. 
Beer and Cyder. Coffee and Tea m the evening at 
SIX o’clock. Hashed Fowl and Duck and Eggs and 
Potatoes etc. for supper. We did not dine till four 
o’clock — ^nor supped till ten. Mr. Rice, a Welshman 
who is lately come to Cary and plays very well on the 
Triple Harp, played to us after coffee for an hour or 
two . . . the Company did not go away till near twelve 
o’clock. . . . My Father’s maid Betty dressed my 



dinner etc. with my People. The dinner and supper 
were extremely well done and well set of. 

On October 23 he and his brothers take a party 
to a dance at Ansford Inn, the music being Mr. Rice’s 
Harp. . . . ‘ My partner was the eldest Miss Francis, 
she dances but poorly and says but little ; ’ however 
they spent a ‘ very agreeable afternoon and evening ’, 
and did not return home till ‘ near two o’clock ’. On 
December 27 he gave his usual Xmas dinner to some poor 
Parishioners . . ‘to dine with me ’ and gave them his 
usual shilling, and a sixpenny loaf apiece. His Father is 
now far from well, and on December 30 he administers 
the Sacrament to him at the Parsonage as he is not well 
enough to go to church. 

He gives a dinner and supper party on January 5 th 
at the Lower House followed by a dance . . . ‘ the 
Company seemed very well pleased with their entertain- 
ment I treated them with my large wax Candle ’. On 
January 8 he and his brothers organized a ball at Ansford 
Inn, ‘ where we had a very genteel Hop and did not 
break up till three in the morning’. The company, 
besides ‘ myself and Mrs. Farr who opened the Ball ’, 
consisted of three other Parsons, Squire Creed and the 
usual Cary celebrities. 

1771. Jan. 10. ... Brother John was greatly astonished 
by a light this evening as he came thro’ Orchards, a field 
by Ansford Church, which hght seemed to follow him 
close behind all the way through that field, and which 
he could not account for. I hope it is no Omen of 
death in the Family. N.B. The Reflection of the snow 
I apprehend occasioned the light that my Brother saw. 

Jan. 16. . Extreme hard frost with a cutting wind 



It was allowed by my Father and Aunt Anne this 
afternoon that the weather now is as severe as it 
was in the year 1740. . . . 

Jan. 20. ... My Poor Father rather worse than better. 
He wastes very fast. . . . Brother John is I am afraid 
coming into his old complaint the Stone, having 
some bad symptoms of it today. If it is I pray God 
that he may bear it with Christian Patience and 
Resignation He has not been I am afraid so thankful 
as he should have been to Almighty God for his 
former deliverance from the same. Things in our 
Family at present look but melancholy, pray God have 
mercy on us all and forgive us our sins. . . . 

On January 22 he (on horseback) accompanies his 
Father to Bath, who goes in the Ansford Inn Chaise 
with his faithful old maid : they hoped the Bath waters 
would do the old man good. 

They get rooms at Trimm Street near Beaufort Squaie. 
‘ For a dining room, a bedchamber, and for a little closet 
in the bedchamber for the maid to sleep in my Father is 
to give, being out of the season, per week o. 19. o.’ In 
the season he would have had to pay 25s. apparently. 
The Diarist himself sleeps at the White Lion. Next 
day, January 23, Dr. Moysey prescribes ‘ an opening 
draught . . . and to drink the Bath waters three times a day 
. . . and to drink it in the Pump Room, viz to go there 
after it. My Father gave him a guinea for prescribing 
as usual. The Doctor seems high and mighty but sensible. 
My Father’s disorder is thought to be an irregular gout. 
I dined, supped and spent the evemng with my Father. 
We had a-rosted fowls for dinner which we brought 
with us. ... ’ Next day, January 24, the Diaiist returns 
to Ansford. 



Jan. 26. ... I sent a basket of things to my Father this 
morning, with a Barrell of Cyder, and a letter by 
the Bath Newsman. I dined, supped and spent the 
evening at Parsonage with Jenny Clarke and Sister 
Jane. We were very agreeable and merry. Sister 
Jane took a vomit this evening by Dr. Clarke’s order, 
she having not been right for some time — Bumps on 
her face etc. . . 

On January 28 he went to Bath to see his father, whom 
he found getting on well. He plays Backgammon with 
his father, does the usual Bath round, a ball, play, coffee 
drinking, &c., &c., and returns on February I. 

Feb 10 (Sunday) . Brother John and Andrew Russ 
stayed at Parsonage this evening till after 12 o’clock, 
then came to the Lower House, and after Andrew Russ 
went home. Brother John being very full in Liquor 
at two o’clock in the morning, made such an intoler- 
able noise by swearing in so terrible a manner and so 
loud, that it disturbed me out of sound sleep being 
gone to bed, and was so shocked at it that I was 
obliged to get up to desire him to go to bed, but all 
my arguments and persuasions were in vain, and he 
kept me up till five in the morning and then I went 
to bed and he went on Horseback for Bath. It was 
an exceeding cold night and very hard frost, and at 
seven o’clock in the morning snowed very hard. 
O that Jack was in some way of business, and that his 
life was something better and more religious, for in 
the morning whilst I was at Church, he was shooting. 

On February 14 his father returns from Bath with 
Brother John, ‘ but very little better for the waters ’. 



Feb. 19- • My Father was brave and in good spirits 
this morning, but in the evening was as bad as ever 
and talked very moving to Sister Jane and me about 
his Funeral and that he wanted to altei his Will, 
and mentioned the underwritten to me and my 
Sister Jane, ‘ that he desired that his maid [Eliz. 
Clothierjshould have that house where Grace Stephens 
lives at present during her life, and after her life 
to go to my sister Jane, as well as aU the other Poor 
Houses and Mrs. Parr’s House and the Field called 
Four Acres to her my Sister Jane. That Sister White 
has one Hundred Pounds to make her equal to her 
Sister Clarke in Fortune. That I have all his Books 
and Book-case m his Study. And that he would 
have no people invited to his funeral to make a show, 
but that he is carried to Ansford Church by six of 
his poor neighbours, Robin Francis and his Brother 
Thomas were mentioned and that they have half 
a crown a-piece. — ^To be laid in the vault where my 
Mother is, by her side And that a little monument 
be erected in the side wall near the vault in memory 
of him and his wife’. My poor Father is I think 
much in the same way as my poor Mother was. Pray 
God to bless him and keep him, and give us all strength 
to bear so sore an affliction as such a separation must 
occasion, if it be thy Divine will to remove him from 
us — O God whenever such an event happens take him 
to thyself, and give us grace to follow his good examples, 
that with him we may deserve to be Partakers of thy 
Heavenly Kingdom. Grant him O Lord an easy 
and happy exit. Better Parents no children ever had 
than we have been blessed with — blessed be God for 
It — ^and make us more worthy than we are, for all 
thy goodness to us. Praise the Lojrd O my Soul, 



and forget not ail his Benefits — ^Thou hast not dealt 
with us after our sins, nor rewarded us according to 
our wickedness — Praise thou the Lord O my Soul. 

I played at Back Gammon with my Father in the 
evening, it takes him in some degree off from thinking 
of his Pain. I won — o. 6. 

On March 13 he writes to Mrs Powel at Harding, 
near St. Albans, Herts, to apply for the livings of Cary 
and Ansford in case his Father should die. March 18 
he had another disturbed night. Brothers John and 
Heighes sat up drinking with Captain Pompier and 
Mr. Goldsborough, a Midshipman, all drunk : * They 
drank 3 bottles of Wine and near 20 quarts of Cyder.’ 
March 23 Dr. Dixon of Taunton who ‘ seems a mighty 
sensible affable man ’ comes to see his father and receives 
a fee of ^£5 5^ : he ‘ does not doubt he shall do my Father 
great good ’. March 28 Mrs. Powel replies to his letter 
promising him Cary living but saying nothmg of Ansford. 

March 31 Brother John again came home drunk and 
greatly disturbed him ; he enters : ‘ It is most unhappy 
the life that I am obliged at present to lead.’ Again 
on April 4 ‘ Jack bullied and behaved to me as usual, when 
so very few I believe would bear half which I do. I hope 
one day or another it will be something better.’ 

On April 9 his Father is ‘ much worse than ever, he 
groans very loud indeed. Pray God release him from 
his Pains which are acute ’. Dr. Clarke gives him liquid 
laudanum to compose him. April 1 1 he notes the extreme 
cold ‘ never such weather known by any person living at 
present ’. April 14 his brothers are again drunk, ‘ Most 
intolerable noises all night, it was almost impossible to 
sleep. . . . Such a Sunday night again may I never feel 
or see Our house at Lower House is the worst in the 



Parish or any other Parish. It grieves me to see it 
And again on April 26 ‘ Jack was worse tonight than ever 
I knew him. ... I never heard a man swear like him and 
for so long together Pray God to turn his heart soon, 
for I dread the consequences 
On April 30. ‘ My poor dear Father very bad this 
afternoon, almost choked with Phlegm m his stomach, 
which I am afraid is the Rattles and a foreboding of his 
speedy departure hence, which it it is, O God receive 
his soul into thy everlasting Kingdom.’ On the same day 
he enters that his cousin Tom Woodforde sends a basket 
to the Parsonage with these presents, ‘ a couple of 
Pidgeons, some electuary for Aunt Parr, some spirit of 
Lavender for Aunt Anne, and a Pot of Confectio Cardiaca 
for my Father On May 9 a two days’ Cock fight 
between Somerset and Wilts at Ansford Inn ended m 
the victory of Somerset — ‘ Wilts was beat shamefully. 
I believe my Brother John won a good deal of money 
at It’. On May 15 his Aunt Parr dies. ‘No woman 
ever could like a Person more than she did my good 
Father ; and she daily prayed to depart this life before 
him, and it pleased God to hear her prayers and take 

May 16. ... My Poor Father worse than ever a great 
deal, and altered greatly after 12 at night, and in 
great agonies all the morning ; and it pleased the 
Almighty Creator to deliver him out of all his Pam 
and Trouble in this world about | an hour after 
one o’clock at noon, by taking him to himself — 
blessed therefore be the name of the Lord. — It is 
the Lord, let him do what seemeth him good. The 
Lord gave and the Lord hath taken away, blessed 
be the name of the Loid. Have mercy upon us 



O Lord, miserable sinners — and send us comfort 
from above. 

The Diarist was left sole executor of all his Father’s 
real and personal property left between him. Brother 
John, and Sister Jane. 

May 17. ... My Brother John, myself and Sister Jane, 
examined this morning, my poor Father’s Bureau etc. 
at Parsonage and we found in Cash in all the places 
the sum of 518.9:6; Mortgages, Bonds and Notes 
of Hand 533 : i6 : o. . . . I sent poor old Alice Stacy 
by her daughter this morning to cheer up her spirits 
a little, o-i-o. The poor creature begged most 
heartily to sit up with my Poor Father, all night, 
which she did with Christian speed. 

On May 22 his Father is buried in much state. The 
Pall Bearers all had ‘ black silk Hatbands and shammy 
gloves ’. The Under-Bearers had ‘ black Lamb gloves 
and each 0-2-6 ’. William Corpe (the servant) had 
‘ a black crape Hatband and bucldes and a black broad 
cloth Coat and waistcoat given him by us ’. The Clerk — 

‘ a black silk Hatband common, and a pair of mock 
shammy gloves ’. The sextons of Ansford and Cary had 
‘ Lamb gloves ’. The women relations, though they did 
not attend, ‘ had or are to have all black shammy gloves ’. 
The six women ‘ Wakers ’ who sat up all night with the 
corpse after death — each a pair of ‘ Black Lamb gloves ’. 

. . . ‘ Cary Bell as well as Ansford Bell tolled from 12 at 
noon till 8 in the evening. Everything I hope was done 
decently, handsome and well — and nothing omitted but 
want of speaking to the Gentlemen to return to the 
Parsonage to pull of their cloaks at the House, which, 



however, most of them did — and drank a glass of wine 
and went,’ 

June 4. . , After today I am to keep the Parsonage 
House. . . 

June 5. ... This morning between James Woodforde, 
Jane Woodforde, and John Woodforde, House- 
keeping was settled as follows ; that I should keep 
house at Parsonage, Jack at Lower House and that 
Sister Jane should board with me for sixteen pounds 
per annum, Tea, Sugar and Wine excepted. . . . 

June 24. I read Prayers this morning at Cary being 
Midsummer Day After Prayers I made a little visit 
to Mrs. Melliar where I met Mr Frank Woodforde 
and told him, before Mrs Melliar, Miss Mcliiar and 
Miss Barton what great obligations I was under to 
him for his not offering me to hold his Lhings for 
him instead of Mr. Dolton and Mr, Gatehouse 
From such base actions and dishonest men O Lord, 
deliver me. 

On June 25 he rides over to see his cousin Mr. Dolton, 
Parson of Cucklington, who is to hold the living of Ansford 
for Frank Woodforde, and on July 9 he duly inducts 
him to Ansford Rectory where the Diarist and his sister 
Jane are to live; Mr. Dolton promising not to turn 
them out. On July 30 he enters : ‘ Busy this morning 
making a Pot of Medicines for Horses ’ From numerous 
entries of fees, from this time on, it appears that he treated 
quite a number of horses ; in one case a horse was sent 
him to be treated all the way from Wiltshire — Mr. 
Goldney of Chippenham. 

On September 22 he dines and spends the evening 
with the Creeds, and they ‘ went to the Cudgell-Playing 
(alias Back-S'^ord) at Crockers, where was good sport 



and a vast concourse of people’- On the same day 
a Mr. Wickham informs him that the Bishop of Bath 
and Wells had given him the Vicarage of Castle Cary. 
He wants to know if the Diarist can serve it for him, 
whb replies, ‘ I could not serve but till he was provided.’ 
September 25 he goes over to dine with Mr. Wickham 
at Shepton Mallett, and brings back with him in the 
chaise Miss Betsy White of Shepton, to whom he refers 
as follows : ‘ She is a sweet tempered girl indeed, and 
I like her much, and I think would make a good wife, 
I do not know but I shall make a bold stroke that way.’ 
He sees a good deal of her. 

On October 14 he and his boy go to Oxford, returning 
home on October 23 

Oct. 19 . The Streets of Oxford are much improved, 

all the Signs are taken down and put against the 
Houses, the Streets widened, East-Gate and Brocards 
taken down and a new Bridge going to be built where 
Magdalen Bridge now stands, and temporary Bndges 
during the building of it now making by Chnstchurch 
Broad-Walk, for to go up the Hill, etc. 

Dec. 23. ... Mr. Thomas_Woodforde of Taunton (who 
is lately married to a Miss Waters of Blandford) with 
his new wife came to my house in a Post Chaise just 
at dinner time, and they both dmed, supped and 
slept at Parsonage. His wife appears to be a very 
aggreable as well as a handsome young Lady and has 
£800 for her Fortune. I really think my cousin has 
made a very good choice. . . . Mr. Leache of Alford 
and Mr. James Clarke supped and spent the 
evening at Parsonage. Mr. Leache came to me 
to see Ecton’s Liber Valorum to see whether he 
can hold two Livings without a Dispensation. . 



Mrs. Burton has given his eldest son the Living of 
Sutton. . . 

The reference to Mrs. Burton and the living of Sutton, 
or Sutton Montis, to give the parish its full name, is not 
without inteiest, for Airs. Burton was the widow' of the 
last Burton Rector of Sutton Adontis, the living having 
passed successively from father to son for just two 
centuries. The first Burton, — Edmund Burton, — ^w'ho 
was a near Hnsman of the famous author of The Anatomy 
oj Melancholy, had come to Sutton Montis in 1573, 
and the last Burton died there in 1771. And even then 
the family connexion was not broken, for the last Rector’s 
daughter, Eleanor, had married Mr. Leach’s son, and 
through theirdescendantstheliving remained in the family 
till almost the end of the nineteenth centurj . I should 
think that this is probably a unique record of clerical 
continuity of the same family in the same parish. The 
Burton parsons were mainly educated at Cambridge, but 
one or two were at Oxford. This is another instance of 
a good sound clerical family, son succeeding father from 
Queen Elizabeth to George III, as against the Macaulay 
theorj' of Anglican decay. Mrs. Burton was Anne, 
daughter of Squire Francis Hollis Newman of Cadbury, 
whose son, it will be remembered, had sent our Diarist 
a hare when he was an undergraduate at Oxford ^ 

1772. Feb. 29. This morning after Breakfast I w'ent 
down to Henbridge, when I saw and spent the morning 
with Mrs. Grant and her two daughters, Miss Jenny 
Wason and Miss Nancy Waso«. [She and Brother 

1 Alumnt Cantabngtenses Q andj A Venn), 1922, and Foster’s llmnni 
Oa;a»i«w«, under Burton ; History oJ Soinersetshire,yo\ i,p 431, 

family records. Francis Hollis Newman was sherifi of Somerset in 1700. 
Through my mother I descend from these Burton ‘parsons * 



John had made up their quarrel.] They all seemed 
to be very uneasy, particularly Mrs. Grant, who said, 
that my Brother seemed too gay to be able to make 
a good Husband to her daughter, kept too much 
Company for his circumstances etc. etc. I told her 
that he had some failings as other young men, but 
I thought his good ones overbalanced them as I never 
saw anything tending to any very bad. I staid at 
Henbridge till after one and then returned and dined, 
supped, and slept again at Parsonage. Brother John 
went home well pleased at my going down. . . . 

On March 7 he sends Mr. Ford, the Bath ‘ Statuary 
the inscription for his father’s monument : the latter 
will cost -£ 1 ^ 14/. The Diarist does not tell us the 
inscription on this monument, but Phelps,*^ who succeeded 
Collinson as the historian of Somerset, gives it in full. 
Phelps says ; ‘ Against the north wall of the chancel 
[Ansford Church] is a neat monument of white marble, 
having inscribed on it : 

H.S.E. Samuel Woodforde, A.M. ecclesiae de Castle 
Cary Vicarius j hujus item parochise annos magis quin- 
quaginta rector indefessus, et honoratissimo comiti de 
Tankerville k sacris domesticus. Vir erat antiquis mori- 
bus, virtute, fide ; pauperibus erogator largus : pater 
prudens ac providus : amicus certus, cordatus, ndus. 
Eodem tumulo quiescunt cineres uxoris amatae sequd 
ac amantissimae Janae Woodforde, quae per quadraginta 
fere annos in domesticis vitae muneribus obeundis 
plurimis antecdlere, nuUi forsan secunda videbatur. 
Amabil« in vita, nec in morte divisi sunt. 

Ilia prius Feb. 8, 1766. | iEtatis ] 60 

Ille secutus Mali 16, 1771. ( anno J 76 
Valete suaves animae, sed non aetemum ! 

Filii mcerentes posuerunt. 

^ Phelps, Htstoty of Smersetshtre, vol 1, p 375 (1836). 



On March 31 he enters into an agreement with Mr. 
Wickham to serve the curacy of Castle Cary for ^30 
per annum, in addition to surplice fees. The tithes of 
Cary are to be farmed by the Burges, who will pay 
Mr. Wickham ;^I30 per annum for three years, and after- 
wards £ 1^0 for the remainder of his period as Vicar. 

April 21 . ... Whilst we were at dinner they [Parson 
and Mrs. Wickham] came to us to the Parsonage and 
caught my Sister Jane at table with her hair up in 
papers, as she is going this evening to Shepton 
Assembly, but they excused it very kindly. 

May I. ... In the evening Mr Creed, myself and the 
Counsellor [Melliar] walked down into Car}' and saw 
the Fair, it being Cary Fair to-day I saw' Miss 
Hannah Pew in the Fair and I gave her some Sugar 
Plumbs, half a pound of them and they cost me 
o. I. 4. . . . Brother John supped and spent the even- 
ing at Parsonage, was very much in liquor and 
behaved like a madman, N.B. He has received 
a letter from Nancy Wason, which I saw and I think 
she has used Jack very ill, she declares of [off] entirely, 
and will answer no more letters of his. It is I believe 
her Mother’s and Sister’s doing all this. . . . 

June I. ... Brother John set forth this morning for 
Bath to a Cock Match. 

June 6. ... Brother John returned this evening and 
supped etc. at Parsonage ; he says that he has won 
fifty Pounds at Bath. 

June 7. ... Mr. Creed called upon me in the evening 
and we took a walk — after I had buried a child of 
Giles Francis’s by name J. Francis — aged 5 years. 
The child died at Bath owing to a kick in the groin 
by another lad. Giles works at Bath, and he and his 



son brought the child in a coffin upon their heads 
from Bath, they set out from Bath last night at 12. . . . 

On June 18 he goes to Wells with Mr. Wickham, sees 
the Bishop, who promises his support as to the Diarist’s 
continuing in the Ansford curacy, and has tea with the 
Dean, Lord Francis Seymour, his wife, son and daughters. 
‘ Lord Francis and Lady and the whole family behaved 
exceeding complaisant and civil to me. His Lordship 
told me that I had now found the way to the Deanery 
he would be glad to see me at all times and often. . . . 
It is indeed as good a family as ever I was in. . The 
Soldiers in the Town were exercising in the C. Yard 
whilst we were drinking tea. It was really very pretty. 
I don’t know when I ever spent such an afternoon or 
day. . . .’ 

Again on July 31 he goes to Wells and visits the Bishop 
and Dean, who are very cordial to him. It has been 
arranged that he is to remain Curate at Ansford. ‘ The 
Dean asked me to dine with him to-morrow upon 
a Haunch of Venison, but I told his Lordship that I was 
afraid I could not.’ 

August 31 he sets out for Winton with his boy — 
i Poser’s duties there with Bathurst He returns 
5tember 5, and on October 1 he goes to Oxford 
te for a new Chancellor, the candidates being 
North, then Prime Minister, and the Earl of 
r. The Diarist intended to vote for Lord Radnor, 
they could not muster more than 73 votes, they 
sned his candidature, and Lord North was unani- 
T elected on October 3. He reaches Ansford again 
tober 6. 

31. Very much out of order this morning, being 
115 1 2 


terribly fluttered owing I believe to the drinHng of 
green tea in a morning. I design to leave it of, and 
tomorrow take to Sage tea. . . . 

Nov. 26. ... Mr Will™ Strangeways and Mr. Edm^ 
Gapper, both of Charlton and acquaintance of Brother 
John’s, and James and Richard Clarke spent the after- 
noon, supped etc. at Parsonage. . . . Edm^ Gappei 
was exceeding drunk indeed, he slept at my house, 
and Mr. Strangeways at my Bi other John’s. I was 
kept up till after two in the morning and could not 
help it. Richard Clarke was quite merry also. 

1773. Jan. 6. . . Painter Clarke’s family is under great 
distress concerning his son Charles, who went to 
London on Xmas day and have heard nothing of 
him since, and also that a horse and bridle w’as found 
on Hounslow Heath on Monday Dec. 28 with a man 
genteely dressed, booted and spurred was found under 
a hedge near the horse shot thro’ the head as men- 
tioned in the Salisbury Paper Monday last. No one 
knew of his going to London but John Burge, and to 
whom he promised to write when he got to town, 
and- he has received no letter at all from him. 

Feb. 10. ... I went in the evening to the Play with 
the Justice [Creed] The Play was Hamlet and the 
entertainment — ^Hob in the Well. 

March i. ... Brother John spent the evening at 
Parsonage but was noisy, being merry, and his seeing 
Nancy Wason ride by our house this aft. and is 
reported to be married to And’ Russ this morning. 
Parson Rawkins and another Person wdth her. . . . 

March 28. . . Mr. John Pouncett of Cole spent the 
afternoon, supped and spent the evening at Parsonage. 
He has an inclination for my Sister Jane. I think it 
would do well, . . . 



April 14. ... To Eliz. Clinch, this morning one year’s 
wages due Lady Day last past paid her ..3.3.0.... 

April 17. ... Sister Clarke, James and Richard Clarke, 
Jenny Clarke and Sam spent the major part of the 
morning with me, and agreed pretty well upon some 
matters relatmg to their affairs. The old Doctor 
I find is not worth much less than 16000 p**. . . . 
[He had destroyed his will and the Diarist induces 
him to make another in the interests of his family, 
as the money would be divided up unfairly if he died 

April 22. ... I went up to Dr. Clarke’s this mormng 
by the desire of Sister Clarke and James, and desired 
him to make a Will agreeable to his Family and him- 
self and he agreed so to do which I am very glad of. — 
The poor Doctor cried a little. . . . 

May 21 . ... A grey owl was found in my back-kitchen 
this morning. He came down the chimney. I gave 
him his Liberty again. , . . 

May 22. ... Very busy all the morning m trimming 
up my Geraniums. . , . 

On June 13 he takes duty at Batcombe by arrangement 
with Mr. Wickham, who was to take the Diarist’s services 
at Cary and Ansford. But as soon as he got out of church 
at Batcombe a message is brought him that Mr. Wickham 
‘ was not come to serve my Churches After a hasty 
dinner he rides back post-haste just in time to take a late 
service at Cary Church. But naturally there was grum- 
bhng over the mcident. He notes ‘Mr. Coward’s^ Family 
of Spargrove was at Batcombe Church, with many other 
good families ’. 

^ Thomas Coward, £s^ , SheriSE of Somerset la IJJU 



July 8. ... We aE went from Sister Clarke’s up into 
South Cary to the Royal Oak to see Mr. Nevil’s 
grand machinery, being the whole of the woolen 
manufactory, from one end of it to the other, and 
ail in motion at once It is very curious indeed — 
three thousand movements at once going — composed 
by ]Mr. Ncvil himself, and which took him ny thirty 
)ears in completing it. . 

July 19. ... Mr. Frank Woodforde was this morning 
inducted into the Living of Ansford, and he immedi- 
ately sent me a Line that he intends serving Ansford 
next Sunday himself, which notice of my leaving the 
Curacy is I think not only unbnd but very ungentle- 
manlike I must be content. Far be it from me to 
expect any favour at all from that House. All their 
actions towards me are bad. ... I intend to quit the 
Parsonage House when my year is up, which "will be 
Lady Day next, and to take up my residence once 
more at New College. . . . 

July 28. ... Sister Clarke came to let me know that 
Frank dines with them tomorrow [by Richard’s 
invitation] upon the Goose that Sister Clarke invited 
me to dine upon as tomorrow. Therefore shall not 
go. This is the second time of being disappointed to 
dine there. — First upon a Fawn and now a Goose. 

1. Mem. J® Clarke invited me to dine at his house 
upon part [of] a Fawn last week but did not mention 
any particular day. — ^However they had it last week 
and never let me know it. 

2. Mem: Sister Clarke invited me yesterday to come 
and dine upon a goose as to-morrow, and now I cannot 
go as Frank is to dine there and whom I don’t choose 
to associate with. — ^The next time I am invited there 
I shall take care how I promise them. . . . 

1 18 


Aug. 24. . . I called at Mrs. White’s and stayed with 

her and her daughter Betsy till 8 o’clock this even- 
ing. . . . Betsy White came from London only last 
Saturday. She is greatly improved and handsomer 
than ever . . 

Aug. 30. . . As I was coming from 4 Acres down the 
Lane this morning between 7 and 8 I met my Uncle 
Tom on Horseback with his servant going to Mrs. 
Bowel’s in Hertfordshire. He said to me Good 
morrow to you and I made him a Bow and said your 
Servant Sir ! . . 

Sep. I . ... [He hears of a vacancy in the Mastership 
of Bedford School.] — the third best thing in the gift 
of New College, — a new built house with an exceed- 
ing handsome garden — 50 guineas paid the Master 
every quarter — Fuel, Candles and all kinds of ex- 
penses about the house and gardens paid for the 
Master and no taxes whatsoever. An Ussher also 
found and paid by the Charity — ^About 1 2 boys to teach 
by the Master and Ussher. The only bad thing belong- 
ing to it, is, being a Borough Town, and there is no such 
thing as being neuter. Upon the whole I like it very 
well, and I believe shall accept of it, if it comes to me. 

On September 6 he hands Mr..Wickham notice of his 
giving up Cary curacy at Michaelmas, and visits ‘ my 
dear Betsy White ’, and on September 13 he enters that 
Andrew Russ and Nancy Wason are married that day. 
On September 16 ‘ I carried my dear Maid of Shepton 
some Peaches etc., etc.’ On October 4 he sets out with 
his boy for Oxford on horseback ‘ to hear about Bed- 
ford ’. Unfortunately, one Hooke is nominated by New 
College for Bedford on October 14, and next day the 
Diarist starts home for Ansford. 



Dec. 14. ... [He leaves Ansford to take up his residence 
at Oxford :] I left my whole family rather dejected 
this morning. Pray God preserve them and make my 
journey of good to them. 

Dec. 16. . Exceeding disagreeable to me yet Oxford 

seems being so contrary to my old way of living. 

Dec. 17. . . Things seem something bettei to day, 

and 1 hope will more so daily, when I get to College. 
[He IS at present at the Blue Boar.} 

Dec. 24. (Mem:) I dreamt very much of poor old 
Alice Stacy of Ansford and my man Willm Corpe 
last night — the former that she had a vast discharge 
of matter from her Breast — the latter that he was 
very drunk and almost killed by a fall from a Horse — 
both which I thought I saw very plainly. 

Dec. 25. I breakfasted, and slept again in my Rooms 
— I went to Chapel this morning at 9 o’clock being 
Christmas Day, and rec** the Holy Sacrament from 
the Hands of our Warden who was present The 
Warden was on one side of the Altar and myself 
being Sub-Warden on the other side — I read the 
Epistle for the day at the Altar and assisted the 
Warden in going round with the Wine. 

For an Offering at the A tar, gave . . .0.1.0. The 
Dean of Christchurch who is Bishop of Chcstei 
preached this morning at Christchurch, but I did 
not attend at it. . . . N.B. The Dean of Christchurch 
always preaches this day in the morning at Christ- 
church Cathedral. I dined in the Hall and 14 Sen'' 
Fellows with me. I invited the Warden to dine with 
us as is usual on this day, but his Sister being here, 
could not. We had a very handsome dinner of my 
ordering, as I order dinner every day being Sub- 



We had for dinner, two fine Codds boiled with 
fryed Souls round them and oyster sauce, a fine 
sirloin of Beef roasted, some peas soup and an orange 
Pudding for the first course, for the second, we had 
a lease of Wild Ducks rosted, a fore Qu: of Lamb 
and sallad and mince Pies. We had a grace cup 
before the second course brought by the Butler to 
the Steward of the Hall who was Mr. Adams a Semor 
Fellow, who got out of his place and came to my 
chair and there drank to me out of it, wishing me 
a merry Xmas. I then took it of him and drank 
wishing him the same, and then it went round, three 
standing up all the time From the high Table the 
grace Cup goes to the Batchelors and Scholars. 
After the second course there was a fine plumb cake 
brought to the sen*" Table as is usual on this day, 
which also goes to the Batchelors after. After Grace 
is said there is another Grace-Cup to drink omnibus 
Wiccamisis, which is drunk as the first, only the 
Steward of the Hall does not attend the second Grace 
Cup. . . . We dined at 3 o’clock and were an Hour 
and i at it. We all then went into the Sen*^ Com: 
Room, where the Warden came to us and sat with us 
till Prayers. The Wine drunk by the Sen’’ Fellows, 
domus pays for Prayers this evemng did not begin 
till 6 o’clock, at which I attended as did the Warden. 
... I supped etc., in the Chequer, we had Rabbits 
for supper rosted as is usual on this day. . . The 
Sub-Warden has one to himself , The Bursars each 
one apiece, the Sen"^ Fellows ■§■ a one each. The 
Jun*' Fellows a rabbit between three. 

N.B. Put on this*Day a new Coat and Waistcoat 
for the first time. 

1774. Jan. 14. I breakfasted and slept again at New 



College. At 10 o*clock this morning ent up into the 
Senior Common Room, where the Warden and all the 
Fellows met, and we had given by the Warden there 
some Sack wine and some bread and butter, as he 
takes his Doctor’s Degree to-day From the Common 
Room we went m Procession, a Beadle going before, 
to the Convocation House, it being the first Day of 
Term. Cooke Jun*' went also to the Convocation 
House to take his Master’s degree. I scidd for him 
there. We all went in our proper Hoods to the 
Schools I took a walk with Boyce this morning 
after having been up into the schools, up the Hill, 
and for a Shaving Box of one Darcy up the Hill pd 
o I. o. I dined in the Chequer and the Warden 
dined with us and treated the Sen*^ Fellows with a very 
handsome Dinner, and after dinner w'e all went into 
the Sen*' Common Room, where the Warden treated 
us with Wine till near 9 o’clock at night, and then 
he retired. The Warden also treated us with a large 
dish of Fruit after dinner in the Master’s Common 
Room. Had a new Wigg brought home this morning, 
which I put on before I went to dinner, it is a more 
fashionable one than my old ones are, a one curled 
wigg with two curls of the sides. I like it, and it 
was liked by most People at dinner I gave the 
Barber’s man, Jonathan o i. o. At Back-Gammon 
this evening with Milton only one gammon, and I lost 
to him by bad luck o. 10. 6. I supped in the Chequer 
and went to bed soon after. 

Jan. 31. I got up this morning at half past six in order 
to go in the Machine to Bath. The Porter’s man 
called me at six, for which and carrying my Port- 
manteau to the Cross Inn I gave him . . . o. i. 0. To 
Frank Paynes Boy this morning gave o. 6 . I went 



to the Cross Inn at a little after seven and the Machine 
was gone, however I took a Post-Chaise immediately 
from the Cross Inn and overtook the Machine at 
Enson about 5 miles from Oxon, and there got 
into It. 

For the Post Chaise pd . . . o. 4. o 

. Gave the Driver . . . .0.1.0 

There was one Passenger in it a Gentleman of Exeter 
College, we stopped and breakfasted at Witney at 
the Bridge, and then I left the Gentleman as he came 
there only to meet some Company. 

For my Breakfast at Witney pd . o. i. o 

At Witney the Machine took up a Poor Player, a 
young man who is in a consumption and going to his 
Friends at Bath — ^he looked dreadful bad. 

I dmed at Burford by myself, pd there o. 4. o 
At Burford pd the remaining part of the 
Fare . o. 10. 6 

Dr. Bosworth of Oriel and a young Lady came into 
the same room where I dined at Burford soon after 
I dined, as they were going to London in the Strand 
Water Machine thro’ Oxford. I was not long with 
them at the Inn at Burford as our Machine was just 
setting off. At Burford we took up a young Farmer 
who was lame and going to try Bath Waters, and the 
Farmer’s Sister a young Woman. The Farmer thinks 
his disorder to be Rheumatic. We got to Circencester 
about 5 this afternoon where we supped and slept. 

I supped in a Room by myself and spent the evening. 

Feb. 1st. I got up this morning at half past five, got 
into the Machme about 6 and set of before breakfast 
for Bath, at Circencester pd . o. 3. 6 

Gave the Chamber maid and Waiter 0. i. 6 

At Tedbury we breakfasted pd there 


o. I. o 


We got to Petty France about ii, where the Machine 
stays two or three Hours. And as I wanted to reach 
Ansford this evening, I took a Post-Chaise immedi- 
ately at Petty France, and set forth for Bath. It 
snowed prodigiously all the way to Bath. 

Gave the Bath Coachman at Petty France o. i, o 
For some Rum and Water at Petty France o. o. 3 
At Petty France for a Chaise to Bath pd o. ii. 3 
Gave a Poor Boy at Petty France . . o. o. 6 

I got to Bath about i o’clock, there I took a fresh 
Chaise for Old Downe. 

Gave Petty France Driver . . o, i. 6 

besides a dram upon the Road. I got to Old Downe 
betw cen 3 and 4 this afternoon where I stayed about 
a Quarter of an Hour, cat some cold rest Beef, drank 
a pint of Ale, and then got into a fresh Chaise for 
Ansford. It snowed all the way very thick from Bath 
to Old Downe. At Bath for chaise pd . o. 10. 6 
Gave the Bath driver desides a dram . o. i. 6 
For a chaise at Old Downe to Ansford pd o. 10. 6 
Eating etc., at Old Downe pd . .0.1.0 

I got to Ansford, I thank God safe and well this 
evening about 6 o’clock. It snowed all the way from 
Old Downe to Ansford and the wind blowed very 
rough and it was very cold indeed. Gave the old 
Downe driver a dram at Gannard’s Grave and 
another at home, and gave him also o. i, 6. I found 
Mr. Pouncett and my sister Jane at home by them- 
selves, and I supped and slept at Parsonage. Brother 
John supped and spent the evening with us. All 
Friends pretty well but poor Dr. Clarke, who is 
worse than I left him, his legs swell and he talks but 
very httle, and looks very ill indeed. Mr. Pouncett 
supped and slept at Parsonage. 



March 13. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at Parsonage. Sent over to Cole this morning to 
enquire for Mr. Guppy, he returned from Bath 
yesterday, and is but very indifferent. Brother 
Heighes, dined”, supped etc., at Parsonage. . I did 
not go either to Ansford or Cary Church to-day. 
Sister Clarke and Jenny, Mr. Pouncett, Mr. White and 
Mrs. James Clarke supped and spent the evening at 
Parsonage. Brother John spent the latter part of the 
aft. at Parsonage. Brother Heighes’ son Sam supped 
etc., at Parsonage. Mr. Pouncett slept at Parsonage. 
I talked with him pretty home about matters being 
so long doing — [i. e the marriage arranged between 
Mr. Pouncett and Sister Jane being so long delaid] 

March 14. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at Parsonage. Mr. Pouncett breakfasted at Parsonage 
and went home. Sister White spent part of the after- 
noon at Parsonage Sister Jane and myself both very 
much in the dumps to-day. 

March 16. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at Parsonage. I took a ride this morning to Shepton 
Mallett and went thro’ Evercreech and made a short 
visit to Mrs. Millard and her daughter Betsy who 
were glad to see me. I wanted to see Jack’s Flame 
but could not. When I came to Shepton I got of at 
Mr. White’s and there I spent most of my time with 
Mrs. White and my dear Betsy White. They won- 
dered not to see me before. My Boy went with me 
on Mr. Pouncett’s Mare. ... I made a short visit to 
Mrs. Wickham, Mrs. Figges etc. Miss Hole etc, and 
returned by a Qu"^ after three. Gave the Hostler 
at the George at Shepton o. o. 6. Mr. White and 
Brother Heighes dined etc., at Parsonage, Sister 
White dined at Parsonage about 5 o’clock. She had 



been on foot to the Sale at Bruton and could not 
come back before the above time, much tired. Mr. 
Pouncett breakfasted at Parsonage, went home after 
and returned in the evening and supped and slept at 
Parsonage. For a Horse to-day . . . o 2. 6. 

March 23. I breakfasted at Parsonage this morning as 
did Mr. Pouncett, who after breakfast went home 
and returned about 12 to take his leave of me I got 
up very early this morning, packed up my things, 
settled all accounts with my People, dined at 12 and 
at one set of in Ansford Inn Chaise with a very heavy 
Heart for Oxford thro’ Bath. I left with Mr. Pouncett 
two guineas to be given to the Poor of Ansford, as 
directed by me m writing. I left with him also one 
guinea to be given to the Poor of Cary as also directed 
by me in writing. Mr. White called upon me this 
morning and took his leave. Robin Coleman called 
upon me this morning on the same. I gave my man 
William a good deal of my old Cloathes. I gave my 
maid Betty Chrich an old prunella gown. 

Paid Eliz. Crich this morning a year’s 

wages 3. 3. o 

Paid her one year’s Interest of 20 Pound i. o. o 
Paid her for her Mother do. . .1.0.0 

Paid Will"* for washing i year . to. 6 

Paid Eliz; Crich for Housekeeping to this 
day .... . o. 2. 9 

Paid Will: and Boy and Poor to this day . o. 3. 6 
I gave each of my Servants going away . o. 2. 6 
I left all my House m Tears and I could not refrain 
myself from the same. Pray God bless them all. 
This day left of all Housekeeping to Mr. Pouncett. 
We had some Trout for dinner to-day, but my Heart 
was so full that I could eat but little. I gave Mr. 



Owens my Barber this morning o. 5. o. I called at 
Shepton and took my leave of my dear Betsy. I got 
to Old Downe about 3 this afternoon and to Bath 
at 5. I did not pay for the Ansford Chaise therefore 

am in debt to Perry for it, the sum of . 




Gave Tom Smith, the Ansford Driver . 
For Old Downe Chaise to the White Lion 




at Bath pd . . . . . 




For Wine at Old Downe pd . 




To the Old Downe Driver — ^gave . 




To the Turnpikes for Bath pd 




I met Harry Rodbard this evening at the White 
Lion at Bath, and we supped and spent the evening 
together. There was a gentleman by name Pitcairn 
with Harry, a Wiltshire clergyman but he did not 
sup with us. I called at Dr. Dunn’s this evening at 
Bath, I saw Mrs Dunn and one Miss Chambers, but 
I did not see Dr. Dunn. Mrs. Dunn very much 
expected my sister and Mr Pouncett. She had got 
the Brides Bed etc., all ready for them. I called also 
on Mr. Creed’s Friend, Dr. Anderton and Wife. 
I went and called upon Dr. Ballard at the Bear Inn 
at Bath. My aunt Tom and her son, Frank, and 
Jenny Clarke are all at my Aunt’s at Bath, but I did 
not call on them. I slept at the White Lion at 

Next day he reaches Oxford in the evening, safe and 
well. On April 13 he and his colleague Cooke are sworn 
in as Pro-Proctors before the Vice-Chancellor, Webber — 
the Senior Proctor with Berkeley — nominating them as 
his Pro-Proctors. 

April 20. I breakfasted and slept again at New College. 



Master Senior and Bhsse breakfasted with me. I went 
to Chapel this morning at 1 1 o’clock it being Term 
Time and Wednesday. There should have been 
Declamations to-day but there was none : Cooth 
and Trotman should have declaimed, therefore I shall 
punish them. I took a long walk after Prayers, and 
on my return went into the public Schools, and set 
over some young gentlemen doing generals.^ At 
2 o’clock went with Webber to Christchurch to the 
Sen' Proctor’s Mr. Berkeley’s, and there we dined 
and spent the afternoon, and at 8 came away. Mr. 
Bowerbank, Mr. Shackleford, Mr. Mines, Mr Rigby, 
Mr. Selstone, Mr. Morris, and Mr. Rawbone dined 
etc, with us there Mr. NichoUs was ill and could 
not come, and Mr. Cooke not in town. We had 
a very elegant dinner. The first course was, part of 
a large Cod, a Chine of Mutton, some Soup, a Chicken 
Pye, Puddings and Roots etc. Second course, Pidgeons 
and Asparagus, a Fillet of Veal with Mushrooms and 
high Sauce with it, rested Sweetbreads, hot Lobster, 
Apricot Tart and in the middle a Pyramid of Syllabubs 
and Jelhes. We had a Desert of Fruit after Dinner, 
and Madeira, white Port and red to drink as Wine. 
We were all very cheerful and merry. I supped and 
spent the evening in the Chequer. N.B. We had at 
dinner to-day, some green cucumbers, the first I have 
seen this year. 

Ap: 21. I breakfasted and slept again at New College. 
For a new Pr of Gloves the other day pd o. 2. o. 
I went with Holmes to-day to the Free-Masons 
Lodge held this day at the New Inn, was there 
admitted a Member of the same and dined and spent 

^ See pp- 158-62 for an account of the University system in the eigh* 
teenth century 



the afternoon with them. The Form and Ceremony 
on the occasion I must beg leave to omit putting 
down. Paid on admission for fees etc. ,^3. 5. o. It 
is a very honourable as well as charitable Institution 
and much more than I could conceive it was. Am 
very glad on being a Member of it. I supped and 
spent the evening in the Chequer. Mr. Stinton one 
of our Lodge supped etc., with Holmes in the Chequer 
he is a very worthy man. At 1 1 this night was called 
out of the Chequer by Webber to go with him and 
quell a riot in George Lane, but when we came it 
was 'quiet, however, we went to the Swan in George 
Lane, and unfortunately met with a Gownsman 
above stairs carousing with some low-life people. We 
conducted him to his College. He belongs to Uni- 
versity College, is a scholar there, and his name is 
Hawkins, he was terribly frightened and cried almost 
all the way to his Coll, and was upon his knees very 
often in the street, and bareheaded all the way. He 
is to appear again to-morrow before Webber. We 
returned to New College by 12 o’clock. 

There is no further note as to this unfortunate young 
man’s fate at the hands of Webber : it is a pity he did 
not appear before the kindly Diarist : we should then 
have known his punishment, which would not have been 
a harsh one. 

May 12. I breakfasted and slept again at New College. 
Lent Blisse this morning 8 of my MSS Sermons. 
Holmes and myself went to Exeter College about 
2 o’clock and dined with Mr. Stinton, a Senior 
Fellow of Ex: Coll: We dined in the publick Hall at 
Exeter Coll: at the High Table. The Rector, Dr. 




Bray etc., dined with us We had but an indifferent 
dinner and served up slovingly. Nothing near so 
neat or genteel as at New College. We spent the 
afternoon in their Sen'’ Com: Room and the Rector 
did the same and smoked a Pipe with us. We came 
away before five o’clock. I went to Prayers this 
evening at 5 o’clock. I supped and spent the evening 
in the Chequer. Whilst I was at supper I was sent 
for to quell a not in HoUinwell. I left my supper 
and went with Holmes and Oakely into HoUmwell, 
but it was pretty quiet However I met with two 
gentlemen going into a House and I accosted them, 
and I believe they were the same that made the 
disturbance I asked them to go to their Colleges 
directly and wait on me to-morrow morning at New 
College. Their names were Taylor of Worcester Coll: 
and Duprie of Exeter College. I received a letter 
this evening from my Sister Jane, who acquainted 
me that my poor old servant man Wilham Corpe 
dropped down in an Apoplectic Fit May 2, and 
expired directly. He was that morning married to 
his old Sweet-heart, and this happened in the even- 
ing in the street. I am exceedingly sorry for him 
indeed and her also. I hope he is everlastingly happy 
in a better state : Pray God make us all wise to 
consider our latter end, for Death comes upon us we 
see at an hour when we little think upon it, and 
sometimes very sudden. My Sister also acquainted 
me that poor Dr. Clarke is very bad, much worse 
than he was. 

As to poor old William Corpe, it "wiU be remembered 
that the Dianst had a cunous dream about him on 
Christmas Eve. (See under date, December 24, 1773 ) 



May 20. . .1 got home to Ansford this evening about 
8 o’clock and I thank God safe and well, to the Old 
House, but found none but the maid at home, they 
were gone to Sister White’s. . . I supped and spent 
the evening at Mr. White’s with him. Sister White, 
Sister Jane and Mr. Pouncett I slept at the Old 
Parsonage House once more. N.B. the first time 
I ever came in one day from Oxford [he had started 
at 5.30 from there] to Ansford, I suppose it must 
be near 100 miles. 

The journey all the way by Post Chaise cost him, with 
meals, tips, and turnpikes, the large sum of 8x. This 
IS a good illustration of the point already made,^ of the 
far greater expense of travelling in the eighteenth century 
as compared with our own day 

May 22. ... Have been very naughty to-day, did not 
go to either Ansford or Cary Church . . . Have 
mercy on me O Lord a miserable, vile sinner, and 
pardon my failings. 

May 24. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at Parsonage. Mr. Pouncett breakfasted, dined, 
supped, and slept at Parsonage. After breakfast 
I went down to Ansford Church and married my 
Sister Jane and Mr. Pouncett by license. Pray God 
send Thy Blessing upon them both, and may they 
be long happy in each other. I would not have any- 
thing for marrying them but Mr. Pouncett gave 
Mr. Frank Woodford i. i. o. Mr. White was Father 
and Sister White only present. 

Mr. Pouncett gave the Clerk, Dav Maby . o. 10. 6 

^ See pp 71—3 for some general observations on pnces, and the pur- 
chasing power of money 

I 3 I K 2 


I gave my old Maid Betty Crich . . o. 2. 6 

Paid my Boy for Oats, shoeing my Mare 

■ O* O 

I called at an Ale House in Long Acre by 
Mr. Hooks and had a pint of beer for 
which I paid . . . . o. o. 3 

I dined at Wiley at the Bull pd there . o. 4. 4! 
Gave to the Hostler there . . . o. o. 6 

I supped and slept at Everly at the Rose and Crown 
about 45 miles from Ansford, not at all fatigued, s>o 
far I thank God got safe and well. 

For Turnpikes to-day . . pd about . . o. o. 6 

June 3rd. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at College, Master Sen*' breakfasted again with me 
this morning. k 

Paid for the Oxford Magazine for May . o. o, 6 
Paid also for Jackson’s Oxford Journal for 
I quarter begun the 22nd January 1774 o 2. 6 
I fancy I paid one quarter before but am not certain. 
Gave my Barber’s man this morning . o o. 6 
Gave my Bedmaker’s Boy, Jack . . o. o. 6 

For wine this afternoon in M.C.R.. ,pd. o. o. 6 
Rec* of Swanton this aft for an Exhibition i. o. o 
Dr. Wall, myself, Oakley, Master Sen*" and Mr. 
Townshend of London a Wine and Brandy Mer- 
chant, Brother of James Townshend of this Coll, 
who dined with us to-day in Hall, went this evening 
in one of Kemps Post Coaches to Abingdon to see 
a Play there. We put up at Powels at the Crown 
Sc Thistle where we had coffee and Tea, and aftei- 
wards we went to the Market House and saw the 
tragedy of Cato, and the Padlock for an Entertain- 

June 5. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 



at Coll; Lent Masters Sen’' my Mare this mormng 
to go to his curacy at Gadington about 6 miles from 
Oxon. I went to St. Mary’s in the afternoon and 
heard an indiiferent discourse by Cooke of Christ- 

For Wine this afternoon m M.C.R. pd. . o. o. 6 
I went to Chapel this evening, much company there. 
I took a walk with Webber after 1 1 this evening over 
the University. Holmes went with us. A common 
Strumpet we met with, and if it was not for me 
would have been sent to Bridewell. It was one 
o’clock before I got to bed to-night. 

July 5th. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at College. Thorpe breakfasted with me this morn- 
ing. . . . Lent Thorpe one of my Proctors gowns this 
morning as he is one of the occasional Proctors, for 
this Week, this Week being our grand gala for this 
year. . . . There was a sermon this morning at St. 
Mary’s for the Benefit of the Infirmary preached by 
the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry (Dr. Worth), 
but I could not conveniently go. We dined at 2 

For Wine this afternoon pd. , . . o. i. o 

A httle after 4 this aft went to the Theatre and 
heard the oratorio of Hercules, for a ticket pd o. 5. o. 
There was a good deal of Company present. The 
Music was very fine — A Miss Davies from the Opera 
House sung most delightfully. Miss Molly Linley 
sung very well. A Mr. Gosdall gave us a fine Solo 
on the Violincello as did Mr. Fisher on the Hautboy 
Miss Davies is to have they say sixty guineas. . 
Mr. Woodhouse a gent: Com: of Umversity College 
was very drunk at the Theatre and cascaded in the 
middle of the theatre Mr. Highway one of the 



nominal Proctors for this week desired him to with- 
draw very civilly but he was desired by one Mr. 
Peddle a gent* com: of St. Mary Hall not to mind 
him, my seeing Highway in that distress I went to 
them myself and insisted upon Woodhouse going 
away immediately from the Theatre, and then Peddle 
behaved very impertinently to me, at which I insisted 
upon his coming to me to-morrow morning. Mr. 
Woodhouse after some little time retired, but Peddle 
remained and behaved very impertinently, I there- 
fore intend putting him m the black Book. We did 
not come out of the Theatre till near 9. For Wine 
this evening in M C.R. pd o. o 6. Webber, myself 
and Thorpe took a walk between ii and 12 this 
evening and returned a little after 12. I met with 
one Mr. Broome, this evening of Brasenose College 
very much in liquor and who talked rather saucily to 
me, but I saw him to his Coll: and desired his company 
to-morrow morning. 

July 7th. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at College. Mr Broome waited on me this morning 
with an epistle and I set him one of Swifts Sermons 
to translate into Latin for the offence he was guilty 
of. There was nothing done this morning at the 
Theatre. We dined again at 2 o’cl: to day. 

For Wine this afternoon in the M.C.R. pd. o. o 6 
Went to the Theatre this afternoon and heard a 
miscellaneous concert performed there pd o. 1. o 
For Tea at Dick’s Coff. H between the 
acts pd . . . . . . o. o 8 

The Theatre yesterday and to-day very orderly. 

For Books of performance each day pd . o. o. 6 
After the Music took a walk in Merton Gardens which 
was exceedingly crowded indeed. I spoke to two 



gentlemen in the garden for wearing green capes to 
their coats. 

For Wine this evening in M.C.R. . . o. o. 6 

July 8. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at New College. Cooke Sen' and Townshend break- 
fasted with me Went up into the schools at 2 o’clock 
and heard 3 declamations for my Master Webber.^ 
Helliar dined in the Chequer and spent the afternoon 
with us. 

For Wine and fruit this aft and evening pd o. i. 6 
Went to Chapel this evening at 5 o’clock. A quiet 
day to-day, a great deal of company gone. Put 
Mr. Peddle into the Black Book m these Words 
‘ Johannes Peddle Superioris Ordinis Commensalis ex 
auM beatae Mariae Virgims, quod publice in Theatro 
Procuratoris deputatum in officio exequendo obstitit, 
summaque contumaciS et contemptu academicae 
authoritatis se gesserit ab omni gradu suspendatur 
donee ad plenum satisficiet. Mensis Julii 7 1774 
Jac: Woodforde Proc: Jun: Dep:’ Mr. Broome 
brought the sermon I set him. 

July 27. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at College. Cooke Sen' and Master Sen' breakfasted 
with me. I sent a note to Mr. Bowerbank of Queen’s 
this morning to desire him to dine with me to-day, 
which he will. 

Gave Bull’s Boy Gooby, this morning . o. o. 6 
Mr. Hindl^, Dr. Thurlowe, Master of the Temple, 
Dr. Burrows, Dr. Birchenden, and Mr. Bowerbank 
dined and spent the afternoon with me at New 
College. I borrowed the Chequer Room of the 
Bursars for niy company to dme in. We were very 

^ See pp. 158-62 for an account of the Oxford system in the eighteenth 



merry and pushed the Bottle on very bristly. I gave 
my Company for dinner, some green Pea Soup, 
a chine of Mutton, some Nerv College Puddings, 
a goose, some Peas and a Codlin Tart with Cream. 
Madeira and Port Wine to drink after and at dmner 
some strong Beer, Cyder, Ale and small Beer. Dr. 
West spent part of the afternoon and supped and 
spent the evening with me. I had a handsome dish 
of fruit after dinner. At 7 o’clock we all went from 
the Chequer to my Room where we had Coffee and 
Tea. Dr. Birchenden went from us soon after coffee 
and did not return agam. . . . Mr. Hindley, Dr. 
Thurlowe, Dr. West, Dr. Burrows and Mr. Bowerbank, 
supped and stayed with me till after one. Mr. 
Hindley, Dr. Burrows, Mr, Bowerbank and myself got 
to Cards after coffee. At whist I won i. o, 6 

out of which, Mr. Hindley owes me . o. 5. o 

I gave my company only for supper cold mutton. 
After supper I gave them to drmk some Arrac Punch 
with Jellies in it and some Port wine. I made all 
my Company but Dr. West quite merry. We drank 
8 bottles of Port one Bottle of Madeira besides Arrac 
Punch, Beer and Cyder. I carried of my drinking 
exceedingly well indeed. 

Aug. 4th. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at College. Coker, Williams Jun*", Swanton, Town- 
shend and Cooke Sen*' breakfasted with me this 
morning. Paid my bedmaker Frank Paine half a year’s 
waiting on me due June 24. 1774, this 

morning i. 5. o 

Dr. Burrows and Dr. Birchenden called on me this 
morning and Dr. Burrows paid me for Mr. 

Hmdley , . . . . o. 5. 6 

Gave my Barber Jonathan, yesterday . o. 1. o 



Sent to the Warden to dme with us which he pro- 
mised. The Warden dined, supped and spent the 
evening with us. Four Horses started to-day, Capt: 
Kelly’s Batchelor, Capt; Berties Piper, Sir Harry 
Harper’s Freedom and Mr. Rawl’s Don Joseph. 
I had Don Joseph in 4 Lotteries and Freedom m 
a Lottery of ten People of half a crown each — I lost 
the ^ first lotteries and won the last, as Freedom won 
with ease. 

1 lost therefore . . i. 12 o 

and won i. 2. 6 

So that I lost on the balance . o. 9. 6 

I did not go to see the Race to-day but stayed at 
home and played at Bowls with Jeffries and I beat 
him and won of him o. 5. o 

For Wine this afternoon in M.C.R. pd o. 2. o 

Coker, Townshend, Dan Williams, Blisse, Dr. Wall 
and Webber and myself made a very late night of it 
being very jolly indeed. We sat up till near 4 in the 
morning I fetched 3 Bottles of Wine out of my 
Room after 12 o’clock For Wine besides in M.C.R. 
this evenmg pd o. i. 6. 

On September 6th he sets out for Ansford for a brief 

Sept. 27. I breakfasted and supped and slept again at 
Parsonage. Sister Jane, Sister White and Mr. Poun- 
cett dined at Cole to-day. I took a ride this morning 
to Shepton Mallet to see my dear Betsy White, but 
she and her Father are gone to Bristol to-day so that 
I only saw her Mother and that after dinner. I dined 
and spent the afternoon at Mr. Figges’s with him, his 
wife and old Mrs. Paine, who were all glad to see me 


O. I. o 


Gave Mrs. Figges’s Maid 
For my Mare and Hostler at Shepton pd 
and gave . . . . . . o. i. o 

I returned in the evening about 7 to Parsonage. 

Oct. 6th. I breakfasted and dined at Parsonage. To 
Mr. Owens my Barber for shaving and dressing my 
Wiggs for me since I have been in the Country 
pd ....... o. 6. o 

Ih the afternoon I set forth for Bath to Oxford. 
Mr. Pounsett went with me to Bath. We rode and 
had the Boy with us to carry a portmanteau. 

Gave Eliz: Crich our servant maid . . o. 2. 6 

Gave Mary Crich, Alice Stacy and Pris- 
cilla Jefferies this morning three poor 
neighbours a shilling each ... 30 

I left my Sister Jane very low indeed. I called at 
Brother John’s as I went to Bath to take my leave of 
him. Brother Heighes was at Jack’s. I gave my 
Brother Heighes going away . . i. i. o 

Mr. Pounsett gave me a leverett to carry with me. 
We got to Bath in very good time about 7 o’clock. 
We set off from Ansford about 2 o’clock. We stopped 
and slept at the White Lion at Bath. We met Jack 
Sampson in the Barr at the White Lion this evemng, 
he asked us to dine with him to-morrow. Nothing 
talked of at Bath but the General Election as the 
Parliament was dissolved last week, — most places 
busy in Election Works, new members to be chosen 
all over the Kingdom in a month. 

To Turnpikes to-day pd . . .0.1.0 

The main issue at these elections was the American 
issue, whether or not the American colonists should be 
coerced into obedience in the quarrel which had arisen 



over taxation. To all intents and purposes, since the 
Boston Tea Riot in December 1773, an uneasy armed 
truce had existed. Boston Harbour had been closed by 
Act of Parliament, and the Charter of Massachusetts had 
been altered so as to depnve the colonists of a large part 
of their liberties. This was m 1774, before the General 
Election. The result of the elections was a triumphant 
majority for the coercion policy of the King and Lord 
North, a majority of nearly 200. This parhamentary 
triumph ‘was greatly owing to the exertions of the 
clergy ’. A little later Wesley also, in his ‘ calm address 
to the American Colonists ’, powerfully supported the 
Government. In the new Parliament, Chatham, Shel- 
burne, and Burke fought a hopeless battle, and the 
Lexington skirmish in April 1775 made war inevitable.^ 

On October 7 the Dianst leaves Bath and takes a post 
chaise to Petty France ‘ I went from Petty France to 
the Duke of Beaufort’s at Badminton to call on Dr. Penny, 
as I had a letter from his brother to him, but he was not 
at the Duke’s, however I met him in the Duke’s park 
returnmg from his livmg, he desired me to return to 
the Duke’s to dinner, but I did not like it as all the 
family is there. I got to Tedbury about 4 o’clock where 
I dined, supped and slept at the White Hart, a very 
good Inn. I had the Leverett for dinner at Tedbury.’ 

Next day, October 8, he reached Oxford. 

Oct. 13. I breakfasted, dined and slept again at College. 
Coker, Master Sen*^ and Grantham breakfasted with 
me this morning upon cocoa. Very low to-day 
having a great purging upon me. ... I went to 

^ Abbey and Overton, The Ei^luh Church, , vol 11, p. 33 , Lecky’s 
Htstoiy of England,, vol iv, p 195 ; George Ill’s Infe m D N.B,; and 
Wesley’s Journal, vol. iv, pp 60-1 (Everyman edition). 



Chapel this evening at 5 o’clock. Had a letter from 
Brother Heighes to let me know that our Brother 
John was married to Miss Clarke of Evercreech Mon- 
day last. Pray God they may be happy. At Back 
Gammon this evening with Bhsse won o. 5. o. I took 
some Rhubarb this evening about 10, and went to bed. 

Oct. 15. ... I caught a remarkable large Spider in my 
Wash Place this morning and put him in a small 
glass decanter and fed him with some bread and 
intend keeping him . . . 

Nov. 5. I breakfasted, dined and slept again at College. 
Master Sen' and Cooke breakfasted with me Paid 
Miss Hall my Sempstress this morning . i. 3. o 
For Wine this afternoon m M.C R. pd . o. o. 6 
For Tobacco in M.C.R. at divers times pd o. o 6 
I went to Prayers this evening at 5 o’clock in our 
Chapel. There was a Sermon preached in our Chapel 
by Mr. Crow this evening, being the 5 of November. 
The Sermon was immediately before the Anthem. 
The Warden received an account of the Death of 
Dr. Ridley, Rector of one of our Livings in Norfolk, 
by name Weston Longeville worth it is said ^300 
per annum. I went to bed at 10 o’clock to-night. 

This is the first reference to the Norfolk parish in 
which he was to spend twenty-seven years of his life, 
from 1776 to his death in 1803. 

Nov. 8. ... Dr. Blackstone dined with the Bursar, 
spent the aft. in M.C.R. supped, and spent the even- 
ing with me in the Chequer. [Under Nov. 9 he notes, 

‘ he kept me up late last night ’.] ^ 

^ By Dr Bkcbtone the Diarist presumably means the great Dr Black- 
stone, Sir William (1723-80), who was Vinenan Professor of Law at 



Dec. 6. ... Master Sen’^ publickly declared this after- 
noon in M.C.R. his intention of not taking the living 
of Weston. I therefore immediately being the next 
Senior in Orders canvassed the Senior Common Room, 
and then "went with Master into the Jun*’ Common 
Room and canvassed that. The Jun*^ Common Room 
pretty full. . . . 

Dec. 15. ... We had a meeting of the whole House in 
the Hall at 12 o’clock, to present a Person to the 
Living of Weston Longeville and to seal the remain- 
ing Leases. The former came on first. Hooke and 
myself were the two candidates proposed Many 
learned and warm arguments started and disputed, 
and after 2 hours debate the House divided and it 
was put to the Vote, when there appeared for me 
21 votes, for Mr Hooke 15 only, on which I was 
declared and presented with the Presentation of the 
Rectory. The chief speakers for me were the Warden, 
Mr. Holmes, Mr. Webber, Mr. Gauntlett, and Dr. 
Wall. The chief speakers for Mr. Hooke were 
Mr. Caldecott, Mr. Coker Sen*^, Mr Adams, Mr. 
Thorpe and Mr. Milton, the latter talked nothing 
but nonsense. The Members present were as under- 
written. [Note that the Diarist very sensibly votes 
for himself ] 

For Mr. Woodforde 
The Warden 
Master Sen' 

For Mr. Hooke 

Oxford from 1758-66 , he 11137, however, be referring (m this later 
reference) to the son, who was also Vinenan Professor. It is said that 
the great Dr Blackstone wrote his world-famous Cmmentanes with 
a bottle of port always beside him to refresh his flagging energies. (See 



For Mr. Woodforde 

For Mr. Hooke 





Bathurst Sen' 



Coker Sen' 












Bathurst Jun' 



Williams Jun' 

Coker Jun' 

Cummin Sen' 




Cummin Jun' 


No. 21 

No. 15 

. . . I treated the Sen’' Com: Room with Wine and 
Fruit in the afternoon and in the evening with Arrac 
Punch and Wine. I treated the Jun" Com: Room 
with one dozen of Wine afternoon and in the evening 
with Arrac Punch and Wine. I gave the Chaplains 
half a dozen of Wine, the clerks 2 bottles and the 
Steward one bottle. I smoked a pipe in the afternoon 
with Coker’s Father. A little after ii o’clock this 
evening I went down into the Jun" Common Room 
attended with Master Sen', Cooke, Adams, Town- 
shend and Holmes to thank them for the favour con- 
ferred on me. We stayed there till after 12 and 
returned then to the Sen' Common Room and stayed 



till near 4 o’clock. We were exceeding merry in the 
Jun*" Common Room and had many good songs sung 
by Swanton, Wilhams Jun*' and Wight. And also 
a very droll one by Busby, which occasioned great 
laughter. The Jun' Common Room was exceeding 
full and so was the Sen’’ both after dinner and supper. 
Hooke dined with us Bursars and spent the afternoon 
in M.C.R. In the evening he and Milton set off in 
a Post Chaise for Wallingford. 

1775. Jan. 2. I got up this morning between 5 and 7, 
breakfasted in my rooms upon Cocoa and afterwards 
went to the Cross Inn in the Corn Market, where 
I got into the Bath Machine to go into the West 
Country. Dr. Wall breakfasted with me and went 
with me in the Bath Machine, it being a Frost so far 
as Burford. Mr. Fisher of University Colh went with 
us in the Machine as did one Sally Kirby, a servant 
maid of one Mrs. Horwood of Holton near Ansford 
who is now at Bath and bad in the gout. We stayed 
at Whitney and made a second breakfast, we treated 
the maid at Whitney, I pd o. 1.6, gave the porter 
at the Cross Inn Oxford o. i. o. We then went on 
to Burford where we stayed to change horses. Dr. 
Wall left us at Burford and went to his Brother’s in 
a Chaise about 13 miles from Burford. We took up 
another servant maid at Whitney who went with us 
to Cirencester. Mr. Fisher, myself and Mrs. Hor- 
wood’s maid all go to Bath together. We dined at 
Bibury and we treated the two maids. Fisher and 
myself pd at Bibury o. 4. 6. We got to Cirencester 
about 6 o’clock where we supped and slept at the Bull 
there. The two maids supped and spent the evening 
with us. Fisher and myself went to an auction of 
Books this evening at Cirencester, the Auctioneer very 



saucy. I met with Brother Small [Free MasonJ at 
the Auction Fisher and myself treated the two 
maids pd o 6. o apiece this evening as we might not 
be hindered to-morrow. 

He stops a night in Bath, and therefore does not reach 
Ansford till the 4th. He remains at Ansford till February 
1st. Nothing very eventful happens. He is much 
pleased with Brother John’s newly wed wife, though 
Brother John himself continues to cause him aftxiety on 
account of his rather excessive regard for the bottle. 
Squire Creed, the younger, dies, and there is a great 
funeral at which the Diarist was a principal Mourner : 

‘ Tlie Mourners had only sattin Hatbands and gloves ’, 
still ‘ it was a handsome Funeral and Church full ’. The 
Diarist is a little disappointed in the will, as no mention 
is made of the Ansford estate which his, the Diarist’s, 
Aunt Collins, had left away from her family by’ giving 
it to Squire Creed, and which the latter had promised 
‘ should revert to her family again ’. He finds a new 
sort of Social Club started in Cary, the gentlemen and 
the ladies meeting separately at each others houses every 
Thursday. There is the usual constant round of mutual 
visiting and entertainment which is so marked and pleasant 
a feature of country life at this period. On January 28th 
he rides over to Shepton Mallett and calls on ‘ Mr. White 
at Shepton, but Betsy White was not at home, she being 
in Devonshire at Mr. Troit’s and is to remain there till 
Easter — ^was told ’. Of the unfortunate results of this 
Devonshire visit of Betsy’s— -unfortunate for our faithful 
Diarist — ^we shall hear anon. 

Feb. ist. I breakfasted and dmed at Parsonage, and 
at one o’clock set of for Oxford in Ansford Inn Chaise 




. . . gave a boy from Bruton for bringing a Hare 
o. I. o which I carried with me, sent by Mr. Masey 
to Mr. P. I left all our folks rather low on my 
gomg away. ... I put up at the Angel in West-gate 
Street Bath where I supped and slept. I met 
Mr. Parfitt of Wells, the Bishop’s Secretary at my 
Inn at Bath and he supped and spent the evening 
with me. He told me that I should have my Testi- 
monium as soon as possible, it is now with the Bishop 
at London. . . . N.B. The Bath Coach for to-morrow 
for Oxford quite full, so that I forfeit my half guinea 
that I paid some time back, and must go to Oxford 
some other way, as I did not come last week. How- 
ever I met with a young gentleman from Devon at 
my Inn, who is going to Oxford, by name Coleridge 
of Ottery St. Mary, and we agreed to take a Chaise 
to-morrow between us for Oxford. So far so good. 
He is of Christchurch Coll, on the Students List and 
Dr. Kennicott there is his great friend. He spent 
the evening with us at the Angel Inn. . . . 

Next day the Diarist and Mr. Coleridge proceed to 
Oxford, which they reach between 7 and 8 o’clock, 
changing horses four times — at the Cross Hands, Tetbury, 
Bibury, and Whitney. ‘ The whole cost us apiece about 
£ 1 . 14. 6. . . . The Hare that I brought with me [I] gave 
the Warden.’ 

The Mr. Coleridge who thus travelled to Oxford with 
the Diarist was WiUiam Colendge, one of the eight 
brothers of the celebrated Samuel, who at this date was 
not three years old. William himself was born on 
March 8, 1758. His father was the Reverend John 
Coleridge, Vicar of Ottery St. Mary. William matricu- 
lated at Christ Church as Servitor on June 3, 1774, and 



was admitted as Scholar at Wadham, September ^o, 1777. 
He took his B.A. degree in 1779, and his M.A. in the 
following year, before the close of which he died. Shortly 
before his death he had been ordained. He was an 
excellent scholar, and apparently ‘ drudged like an emmet ’ 
at Oxford. Lord Coleridge says : ‘ He took life senously. 
He would not have the buckles brother James the soldier 
sent him, and took the lace off his best shirt so as not to 
appear informally or uncanonicaEy.’ ^ His ‘ great Friend’, 
Dr. Kennicott, was the foremost Hebrew Biblical scholar 
of his time, and was an old friend of his father, the Vicar 
of Ottery St. Mary, who may also be called the founder 
of the very distinguished house of Coleridge. 

Feb. 7. . . . Sent a letter this aft: to my curate Mr. 
Howes of my Living of Weston m Norfolk. . . . Had 
a letter this evening from Mr. Peddle of Sussex con- 
cerning his name being in the Black Book. He was 
very submissive and penitent in this last. 

Feb. 17. . . . Mr. Peddle gent. Com* St. Mary Hall 
whose name is in the black Book put in by me in July 
last, waited on me this morning to desire me to take 
his name out of the same, which I promised to do 
upon his bringing me a Declamation on — ^Nemo 
omnibus horis sapit, and asking pardon of Highway 
of Baliol, . . . 

Feb. 20. ... Mr. Peddle brought me his Declamation 
this morning. I went to Highway of Baliol about 
him, and he is satisfied, therefore this aft* I seat to 
the Sen' Proctor for the black Book and erased his 
name, and put satisfecit. 

Feb, 28. ... I supped and spent the evening at Braze- 

1 fbeSiory of a Devonshire House S 2-4), by Lord Coleridge, K.C, ; 

Foster’s Alumm Oxomenses 

L 2 



Nose Coll: with Brother Wood, we supped in the 
Hall and spent the evening in the Sen' Com: Room. 
... It being Shrove Tuesday we had Lambs Wool 
to drink, a composition of Ale, sugar etc , Lobsters, 
Pancakes etc., to eat at Supper, and the Butler there 
gives a Plumb Cake with a copy of Verses of his own 
making upon it. . . . 

March 13. ... At half past eleven this morning went 
with Cooke to see George Strop ^ hanged, — ^who was 
hung about a qr before one o’clock near the Castle. 
He confessed (just as he came out of the castle) the 
crime for which he suffered, but not before. He 
pulled up his cap two or three times to delay. A 
Methodist prayed by him in the Cart for some time 
under the GaUows. He seemed full hardy. It is 
said that he declared yesterday, if he had only his 
Liberty for one qr of an hour, he would employ it 
in murdering of his wife. I think I never saw such 
sullenness and villainy in one face. Jack Ketch kissed 
him twice before he went of. His body was carried 
to Dr. Parson’s to be dissected and anatomised pur- 
suant to the sentence. I do believe that there were 
more than six thousand spectators present when he 
was hanged. I took to two gentlemen there for 
wearing different capes to their coats, than the coats 
were of. 

On April 9 he enters that he is very busy packing up 
for ‘ my Norfolk Expedition ’ — an expedition to take 
possession of his living at Weston. This is a temporary 
visit, as he does not go*into residence till over a year 

^ ‘A shoemaker, an hardened villain who mnrdered hia Master at 
Bicester * (entry under March 10). 



April lo. I breakfasted in my room this morning at 
7 o’clock upon some chocolate as did Cooke with me. 
After breakfast about 8 o’clock I set of in Jones’s Post 
Coach for the City of London. Cooke went with me 
in the same, and I promised to frank him all the way 
to Norfolk as he goes to oblige me. Mrs. Prince and 
Osborn Wight of our Coll: went with us to London 
in the Machine or Post-Chaise. We all dined together 
at Maidenhead Bridge and then proceeded on to 
London For Cooke and myself at Maidenhead pd 
o. 8. o. For the remaimng fare for Cooke and myself 
pd o. 15. o. We got to London about six o’clock 
Cooke and myself then took a Hackney Coach and 
went to the Turk’s Head Coffee House in the Strand 
opposite Catherine Street, kept by one Mrs. Smith, 
a Widow and a good motherly kind of a woman, her 
person and talking very much hke Mrs. Carr of 
Twickenham and there we supped and slept. To the 
Oxford coachman gave o. 2. o. For an Hackney 
Coach to the Turk’s Head pd o. 3* o* We went in 
the evening to Mr. Burns in Duke Street, West- 
minster, Secretary to the Bishop of Norwich to 
leave my papers with him and to desire the Bishop 
to give me Institution to-morrow, but he told me 
that he thought the Bishop wd not so soon. Tren- 
chard and Lovel late of the University supped ar^ fl 
spent the evening with us at the Turk’s Head. Mrs. 
Prince was a very agreable and merry Traveller. 

April IX. We breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at the Turk’s Head Coffee House. At ii o’clock this 
morning I went in my gown in an Hackney Coach to 
Upper Grosvenor Street to the Bishop of Norwich 
but he was not within. I spoke to his man. For the 
Hackney Coach back and forward pd o. 3. 6. At 



12 Cooke and myself took a walk to Westminster 
Abbey, to the Horse Guards, to the Mell etc. We 
dined by ourselves at the Turk’s Head. In the even- 
ing we went and called at Mr. Strahan’s, the King’s 
Printer, where Mrs. Prince is, to talk with her about 
going to Norwich. We lounged about afterwards till 
supper time. I saw Brereton and Courtney at the 
Coffee House to-day. 

April 12. We breakfasted, supped and slept again at 
the Coffee House. I went to the Bishop of Norwich 
this morning, found his Lordship at home. Dr. Salter 
with him, rec^ my letters of Institution and was 
instituted very soon, his Lordship behaved exceed- 
ingly handsome and free. Paid his Secretary, Mr. 
Burn, for the same 4. 17 6 Gave his Lordship’s 
servant o. 5. o. . . . The Bishop of Norwich is a short 
fat man. . . . We settled with Mrs. Prince this even- 
ing about going to Norwich to-morrow morning, we 
aie to go in a Post Chaise. . . . 

April 13. Cooke, myself, Mrs. Prince and one Mrs. 
Millard who has a Brother at Norwich, a Minor 
Canon, set of this morning early in an hired Post 
Chaise and four for Norwich over Epping Forest. At 
the Turk’s Head Coffee House for myself and Cooke 
paid and gave to servants etc., 3. o. We changed 
Horses and Coach at the bull-faced Stagg, on Epping 
Forest, and went on to Harlowe where we were 
obhged to take chaises. From Harlowe we went on 
to Stanstead, where we had some Wine and Egg, and 
fresh Chaises. From Stanstead we went on to Bourne 
Bridge, took fresh Chaises and went on to New 
Markett where we dined and then went on in fresh 
Chaises to Barton Mills where we changed again and 
then on again to Thetford where we drank coffee and 



then went on to Attleborough, and then on to 
Norwich where we got, I thank God safe and well 
about II at night. We all supped and spent the 
evening together at the King’s Head ^ in the Market 
Place, Norwich. It being after lo when we got to 
Norwich we found the City Gates shut. We did not 
get to bed tUl after 2 in the morning. . . . From 
London to Norwich, 109 miles, and the best of roads 
I ever travelled. 

April 14. We breakfasted, dined, supped and slept at 
Norwich. We took a walk over the City in the morn- 
ing, and we both agreed that it was the finest City 
in England by far, in the center of it is a high Hill 
and on that a prodigious large old Castle almost 
perfect and forms a compleat square, round it is a fine 
Terrass Walk which commands the whole City. There 
are in the City 36 noble Churches mostly built with 
Flint, besides many meeting Houses of divers sorts. 
A noble River runs almost thro the Center of the 
City. The City walls are also very perfect and all 
round the City but where the River is. On the Hills 
round the City stand many Wind Mills about a dozen, 
^to be seen from Castle Mount. We drank Tea and 
Coffee in the afternoon with Mr Millard and his 
Wife, Dr. Salter’s daughter, in the Lower Close. 
Mrs. Prince and Mr. Millard there also. After tea 
we got to Quadrille — ^lost o. i. o. Mrs. Millard is 
a very impolite lady, rather rude. We supped and 
spent the evening and slept at our Inn. Our journey 
from London to Norwich cost ^i i 14. 4 which I paid, 

^ We shall hear of the King’s Head constantly hereafter, as the Diarist 
always stayed there when he went into Norwich from Weston. Alas, it 
18 no longer in existence. I searched the Market Place in Norwich for 
It in vam 



half oi which I reed this afternoon from Mrs. Prince 
and Mr. Millard’s brother — ^^5. 17. o. 

April 15. We breakfasted at our Inn at Norwich and 
about 12 we set forth for Living at Weston in 
a Chaise. At Norwich at Inn this morning pd 
2. 2. o Chaise etc to Weston included. We got to 
Weston which is about 9 miles from Norwich by 
2 o’clock in the afternoon where we dined, supped 
and slept at the Parsonage House. To Turnpike and 
Driver from Norwich to Weston pd 2. o. My curate 
Mr. Howes came to us in the afternoon. Bed etc., 
all in readiness for us when we came We earned with 
us some Wine and Cyder from Norwich. 

April 16. We breakfasted, supped and slept at Weston 
Parsonage. A man and his wife, by name Dunnell 
live at the Parsonage House and are good kind of 
people. We went to Church this morning at Weston, 
and Cooke read Prayers and preached for Mr. Howes. 
I also administered the H: Sacrament this morning at 
Weston Church being Easter Day — I had near 40 
Communicants. N.B. No money collected at the 
Sacrament, it not being usual at Weston. My clerk 
is a shocking Hand. The worst singing I ever heard 
in a Church, only the Clerk and one man, and both 
intolerably bad. Mrs. Howes and her niece Mrs. Davy 
were at Church and they would make us get into their 
Chaise after Church and go vdth them to Hockering 
to Mr. Howes, where we dined and spent the after- 
noon and came back to Weston in the evening in 
Mr. Howes’s Chaise about 8 o’clock — Gave his driver 
I. o. Mr. Howes’ is about 2 miles West of Weston 
Cooke likes my House and Living very much. For 
my part I think it a very good one indeed. I sleep 
in the Garrett at Weston as I would not let Cooke 



sleep there, but immediately under in the New 
Bmldmg which is very good. Cooke is mightily 
pleased with his Scheme [i. e. the whole expedition]. 

The Diarist and his friend Cooke remain together at 
Weston till April 26. The time is taken up in viewing 
the glebe, making expeditions, interchanging visits with 
the Howes’, transacting on the Diarist’s part a variety of 
ecclesiastical business, such as being inducted by Mr. 
Howes, taking the Oath of Abjuration ^ before the 
Justices at Norwich, reading the 39 Articles in Weston 
Church before a crowded congregation, and ‘ declaring 
my assent and consent to the Liturgy 
On April 26 they go to Norwich for two days, see 
a Play one mght, and the sights of Yarmouth the next : 
this last expedition is described as follows : 

April 27. We got up pretty early this morning and at 
7 o’clock we got into the Yarmouth Coach to go to 
Yarmouth about 22 miles from Norwich. We break- 
fasted on the road, and got to Yarmouth about 
II o’clock where we dined and spent the afternoon 
at the Sign of the Wrestlers kept by one Orton, near 
the Markett Place We each took a Yarmouth Coach 
just big enough for one person and drove down to 
the Port, and so upon the Sea Coast close to the Sea, 
the German Ocean, out of which I drank. We were 
close to the Sea and sometimes the water came up to 
us. It is a sweet Beach. Upon the Port we saw the 

^ The Oath of Abjuration was imposed by the Abjuration Act of 1702, 
and IS a reminder of the Jacobite nightmare which haunted the eighteenth 
century, though but feebly in the latter part of it The oath abjuring 
the descendants of James II was by the Act of 1702 made a necessary 
qualification for every employment in Church or State (Stanhope’s ^he 
Retgn of Queen Anne, vol, 1, pp, 36-7, 1908 edition). 



Porpoises playing in the German Ocean. The tide 
was going out. We had a very fine day. After we 
returned from the Sea we went to the Church and 
saw that, and heard I think the finest Organ I ever 
did hear, the Organist, Mr. Chicheley, stone blind 
played on it. Between 3 and 4 this afternoon we 
got into the same coach and returned to Norwich 
about 7 o’clock. Yarmouth is a sweet place indeed, 
the key very fine. For our breakfast on the road this 
morning pd o. i. 6. For our Dinner, Coaches etc., 
at Yarmouth I pd o. ii. o. The Yarmouth coaches 
are very droll tHngs indeed. The wheels very low 
and directly under the seat, the shafts very clumsy 
and very long and up in the air. A very small matter 
will overturn them, being so very narrow, and not 
more than a foot from the ground. For our Fare to 
Yarmouth and back again each pd 0. 8. o. Gave the 
Coachman — each of us o. i o. We supped and spent 
part of the evening at Mr. Priest’s near the Markett 
Place, Norwich, with him, his wife and Mrs. Davy 
who seems to be fond of Mr. Cooke. She is a very 
young widow but has two children. We returned to 
our Inn about 10 o’clock where we drank a bottle 
of Clarett, this being Cooke’s birthday, for which he 
paid, and then we went to bed. We were highly 
pleased with our Scheme to-day 

The next day Cooke leaves him to go and stay with 
his brother-in-law, a Captain Uvedale, at Boxmoor 
House, near Needham in Suffolk, where the Diarist is to 
rejoin him in about ten days’ time. Meanwhile he 
returns to Weston, and is busy making' arrangements for 
receiving his tithes and lettmg his glebe. ‘ My plan is to 



ask 3 in the Acre throughout the Parish, and to let my 
Glebe Tithe free for i8r od. ditto.’ Then there is the 
valuation of the late Rector’s goods, and of course, the 
appalling question of dilapidations, as great a nightmare 
in the eighteenth century as to-day. It is, I think, the 
gravest possible reflection on ecclesiastical organization 
in matters financial, that some scheme has not been 
introduced long since to settle, on some reasonable 
basis, what is a perpetual source of anxiety and dispute. 
In this case the Diarist’s valuer, Mr. Frost, a master 
builder of Norwich, estimates the Weston dilapidations 
at 3^175 2J-. 6i., a very high figure if translated into 
modern* values. There ensues, of course, the mevitable 
dispute between the Diarist and the late Rector’s widow, 
who, also, of course, is badly off. 

On May 9th the Diarist joins his friend Cooke at 
Boxmoor, about thirty-seven miles from Norwich. Cooke 
met him and ‘ conducted me to Boxmoor House to his 
Brother-m-Law’s, Captam Sam* Uvedale, who has a most 
noble House and a very fine Estate round the same. . . . 
I dined, supped and slept at Captain Uvedale’s, with 
him, his wife and Mr. Cooke. Everythmg very elegant. 
Captam Uvedale and Lady behaved exceedingly civil and 

polite to me indeed . . . very agreeable People ’ Here 

he spends a most pleasant week, visiting Ipswich and 
going out m the Captain’s ‘ Chariot ’ to call on various 
neighbours and relatives of the Captain’s. On Sunday 
he hears ‘ a very indifferent sermon ’ from the Curate 
at Needham, but next day is compensated as ‘ Capt. 
Uvedale, myself and Cooke took a walk to Needham m 
the evening and smoked a Pipe there with a Shop-keeper 
by name Marnott a very hearty man ’. 

May 16. We got up at 5 o’clock and at 6 Cooke and 



myself -went in the Captain’s Chariot for Ipswich to 
go in the Ipswich Post Coach for London to-day. 
The Captain was up as soon as us to give orders. We 
took our leave of Mrs. Uvedale last night. I left 
in my Bed Chamber on the Table o. lo. 6 for the 
Captam’s Chambermaid. We got to Ipswich by 
7 o’clock. Gave the Coachman and Servant Boy 
o. lo. o. For the Captam he took a ride a different 
way. I never met with more civility anywhere than 
I have done at Captain Uvedale’s, his Lady very 
agreeable. At 7 this morning we got into the Ipswich 
Post Coach for London. . . . 

He and Cooke stay two nights m London at the Turk’s 
Head. On the i8th whilst walking in St. James’s Park, 
‘ the King and Queen with their guards went by us in 
Sedan Chairs from the Queen’s Palace to St James’s 
Palace, there being a Levee at St. James’s to-day at 
I o’clock. The King did not look pleasant but the Queen 
did.’ The entry continues : 

May 18. ... In our return back I lost my companion 
Cooke and therefore I took a walk by myself to West- 
minster Hall, where I saw the Lord Chancellor pre- 
sidmg in the Court of Chancery and Lord Mansfield 
in the King’s Bench.^ I saw there also Peckham, 

^ The Courts of Chancery and Kings Bench were held in Westminster 
Hall till well into the nineteenth century Between 1824 and 1827 
Sir John Soane built some new Law Courts at the west end of the Hail, 
which were used till the great buildings in the Strand were completed 
in 1882 Soane’s buildings at Westminster were afterwards demolished. 
The Lord Chancellor at this time was Lord Bathurst (1714-94), his term 
of office comprising the years 1771-9 It has been said that he was the 
least effiaent Lord Chancellor of the last century, and Lord Campbell 
observed that the building of Apsley House * was perhaps the most memor- 



Head, Caldecott etc , all in their great Wiggs and 
gowns with a hundred more. In the afternoon we 
went and saw the exhibition of Pictures in the Strand 
pd o. 2. o. From thence we went to Covent Garden 
Theatre and saw a Play (the Merchant of Venice and 
for the entertainment Love a la mode). The Theatre 
quite full being Miss Machlin’s Benefit. None of the 
Royal Family there. We sat in the Prince of Wales’s 
Box Cooke having two tickets from a Miss Saville 
who took the whole box, we each pd o. 5. o. Many 
returned, there being no room for them. Mr. Machhn 
acted Shylock in the Play and very well. Shuter, 
Quicke, and Woodward, capital Players also. Love 
a la mode (Author Mr. Machlin) is a very merry 
and cheerful Entertainment indeed. We separated 
coming out of the Play House and Cooke went home 
by himself and I by myself. I met many fine women 
(Common Prostitutes) m my return home, and very 
impudent indeed. The Turk’s Head very full after 
the Play. Thorpe etc., etc., there this evening. 

Next day they return to Oxford, and so ends this very 
pleasant six weeb’ jaunt. 

June 2. . . Selstone and myself settled our affairs 

concerning our being Masters of the Schools for the 
last year to-day before diimer. I had reed for Liceats 
£ 12 . 12. o Selstone had reed for Liceats £24. 6. o. 
So that the whole reed by both for Liceats £36. 18. o. 
Out of which we deducted for the Collectors of 

able act in the life of Lord Chancellor Bathurst ’ The Lord Chief Justice, 
on the other hand, William Murray, first Earl of Mansfield (1705-93) 
IS too eminent and well known to need a note (For Westminster Hall, 
see Wheatley and Cunningham, London Past and Present, vol 111. For 
Bathurst and Mansfield, the D N.B) 



Austins having had 41 Setts in the year at u. 6 d 
each ;f3. i. o, remaining therefore to be divided 
£33. 17. o which gave to each of us for Liceats only 
fj. 6 . 18. 6. Selstone paid me to make mme equal 
17. o. N.B. We are each to receive besides at 
Michadmas from the Vice Chancellor £5. o. o. So 
that I shall make in the whole for my being Master 
of the Schools last year £32 18. 6. . . . Selstone went 
away pretty full from my room. . . . 

This statement of the profits made by the Diarist as 
Master of the Schools would be entirely unintelligible 
without some account of the University system in the 
eighteenth century. The following remarks may clear 
up some obscurities 

It is generally admitted that the Universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge do not show at their best in 
the eighteenth century. Scholars, of course, there were, 
and not a few of them, whose lustre is as bright to-day 
as it was then, but the general light was dim. 

Our good friend. Bishop Watson of Llandaff, blaster 
of rocks in Westmoreland, thus describes his qualifica- 
tions for the Professorship of Chemistry at Cambridge, to 
which he was unanimously elected by the Senate in 
1764 : ‘ At the time this honour was conferred upon me 
I knew nothing at all of Chemistry, had never read 
a syllable on the subject, nor seen a single experiment 
in it ; but I was tired with mathematics and natural 
philosophy, and the “ vehementissima gloriae cupido ” 
stimulated me to try my strength in a new pursuit, and 
the kindness of the University (it was always kind to me) 
animated me to very extraordinary exertions.’ A few 
years later he was made Regius Professor of Divinity : ‘ On 
being raised to this distinguished office, I immediately 



applied myself with great eagerness to the study of 
Divinity.’ In 1748 Lord Chesterfield wrote to his son : 
‘ What do you think of being Greek Professor at one of 
the Universities ? It is a very pretty sinecure and 
requires very little knowledge, much less than I hope 
you have already of that language.’ 

Lord Eldon said : ‘ An examination for a degree at 
Oxford was a farce in my time. I was examined in 
Hebrew and History : “ What is the Hebrew for the 
Place of a Skull ? ” said the Examiner. “ Golgotha,” 
I replied. “ Who founded University College ? ” I 
answered, “ King Alfred.” “ Very well, sir,” said the 
Examiner, “ then you are competent for your degree.” ’ 
This was in 1770. 

The mediaeval curriculum, the ‘ Trivium ’, which 
consisted of grammar, logic, and rhetoric, and the 
‘ Quadrivium ’ of music, arithmetic, geometry, and 
astronomy, had degenerated in the eighteenth century 
into a system of declamations and disputations thereon. 
Oxford specialized in the ‘Trivial’, with the addition 
of some classics, history, and philosophy, and Cambridge 
in the * quadrivial ’ subjects. The Cambridge system 
(I speak as a Cambridge man, but the fact is, I think, 
not disputed) was more efficient in the eighteenth 
century, and certainly mathematics were genuinely 
studied, and real examinations held. If we are to beheve 
Dr. Vicisimus Knox (and Lord Eldon, quoted above), 
who took his M.A degree in 1779 Oxford, the esamina- 
tions for the B.A. and M.A degrees at that University 
were mere mockeries. Readers who wish to enjoy a pro- 
longed laugh should read Knox’s brilliantly witty de- 
scription of the Oxford system in his essay, * On some 
parts of the Disciplme in our English Universities.’ ^ 

^ Essays Moral and Literaryy V. Knox, 1782 



According to the University Statutes the Oxford 
course for the B.A, degree consisted of : 

I. Disputationes in parviso — commonly Imown as 
‘Generals’, or disputations on three questions in grammar 
or logic. 

II. Answering under a Bachelor, that is to say more 
disputations upon three questions in grammar, rhetoric, 
ethics, politics, or logic, a B.A. takmg the office of 

III. An examination in grammar, rhetoric, logic, 
ethics, geometry, Greek, and Latin ; the candidate 
chose his own examiners — ^three of them, and then got 
a ‘ Liceat ’ for the examination from the Proctor or 
Master of the Schools. The examination was held 

The statutory course for the M A. degree consisted of : 

I. Determination, i. e. Disputations on the ‘ Trivial ’ 

II. Disputationes apud Augustinenses — commonly 
known as ‘ Austins ’, more disputations, the candidate 
and the Master of Schools being alone. The Proctor 
appointed a B.A. as his ‘Collector in Austins’, who 
matched the ‘ disputants ’ at his discretion. In the 
Middle Ages the Oxford scholars had ‘ disputed ’ thus 
with the Augustinian monks. 

III. Disputationes Quodlibeticae — more disputations. 

IV. Sex Solennes Lectiones — or ‘ pro forma ’ disserta- 
tions on natural and moral philosophy, commonly known 
as ‘ Walls ’, because no one — except possibly a Proctor — 
was there to hear, and the candidate addressed the walls. 

V. Binae Declamationes, exercises in composition. 

VI. Examination as for B.A., with a slight variation in 
the subjects. 



It was upon the whole of these exercises and the 
manner of their execution that the witty Vicisimus Knox 
poured — to use his own excellent phrase — ‘ the utmost 
poignancy of ridicule.’ 

The ‘ declamations ’ in Chapel to which the Diarist so 
often refers, were required to be held by the College 
authorities, and were not technically a part of the degree 
course. In so far as these Latin compositions were the 
work of the declaiming student himself, they were 
probably very useful intellectual exercises, and the testi- 
mony of the Dianst is noteworthy both as to the subject 
of these declamations and their frequency. 

It is always easy to criticize, and* the Universities in 
the eighteenth century undoubtedly expose their flanks 
to the cntic’s attack. But it is pertinent to observe that 
if that system could be notoriously abused by the lazy, 
stupid, or unscrupulous student, it at least had this merit, 
that It left the student who had a brain really worth 
cultivating to cultivate it himself. At present there is, 
perhaps, some danger of the frequent lecture system 
developing into a sort of frenzy, in which lecturer vies 
with lecturer in pouring information into the student 
with an eye always on the inevitable examination, and 
rivers of outpoured information are of less value than 
the smallest spring of knowledge which the student has 
sought, and found himself. 

The career of Bishop Watson is at once an illustration 
of the defects and merits of the eighteenth-century 
University system The frank statements of the Bishop 
(already quoted) have been used by critics of that system 
as supporting their case. So, of course, they do. But the 
critics — or some of them — fail to bring out that, in the ■ 
case of Bishop Watson, better appointments to either 
Chair — of Chemistry and Divinity — ^have seldom been 

i6i M 


made ^ Bishop Watson’s researches in chemistry were of 
great scientific importance, and he was, a few years after 
his appointment to the Chair of Chemistry at Cambridge, 
unanimously elected a Fellow of the Royal Society — ^in 
1769 As an apologist of Christianity he was much 
respected by Gibbon, whose animadversions on the 
Christian religion the Bishop had vigorously countered 
Few more brilliant or broad-minded men have ever sat 
upon the Episcopal Bench, and not the least of Lord 
Shelburne’s good acts was his promotion of Dr. Richard 
Watson to the bishopric of Llandaff in 1782,® 

June 13. ... A Chinese man about 25 years of age 

attended by a multitude of People came to see our 
College and Gardens this morning, I was in the 
garden with him. He talks English very well. He 

^ Mr Winstanley in his recent book, University of Cambridge in the 
Eighteenth Century (pp 5-6), does the Bishop less than justice m merely 
describing him as ^in many ways a very favourable specimen of an 
eighteenth-century Professor \ who ^ appears conscientiously to have dis- 
charged his duties as a teacher ^ 

^ Scholae Academicae the studies of the English Universities in the 
Eighteenth Century ^ Christopher Wordsworth, 1877 , also Social Life at 
the English Universities in the Eighteenth Century ^ by the same author, 

The English Church in the Eighteenth Century^ Abbey and Overton, 1878 

The Church in England from William III to Victoria^ A H Hore, 1886 

Anecdotes of the Life of Richard Watson^ Bishof of Llandaff^ vol 1, passim 

Essays Moral and Literary^ V Knox, 1782 

The Report of the Royal Commission on Oxford and Cambridge (the 
Asquith Commission), 1922 

The University of Cambridge in the Eighteenth Century, D A. Win- 
stanley, 1922. 

Of these authorities I found Christopher Wordsworth’s Scholae Aca* 
demicae the most useful for my purpose • it is crammed with information 
For a compendious account of Bishop Watson’s career, see the excellent 
notice in the D. N B See also my remarks on this Bishop on pp 38-9. 



had on his head a Cap like a Bell covered with a red 
Feather and tyed under his Chin, a kind of a Close 
Coat on his back of pink Silk quilted, over that 
a loose Gown of pink silk quilted also, which came 
down to his heels, and over that a black Gauze or 
Crape in imitation of a long Cloak, a pr of Breeches 
or drawers of pink silk also and quilted, and a kind 
of silk Boots of the same colour and quilted also, and 
a pr of red Morocco Slippers. His hands were also 
covered with some thin silk of pink. He had a Fan 
tyed to a Sash before him. He was of a moderate 
stature, a tawny complexion, black hair tyed in a kind 
of tail, small eyes, short nose, no beard, in short as 
to his whole Face, it was uncommonly ugly, not 
unlike one of the runabout gipsies. . . . After prayers 
I went with Acton one of our Gent: Com* to have 
my Profile taken of by a Lady who is come to town 
and who takes of great likenesses I was not above 
a minute sitting for the same. . . 

June 23. ... This morning about 6 o’clock it pleased 
God to take to himself my worthy friend young 
Seymour [the son of the Dean of Wells, Lord Francis 
Seymour, whom we met at the Deanery some time 
back] and I hope he is now eternally happy in Thy 
Kingdom O Lord. Everybody that knew him, re- 
spected him much, and therefore is as greatly lamented 
by his friends. He was an amiable young man indeed, 
and a very good and dutiful son. Pray God comfort 
his distressed Parents and Friends for so great and 
valuable a loss in him He took his Batchelor’s 
degree but Thursday Sennight. . . . 

June 29. . . . Whilst Dr. Wall and self were at the 
[Freemasons’] Lodge, it was proposed in the Sen"^ 
Com. Room by Daubenny and Jeffries and carried by 

163 u 2 


a great majority, that Mr. Masters and Mr Bathurst, 
should not treat this evening for their Livings as 
usual, but give five guineas or so, to the Library or 
for plate. I cannot say but I was much displeased at 
it. . . . In the night there was a great riot in College 
by the Junior People who broke down Daubenny’s 
doors and broke Jeffries windows . . . 

June 30. ... A complaint being made to the Warden 
of the Riot last night in College, — the Deans were 
summoned to the Warden’s lodgings this morning to 
consider of the same, but none of the young gentle- 
men that were concerned in the same, not being to 
be met with, the meeting was put off till to-morrow 
morn. . . . 

Next day the meeting was accoidingly held — the 
Diarist being present as one of the Deans — and the 
principal offenders in the affair of the riot were punished 
by confinement for varymg periods, and impositions. 
The Diarist observes : ‘ For my part, I must own it did 
not deserve so serious a determmation or attention to 
the same. . . .’ 

July 13. I breakfasted, dined, supped, and slept again 
at College. Bell one of our Fellows was at Masters 
rooms this morning, who -informed me of the same 
and I went and saw him, walked in the garden with 
him, and had him to my room afterwards, and he 
stayed with me till dinner time. I asked him to dine 
with us but he would not. He asked me to eat a bit 
of dinner with him at his Inn, but he did not seem 
to be fond of my accepting his invitation therefore 
I declined going with him — I parted with him at 
3 — ^He appears to me to be quite cracked-brained and 



abuses the New Testament much but greatly praises 
the Bible and the Jews — a very strange Fellow. He 
IS grown quite fat, wears a black Wigg with 3 curls 
without any powder in it. I have not seen him before 
as I know for the last ten years. . . 

July 17. At 5 o’clock this morning went to the Cross 
Inn, and got mto the Bath coach for the West . . 

a Mr. Crocker of Wadham College, a Mrs. Tompkins 
wife of Mr. Tompkms the grocer m the Corn-Markett, 
Oxford, and her httle girl by name Sukey, a very 
pretty little girl about ll years old, were all the 
passengers. Mrs Tompkms and her little Maid are 
going into Cornwall to Bodmin to see her sistei who 
married Mr. Pickermg formerly a Chaplain of New 
Coll. I knew him. We breakfasted at Burford, dmed 
at Cirencester, and drank tea in the afternoon at 
the Cross Hands, and got into Bath about 8 o’clock 
m the evening For breakfast, dmner, and tea in 
the afternoon I paid 0. 8. o. as I treated Mrs. Tomp- 
kins’ little girl all the way Crocker took his leave 
of us at the Cross Hands — ^he went from thence for 
Bristol — he is a strange gemus. For the remaining 
part of the Fare [he had paid already 10s. 6 d. half 
fare m advance] and Luggage pd o. 14. o., gave to 
the coachmen as we had two o. 2. o. I supped and 
slept at the Angel m Westgate Street — Bath. Mrs. 
Tompkins and little Maid did the same — both much 

July 18. I breakfasted at the Angel with Mrs. Tomp- 
kins and daughter. After breakfast I took a chaise 
for Ansford, Mrs. Tompkins and daughter took 
another chaise for Wells. We travelled together so 
far as Old Downe and then we parted — ^Mrs. Tomp- 
kins is a very good kind of woman. At Bath for 



supper last night and breakfast I pd. o. 6. o. Gave 
to a Barber at Bath this morning o. i. o. I took 
a walk over Bath this morning with Miss Tompkins. 
Gave the Chamber Maid o. i. o. To the Boot- 
Catch and Waiter gave o. i . 6 For my Chaise to Old 
Downe pd. o. lo. 6. To the Driver and Turnpikes 
pd. o. 2. o. At Old Downe we had a glass of white 
wine together and then I went in a fresh Chaise to 
Ansford and Mrs. Tompkins and daughter for Wells. 
For Old Downe Chaise to Ansford pd. o. lo. 6. To 
the Driver and Turnpikes pd. o. 2. o. I got to 
Ansford to the Old House about 3 o’clock where 
I dined, supped and slept at the Parsonage House. 
I was very glad to find Mr. Pounsett was alive [he 
had been very ill] but he is still very bad indeed, not 
able to move at all. I am afraid he will not get the 
better of it — but he is much better than he was, as 
they told me. My poor sister is as well as can be 
expected. She has a very pretty little maid about 
two months old 

The period of nearly three months at Ansford which 
follows is, but for one very important episode, uneventful. 
Brother John continues to cause him anxiety, and there is 
an additional cause of feeling in that the patient Diarist, 
having received no rent from Brother John for three 
years in respect of the estate left him by his Mother, not 
unnaturally deades that he must seek another tenant. 
Mr. Pounsett recovers from his illness and during 
convalescence wheels himself about in the garden in 
a bath chair, one of the kind with a httle wheel fitted 
in to turn by hand. I confess I did not realize that this 
convenient contrivance was as old, or older than, 1775* 
On August 25th a neighbour was tried at Wells Assizes 



on the charge o£ murdering his wife, and was condemned 
to be hung hy the judge, who did not leave the hall during 
the whole ten hours of the trial. The Diarist was sum- 
moned as a witness to testify to the prisoner’s character, 
but his name being called while he was having some dinner 
— ^his endurance not equalling the judge’s — ^he failed to 
appear. As, however, he thought the prisoner guilty, 
his absence did not, presumably, affect the issue. The 
poor wretch protested his innocence to the last — ^he was 
hung on August 28th — ^the Diarist commenting ‘ if he 
IS [innocent] I doubt not he will be amply rewarded, if 
he is not — ^Lord be merciful unto his Soul ’. 

We come now to the main episode of this time, the 
conclusion of the Diarist’s one and only love affair told 
in a few lines with characteristic brevity : 

August 10. ... Jenny Clarke returned from Devon- 
shire last mght. Betsy White of Shepton is to be 
married in a fortnight to a Gentleman of Devonshire 
by name Webster, a man reported to have 500 P** 
per annum, 10,000 in the Stocks, beside expecta- 
tions from his Father. He has settled 300 P** per 
annum oh Betsy. 

Sep. 13. ... Jenny Clarke told me that she was at 
Shepton MaUett yesterday, and that Miss White 
was Married to Mr. Webster this day sennight the 
6 Instant. 

Sep: 16. ... Mr. and Mrs. Webster (late Betsy White) 
came to Sister White’s on Horseback this morning, 
and they dined, spent the afternoon there, and re- 
turned to Shepton in the Even®. I did not go to 
Mrs. White’s today tho much 'pressed in the aft:. 
Brother Heighes and myself took a walk in the evening 
down to Allhampton Field, and m oui return back 



we met Mr. and Mrs. Webster in the Turnpike Road. 
Mrs. Webster spoke as usual to me, but I said little 
to her, being shy, as she has proved herself to me 
a mere Jilt. Lawyer White at Mrs. White’s — quite 
drunk this evening. . . . 

The following are one or two homely, and more 
cheerful entries before the Diarist returns to Oxford. 

Sep: 27. ... Gave a poor old man at Rachel Pounsett’s 
by name Curtis, who is now in his 95 year, and walks 
strong, sees tolerable, and hears quick, and who has 
thatched some Hayricks this year tho’ so old . . . 

o. I. o. . . . 

Sep: 29. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at Parsonage. My Sister’s little Maid was publicly 
christened this morning at Ansford Church, Mrs. 
Donne and Mrs. Pounsett of Cole were her God- 
mothers, and myself the only Godfather. Mr. and 
Mrs. Donne, Mr. Guppey, Mrs Pounsett, Sister 
White, Sam Pounsett, all dined & spent the aft: at 
Parsonage Frank Woodforde christened the little 
Maid, and was asked to dine with us, but he declined. 
Being Godfather I gave to the Midwife o. 5. o., to 
the Nurse gave o. 5. o. To four Servants — i/o each 
— ^gave o. 4. o Brother Heighes and son Sam^ supped 
etc. at Parsonage. 

Sep: 30. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept agam 
at Parsonage. I went down to Sister Clarke’s this 
morning and made her a visit, she is not at all pleased 
in being not invited to the Christening yesterday — 
many more the same. . . . 

On October 3rd he sets out foi Oxford, which he reaches 



after an uneventful journey next day. On October 26 
we get the first direct reference in the Diary to the revolt 
of the American colonies . . . ‘ I went to the Convocation 
House and heard an Address to His Majesty on American 
affairs read and unanimously approved of the second 
time of its being proposed. The first time there were 
about three Non Placets — ^none the second time. The 
House was pretty full on the occasion. . . . ’ 

Lord Shelburne cynically observed about this time that 
‘ Loyal addresses were indeed many, but the enlistments 
were as few as the signatures to the addresses were 
numerous ’. On the other side of the Atlantic, where 
the rhetorical capacity of the revolting Americans was 
even more unlimited, the same phenomenon appeared. 
Washington complained of the ‘ amazing ’ backwardness 
of his troops to enlist for another year, and in a letter of 
November 28, 1775, confessed — ‘ Could I have foreseen 
what I have experienced, and am likely to experience, 
no consideration upon earth would have induced me to 
accept this command ’. There appears to have been 
more of academic vehemence than profound feeling on 
both sides, at least during the early days of the conflict.^ 

Oct- 30. ... Very busy again in the Audit House 
[doing the College Accounts] from 10 till 2 o’clock. 
Betting with Cooke and Boys this morning in the 
Audit House about casting up a sum won o. 10 6. 
which they owe me at present. . . . 

Nov: 7. . . . Very busy to-day in preparing things for 
Divinity Disputations for my Bachelor of Divmity’s 
Degree. Hariy Oglander and myself go up very soon. 
Nov: 1 1 . ... At one o’clock myself and Harry Oglander 

^ ljOxiT\tzaiA\m<.e\LtfeoJSbelburne,vo\ i,pp 4.79-81, "L&fkftHtstory 
oj England, vol, iv, p. 228 (foot-note) See also pp. 1 39-40 preceding. 


question was, An Sacra Scriptura contineat omnia ad 
salutem necessaria — ^AfErmatur — Our second was, An 
Sacra Scriptura sit satis perspicua in rebus ad salutem 
pertinentibus — ^Affirmatur . . The Professor Dr. 

Bentham behaved very polite and exceedingly civil 
to us indeed. . . . ^ 

Nov. 14. ... At I o’clock myself and Harry Oglander 
went again up into the Divinity School and disputed 
under the Professor as last Saturday, only I was 
Respondent. The Questions we went upon to-day 
were. An Sancti sint mvocandi — ^Negatur. An 

operatio gratiae Divinae sit irrisistibilis — Negatur. . . . 

Nov. 16. . . Very busy in the morning in preparing 

myself to preach a Latin Sermon before the Univer- 
sity which I intend doing very soon . . . 

Nov. 1 8. ... Had a letter this evening from my 

Norfolk Curate who acquainted me that Mrs. [Ridley] 
had had a survey taken on her side concerning 
Delapidations [at Weston] by a Clergyman, the 
Rev** Mr. DuQuesne and a WiU*"” Tompson, Car- 
penter at Hockenng and they did not bring it to 
more than £ 26 . 9. o. N.B., a very wide difference 
between us indeed. [The Diarist’s survey came to 
just over ;^i75,^it will be remembered ] My Curate 
Mr. Howes is very much for Mrs. Ridley. 

On November 20 he preached his Latin Sermon before 
the Vice-Chancellor m his robes, attended with three 
Beadles, in St. Mary’s Church . ‘ I wore a Gown & 
Cassock and had on my Master of Arts Hood without any 
Tippett to my Gown — my text was out of the Greek 

^ Edward Bentham, D D , 1707-76, made Regius Professor of Divinity 
at Oxford in 1763. He appears to have been an industnoub but unremark- 
able man (See D, N BJ) 



Testament, Rom: 6. l8 . 'EXevffepcoOevres 8e cVo r^s 
apaprCa's, i 8 ov\(tidr)T€ SiKaiocrwy My sermon was 
about half an hour long. After sermon I returned to 
Coll, and drank a dish of tea. . . . ’ 

On November 24 he took his Bachelor’s Degree in 
Divimty, paying at the same time a fee of £12. 18. 6. 
For the next day or two he is ‘ very bad indeed in the 
Influenza but after dosing himself with Brimstone, 
cream of tartar, and treacle, living ‘ very low ’, and going 
to bed early, he rapidly recovers. 

Nov 28. ... The warden sent down a note to the 
Jun' C. Room to acquaint the young gentlemen that 
if any of them should make any future noise in the 
College, they would suffer the greatest rigour of the 
Statutes. We have of many nights past had very 
great Hallowing etc. in the Courts, what is facetiously 
called the upright — ^the He . . . Up. Lee, War ton, 
Alcock, Bingham, Awbery and Busby the principal 
gentlemen, but Lee is far the worst They are 
called in the University the black Guards of New 
College for their noises m the street. I have been 
disturbed two or three nights lately by their great 
disturbance in the Court. The Jun' Com: Room 
Chimney Piece was pulled down Saturday night by 
the above Rioters. £ 

Dec. 8. ... Jumper Cox had a Prize of 5000 in the 
Lottery, his ticket was drawn yesterday — No. 55,471 ^ 
Dec. 9 ... Had a letter this evening from my Curate 
Mr. Howes and in it a Norwich Bank Bill of the sum 
of ;£i50. o. o. being part of money for Tithes received 
for me at Weston. 

Dec. 19. ... Agreed in the Thirteen this morning that 
^ See p. 89, 



the Coll, give to the Subscription that is set on foot 
for the King’s Troops at Boston — the sum of 
j^ 2 I O O. • . • 

December 21. ... My Fellowship this year was worth 
£So o o. [including] as Dean of Divinity and other 
Exhibitions ;^io. 5.0.... 

December 31. . . Sent a letter this afternoon to 

Mrs. Ridley at Greenwich, one that will not be 
relished very cordially . . [Doubtless the wretched 
Dilapidations dispute ] 

Jan 14, 1776 . . . The Post which should have come 

in last night, did not come till 10 this morning on 
account of the snow. Scarce ever was known so deep 
a snow as at present Many carriages obliged to be 
dug out near Oxon No Curates could go to their 
Churches to-day, — Not one from our College went 
today on account of y® snow. . . . 

Jan. 18. ... Williams Sen"^ and Jeffries played at all 
fours this evening in M.C.R. They had very high 
words at last and Wilhams threw the cards in Jeffries’s 
face, the whole pack, being in a very violent passion. 
They were both to blame, but Williams much more 
so Jeffries went to his room soon after and their 
[there] stayed. . . . 

On January 26 he had ‘ a very elegant dinner ’ at 
Brasenose College where he went ‘in a Visitational 
Capacity but did nothing at all, only received for my 
trouble as usual o. o. 8. Some of us go every quarter on 
the same account.’ 

The dinner was as follows • 

Jan* 26. ... First course Cod and Oyster Sauce, Rost 
Beef, Tongue and boiled Chicken, Peas, Soups and 



Roots. The second course a boiled Turkey by 
mistake of the Manciple, which should have been 
rested, a brace of Partridges rested, 4 Snipes and some 
Larkes rested, also an orange pudding, syllabubs and 
jellies, Madeira and Port Wines to Drink and a dish 
of Fruit. . . 

Jan 31. . . Thermometer down to No. 9 this morn. 
23 degrees beyond freezing. It is thought that 
Professor Hornsby’s Thermometer was down this 
morning — to No. 6. No. 4 is the lowest that ever 
was known. 

On February 15 he sets out for Ansford, which he 
reached next day ; the journey by post-chaise, including 
stopping the night at Tetbury, and all expenses on the 
way cost him the very large sum of ;^5 . 9. 5 . The j ourney 
was uneventful, though he spent a bad night at Tetbury 
owing to an officer turmng up veiy late and making a great 
noise. Just outside Bath he met Mr. Holmes ‘ of our 
College ’ returning on horseback who had been staying 
at Bath and he ‘ told me he never spent such a six weeks 
in his life — ^highly pleased ’ 

The next three months at Ansford, the last he was to 
spend at the Old Parsonage House, passed in the usual 
quiet country way, except for a scare of fire on March 5. 
The Diarist on that day was congratulating himself on 
feeling ‘ brave ’ again after a disorder which had ‘ pro- 
ceeded from eating great quantities of water-cresses 
when ‘ at one o’clock ... as a leg of mutton was rosting 
by the Kitchen fire, a very dreadful fire happened in 
the chimney ’. Cary and Ansford friends rushed to the 
rescue. Pails of water were thrown down the chimney 
as well as wet rugs and blankets, and in two hours the 
fire was extinguished. ‘ My Uncle sent down some Cyder 



in Pails to the people and we gave them more I offered 
a guinea to the people upon the house but they would 
not take it, Mr. Burge would not suffer it.’ The fire 
was all due to the chimney’s not having been swept ‘ for 
above twelve months. ... It is amazing that Mr. Pounsett 
should neglect it so long, very wrong indeed of him only 
to save sixpence ’. 

The subsequent weeks are spent — apart from the almost 
daily round of mutual hospitality — ^largely in settling 
things up prior to his final departure from Somerset in 
May. He lets his little estate of some thirty acres in 
Ansford to Farmer Corpe on March ii for seven years 
for a rent of o. o. per annum, the farmer to pay 
aU taxes except the Land Tax. He gives presents to 
various relations, particularly to Brother Heighes, who 
IS presented with ‘ a very handsome piece that I had 
by me for a waistcoat, a buff-coloured with sprigs in it ’, 
also he buys some broad cloth ‘ for a coat and breeches 
for Brother Heighes . . to wear with the waistcoat ’. 

Under March 26 and 27 there is an interesting refer- 
ence in the Diary to various cures for the King’s Evil, 
from which his mece Nancy (daughter of Heighes) is 
suffering, which will prevent her for the time being from 
coming with him to Norfolk. Alford Well water is said 
to have ‘ done great things in complaints of the King’s 
Evil ’. On April 14 he enters ‘ very much frightened 
and hurried this morning by hearing that my brother 
John had a fall from his horse in the night coming from 
Evercreech and was found senseless about i in the 
mormng’. He is greatly relieved to find him com- 
paratively uninjured. ‘ I hope this will caution him from 
riding when merry — ^he has had many falls before but 
none so ba 4 as this.’ On April 15 he mortgages his 
Ansford estate for the sum of ^^400, which he receives 



from his lawyer, Mr. Martin of Bruton, at 4 per cent, 
per annum. This considerable sum he expends partly 
on buying ‘ an house and orchard ’ for £100, partly in 
paying off various debts of his own and his Brother John, 
partly in paying back the principal and interest to various 
persons for whom he had acted as a sort of banker, and 
partly in purchasing two horses for £27 lys. 6d. (inclusive) 
on which he and his nephew Bill (son of Heighes) are 
shortly to set forth for Norfolk. The rest is available for 
other expenses connected with getting into his Norfolk 
hving. On May 6 he sends off ‘ 7 large Boxes to Mr. Will® 
Burge Junior, this afternoon for him to send them by 
the London Waggon tomorrow for Norfolk*. May 8 
is spent in packing and tahng leave of friends and 
relatives — ^ after supper I went down to my Brother 
John’s and took leave 

May 9. ... This morning at 9 o’clock took my final 
leave of the old Parsonage House at Ansford and went 
up to Mr. White’s and there I breakfasted with him, 
Sister White, Mr. Pounsett and Jenny, Brother 
Heighes, his son Will® and Sam and James Clarke. . . . 
After breakfasting at Mr. White’s about lo o’clock 
I took my leave of my Friends at Ansford and set 
forth on my mare for Norfolk, and Bill Woodforde 
and my boy Will. Coleman went with me. I left 
my friends very low on the occasion 

I must confess also to feehng ‘very low’ on this occasion. 
Having read forty-eight manuscript booklets covering 
every day of the period from July 21, 1759 to May 9, 
1776, 1 have become so acquainted with all the Somerset 
friends and relations in their daily lives that they are 
almost as familiar to me as my own family. Good 




affectionate Sister Jane, slow but amiable Mr. Pounsett, 
roystering Brother John, the hospitable Clarke and 
\^6ute families, wily Uncle Tom, the demure but 
faithless Betsy White (now Webster), friendly but im- 
pecunious — and I fear rather unsteady — Brother Heighes, 
Solicitor Martin, Counsellor MeUiar, Parson Gapper, and 
Parson Leach, the Burges, the Pews and the Russes — not 
least ‘ the fair Bathsheba ’ of whom the Diarist dreamed 
one night — ^to all these it would be heartrending to say 
* Farewell ’ ; happily the Dianst himself has made it 
impossible, and ‘ the unimaginable touch of time ’ leaves 
them, as they were, alive. 

Of Brother John a word should be said, as he will appear 
but rarely in future The tradition of his dare-devilry 
has survived in the neighbourhood almost to the present 
day. There are two stories of him which have been 
handed down ; one is that he rode his favourite horse 
into the Methodist Chapel and cursed the congregation, 
and another that he rode the same horse upstairs and 
jumped it over his wife’s bed. But he sobered down in 
time. He was apparently always known as ‘ Cap. Jack ’ — 
that he was an ensign in the Somerset Militia has been 
told in the Diary, and he rose to be a captain later. He 
died on September 23, 1799, in his fifty-fifth year. His 
wife Melliora Clarke survived him till 1826. She is said 
to have been a friend of Wesley’s, and possibly that very 
great man influenced her husband in later life. It is, 
at least, noteworthy that in his Journal under date 
Thursday, September 27, 1787, Wesley enters ‘About 
noon I preached at Castle-Cary. How are the times 
changed ! The first of our Preachers that came hither, 
the zealous mob threw into the horse-pond ; now, high 
and low earnestly listen to the word that is able to save 
their souls.’ 




The Dianst and his nephew Bill, the hoy servant, 
William Coleman, and the dog proceeded to Norfolk 
via Oxford. From the 12th to the 20th of May they stay 
in Oxford as the Diarist has to settle up accounts — ^his 
Fellowship had lapsed as from April 12 — and pack up 
those of his goods which he does not sell, for Weston. 
Also nephew Bill, of course, is shown the chief sights of 

May 20. We breakfasted at College and about 10 took 
my final leave of my Rooms at College and we set 
forth for Norfolk, myself, Bill Woodforde and my 
serv: Will: Coleman. . . . We got to Tame about 
12 o^clock about 13 miles from Oxon : and there we 
dined at the red Lion kept by one Powel. When we 
got to Tame was very uneasy on account of my leaving 
at Oxford this Book and my Baldwins Journal I 
sent a man immediately from Tame with a letter to 
Master Sen*" to send back the same, and in about 
three hours he returned and brought me back both 
very safe. I was then quite happy — p** him for 
going o. 2. 6 ... 

A peculiar thrill of excitement and pleasure passed 
through me as I read this passage, holding in my hand 
the precise volume of the Diary, which had been left 
behind, and retrieved thus one hundred and forty-six 
years ago. The party set on and slept the night at 
Tnng ‘about 17 miles from Tame’, at the Rose and 
Crown. They started off at seven o’clock the next 
morning and breakfasted at Dunstable ‘ about 10 miles 
from Tring. . . . ’ 

May 21. ... From Dunstable we went to Baldock thro’ 



EBtchin about 20 miles from Dunstable and there 
we dined at the White Horse kept by one Kendall. . . . 
A great many soldiers, Dragoons at Baldock today. 
From Baldock we went on to Royston about 10 miles, 
there we baited our Horses and selves a httle time at 
the Crown kept by one James. . . . From Royston 
we went on to Cambridge about 13 miles from 
Royston and there we supped and slept at the White 
Bear kept by one Garford, a very good Inn and very 
reasonable. We got there about 9 o’clock, very fine 
road and very pleasant indeed all the day. 

May 22. We breakfasted at Cambridge and then set 
forward. BiU and myself went after Breakfast and 
saw Kings Chapel, the finest I ever saw, all fine carved 
Stone, the Roof of the same — most capital piece of 
Architecture indeed, gave a man that shewed it to 
us o. I. o. The gentlemen Commoners were [wear] 
black Gowns and gold trimmings made slight upon 
the sleeves of the same and very small gold Tossills 
to their square Caps of cloth. The members of Trinity 
Coll: undergraduates all wear Purple Gowns — gentle- 
men Commoners were purple Gowns trimmed with 
silver instead of gold and silver tossills. The Buildings 
are grand at Cambridge but few of them. . . . ’ 

Their route from Cambridge was through Newmarket 
(13 miles from Cambridge), Barton Mills (10 miles from 
Newmarket), and Thetford (10 miles from Barton Mills). 
They baited their horses at the Bull at Newmarket, dined 
at the Bull at Barton Mills, and supped and slept at the 
George at Thetford. ‘ A great many soldiers at Thetford 
going on to Norwich. Prodigious fine road from Cam- 
bridge to Thetford.’ 

Next day, May 23rd, they went from Thetford to 

179 M 2 


Attleborough (15 miles froffTPBHW^Twhere they^l^d 
at the Cock and from Attleborough to Norwich— 
another 15 miles, where they supped and slept at the 
Kings Head. ‘ Our great dog ’ — ^for whom a brass collar 
had been purchased at Oxford for 5/. 6 d — ‘ performed 
the journey very well Next day they reached thar 
journey’s end at Weston, 10 miles from Norwich, but 
finding nothing to eat they rode on to Lenwade Bridge — 
a mile away — and dined there. ‘ My servant Will: 
supped and slept there. Myself and Bill supped and slept 
at Weston at my House.’ 



May 24, 1776, to January i, 1803 

As Weston Longeville will become as familiar as 
Ansford or Castle Cary, little need be said here. It owed 
Its second name to the priory of Longeville in Normandy, 
to which its tithes were transferred at the end of the 
eleventh or the begmning of the ^twelfth century — a. 
common mediaeval practice — by its then Norman Lord 
of the Manor. The population in 1776 probably did 
not exceed 360 — ^its population in 1801 was 365, in 1901, 
367, and at the last (1921) census 323. The church, 
exceptionally spacious and beautiful, is of the perpen- 
dicular period, and dedicated to All Saints. The living 
is still in the gift of New College, Oxford, and still 
relatively a good one. The rectory is not, alas, as tnown 
by the Diarist, but on the same site, about half a mile 
from the church. Fish continue to flourish in the river 
Wensum, a lovely stream which flows through Lenwade 
Bridge a mile and a half away. The descendants of 
Squire Custance are still the Squires of Weston, and 
doubtless many descendants of the farmers and villagers 
who flourished in the Diarist’s day survive — the names on 
the village war memorial are sorrowfully familiar — ^whose 
families are not less ‘ old ’ because they are not recorded 
in, often doubtful, books of genealogy. Indeed it is 
certain that the oldest famihes in England, in the sense 
of continuous connexion with the same soil, are to be 
found in the cottages of remote villages, famihes whose 



age in this sense would cause four-fifths of the Peerage 
to hang their diminished heads.^ 

For the first few days the Diarist and Bill were very 
busy and rather uncomfortable settling in. The Oxford 
and Ansford boxes arnved from Norwich, another survey 
of dilapidations is taken on the Diarist’s behalf, a rat 
catcher is set on to catch and destroy all the rats for 
I or. 6 d., a labourer is engaged for four days at is. 6 d. 
a day for grubbing up furze. They spend two days in 
Norwich — ^from May 30 to June i — buying household 
goods, furniture, silver and so on, also cloth for a coat for 
Bill, to be made by a tailor — ‘ an old Prussian ’ called 

June 3. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at Weston. My nephew breakfasted, dined, supped 
and slept at Weston. Two servant maids came to me 
this morning and offered their services to me. I 
agreed with them both and they are to come to me 
here Midsummer day next. One of them is to be an 
upper servant and she lived very lately with Mr Howes. 
A very pretty woman she is and understands cookery 
and working at her needle well. I am to give her 
per annum and tea twice a day — 5. 5. o. She was 
well recommended to me by Mrs. Howes and the 
reason she was turned away from Mrs. Howes’s was 
her not getting up early enough, as Mrs. Howes told 
me The other maid was recommended to me by 
Mrs. Howes, she is a Tenant’s daughter of Mr. 
Howes’s, she is wooled. I agreed to give her per 

^ There is a very interesting history of Weston in Blomefield’s monu- 
mental History of Norfolk and its contmuation by the Rev. C Parkin 
(See volume vm — ^published 1808 — deahng with the Hundred of Eynford ) 
Kelly’s Directory, 1922, supplies modern information 



annum — 3. 10. o. She is to come at Midsummer 
also. She is to milk, etc. 

Very bad all day in the toothache. The tooth is 
faulty. Mr. Hardy and his Boy Mason at work for 
me all day. Gave a man this morning for bringing 
home our dog o. i. o. Dunnell the carpenter at work 
for me all day. 

June 4. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again at 
Weston. My tooth pained me all night, got up 
a little after 5 this morning, & sent for one Reeves 
a man who draws teeth in this parish, and about 
7 he came and drew my tooth, but shockingly bad 
indeed, he broke away a great piece of my gum and 
broke one of the fangs of the tooth, it gave me 
exquisite pain all the day after, and my Face was 
swelled prodigiously in the evening and much pain. 
Very bad and in much pain the whole day long. 
Gave the old man that drew it however o. 2. 6. He 
is too old, I think, to draw teeth, can’t see very 

June 5. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at Weston. Very much disturbed in the night by 
our dog which was kept within doors tonight, was 
obhged to get out of bed naked twice or thrice to 
make him quiet, had him into my room, and there he 
emptied himself all over the room. Was obhged then 
to order him to be turned out which Bill did. My 
face much swelled but rather easier than yesterday 
tho’ now very tender and painful, kept in today 
mostly. Paid and gave Will my servant this evening 
o. 5. o. Paid Mr Dunnell this evening part of a bill 
due to him from me, for 2 cows, 3 Piggs, 3 p'. Shoes, 
Flower, Tea, Sugar, News Papers, Pipes, Candles, 
Pan, Tobacco, Beer, Mustard, Salt, Washing, Halters, 



Comb and Brush, Crabs, Bread and Porterage of 
£14. 9. 3. the sum of a Bank Note — of — ;^io. o. o. 

June 8. ... Mrs. Howes sent us over this afternoon 
some plumb Cake with 2 little pieces of the same to 
put under our pillows. . . . 

June 9. ... Bill went with me to Church this morning 
and appeared in a new suit of clothes, which was 
brought home last night from Norwich and which 

1 gave him. No service in the afternoon at Weston, 
not usual. 

June 13. ... Mr. Wilson Sen*^ of Elsing a Clergyman 
spent the afternoon with me at Weston. He brought 
me in his Pocket two bundles of Asparagus — ^it was 
very kind in him. 

June 15. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at Weston, Bill breakfasted, dined, supped and slept 
again at Weston. We were busy all the morning in 
fishing with a casting net in our Ponds. We took 
out of one little Horse Pond 40 Brace of Tench — 
some very fine ones. Had a brace for dinner. Most 
of the rest we put into the great Pond. My Squire’s 
brother Mr. Custance lent me the net. ... To 

2 Masons, i Carpenter and 2 Labourers i week p** 

12. lof. 

June 25. ... After breakfast I went on my Mare to 
Norwich where I dined at the King’s Head and spent 
part of the afternoon. My servant Will Coleman 
went before me to Norwich I had him to bring 
back a servant maid behind him. . . . 

July iith. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at Weston. Bill breakfasted, dined supped, and slept 
again at Weston. Reed, for Butter this morning — 
o. I. o. Mr. du Quesne sent me over a present of 
some strawberries. I signed a Testimonial for him 



as he is going to be installed into his new Preferment, 
that of Chancellor Canon of St. David’s. . . . 

July 19th. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at Weston. Bill breakfasted, dined, supped and slept 
again at Weston. Bill and myself took a ride in the 
afternoon to Mr. Howes at Hockering where we spent 
the remaining part of the afternoon with Mr. Howes 
and his Wife. Mr. Howes went to bury a corpse for 
Mr. du Quesne, and when he was gone Mrs. Howes 
told us that she hved very unhappy with her Husband, 
as he wants her to make her Will and give everything 
to his Family. I advised her to the contrary, and to 
give to her own. We were wet coming back as it 

August 1st. I breakfasted, supped and slept again at 
Weston. Bill breakfasted, supped and slept again at 
Weston After Breakfast my Nephew and self rode 
down to the River upon a fishing scheme; we got two 
nets and had some Men with us, and a cart to carry 
Provision for us as well as to bring home the Fish for 
us. We were at it all day and went up from Leonard 
Bridge to Attlebridge. At one draught only we 
caught 59 brace of Fish, mostly roach and dace, but 
some trout rather small. We caught in the whole 
about 6 score brace — two brace and a half of which 
were Pike — the largest about 6 Pound which with 
a brace more we preserved alive and put them into 
the Moat when we came home. Most of the rest 
died before they got home. Barnard Dunnell, Harry 
Dunnell, my Boy and Allen the Pond Man and son, 
and Bates my chief Man a-fishing. We all dined by 
the water-side upon some cold Beans and Bacon, 
and a cold rost Leg of Mutton which I sent down. 
We left off about 8 o’clock in the evening at Attle- 



bridge. At Attlebridge we met with Mr. Custance’s 
Fishers and Mr. Custance was with them and his 
Mistress ^ Miss Sherman, but they went away immedi- 
ately as we came. We caught a fine Pike at Attle- 
bridge where Mr. Custance had been fishing but just 
before we came. For a pint of Rum at Attlebridge 
for the Fishers pd. — o. 2. o. Called at Mr. Ames 
my Cooper at Attlebridge and paid him a Bill of the 
sum of — 3. 17. 6. We were all pretty well tired by 
the time we got home. Mr. Bates went from us 
before dinner being obhged to be of [ojff]. Liquor 
had from Leonard Bridge to-day — ^Ale — 30 Pints, 
Rum, I Bottle, Porter — 2 Bottles. All which I owe 
for there. 

Aug. 3rd. . . George Wartons little boy John came to 
live with me last thursday, and I am to give him his 
victuals and some cloathes when he wants the same. 
He does not sleep at my House as he has not had 
the small-pox. The Boy is about 10 or 1 1 years of age. 

Aug. 4th. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept agam 
at Home. Bill breakfasted, dined, supped and slept 
again at Weston. I read Prayers and Preached this 
afternoon at Weston. Dull and heavy all day to-day, 
dreamt last night and the night before very dismal 
things happening at Ansford. 

Aug. i6th. . . . Was taken this evening very ill in 
a faintmg fit, fell out of my Chair whilst I was play- 
ing with my Nephew at Draughts, he was terribly 
frightened indeed, I soon came to myself again. I 

1 Readers of, for instance, the Memoirs of WtUtam Hickey, will realize 
how normal and open was the maintenance of a mistress in eighteenth- 
century society , the significance of what might almost be described as 
the mistress convention, would form a very interesting chapter in the 
history of society at this time 



bruised my Face very much with the fall, as I fell full 
upon my Face on the floor.* 

Aug. 24th . . . Gave Michael Andrew’s Harvest Men 
that were cutting wheat at the end of my garden 
a largess of . . . . .0.1.0 

They gave me three cheers for the same . . . 

Sept. 4th. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at Home. Bill breakfasted, dmed supped and slept 
again at Weston. Mr. Francis Junr. of Norwich my 
Attorney came to my House this morning to shew 
me a letter that he received from Mrs Ridley in 
which she mentions that she cannot comply with the 
last Estimate sent her concerning dilapidations, that 
her Friends advise her to the same, therefore I advised 
Mr. Francis to apply to my Proctor Mr. Murphy 
to begm the suit in the Ecclesiastical Court and to 
acquaint her of it. Mr. Francis dined and spent the 
afternoon with us. Mr. Custance the Squire’s 
Brother sent me a brace and half of Partridges 
this evening. Very kind of him. 

Sep. 1 2th. . . . Largess given today to Farmers Harvest 
Men . . . . . . . o. 2. o 

A custom in this County when Harvest is in to 
give the Farmer’s Men who call upon you, each 
set • • • • • , •OIO 

Sep. 14th. . . . Very busy all day with my Barley, did 
not dine till near 5 in the afternoon, my Harvest Men 
dmed here to-day, gave them some Beef and some 
plumb Pudding and as much liquor as they would 
drink. This evening finished my Harvest and all 
earned into the Barn — 8 acres. I had Mrs. Bunnell’s 
Cart and Horses, and 2 men, yesterday and to-day. 
The men were her son Thomas and Robin Buck. . . . 

Sep. 17th. I breakfasted at Weston and afterwards set 



of to Yarmouth. Bill breakfasted at Weston and he 
went with me. . . . We got to Yarmouth about 
4 o’clock, and there we dined, supped and slept at 
the Wrestlers in Church Square kept by one Orton. 

A very good house. After we dmed we took a walk 
on the Quay and viewed the Dutch vessells, about 
70 sail which came in last mght, to go a-fishing soon 
for Herrings. The Dutch are very droll fellows to 
look at, strange, heavy, bad dressed People with 
monstrous large Trousers, and many with large 
wooden shoes. To turnpikes today from Weston to 
Yarmouth pd . . . . . o. 1. 6 

My nephew is highly pleased with the Town of 

Sep. 19th. We breakfasted, dined, supped and slept 
again at Yarmouth. After breakfast we each took 
a Yarmouth coach and drove down upon the coast, 
and called again at the Fort. Will walked down there, 
at the Fort to-day pd. . . . . o. 2. o 

It was very pleasant and dehghtful indeed. Nothing 
can beat what we saw to-day — ^immense sea Room, 
Shipps and Boats passing and repassing — the Wind 
bemg rather high, the Waves like Mountains coming 
into the Shore. We rode close to the Ocean, the 
Waves sometimes coming into our Carriages. We - 
returned about 3 o’clock. We had some fine smelts, 
shoulder of Mutton rosted and Tarts, In the evening 
we took a walk on the Quay, as fine a one as ever was 
seen. A great deal of company walking backward and 
forward. We got on board an English vessel, and 
were treated with Wine, Gin, etc. The sailors 
behaved very civil indeed to us, had a difficult Matter 
to make them take anything, but at last I did, and all 
the silver I had, being only . . .0.1.0 



She was a Collier and going soon back to Sun- 

Sep. 30. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Bill breakfasted, dined, supped and slept 
again at Weston. Paid Molly this morning for things 
last week . . . . . . o. 3. 6 

Mr. Legate and his son Benjamin called on me this 
morning and talked about my taking his son at old 
Michaelmas as a servant, and I agreed and bargained 
with him for the sum of per annum . 10. o. o 

Gave him as earnest for the same being 
usual .... o. I o 

Oct. 4th. ... A Mr. Roop a young Man and is a Brother 
of Mrs. Davy’s called on me this morning, he drank 
a glass of Wine and decamped. I never saw him 
before in my Life — ^he is a Prig. 

Oct. 8th. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Bill breakfasted, dined, supped and slept 
again at Weston. I found this morning which I had 
carefully put by in a Snuff Box and quite forgot by 
me the sum of 8. 8. o. Bill and myself went to Mr. 
Bowles this afternoon by appointment and drank 
a dish of Tea with him and his Wife. 

Oct. 24th. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Bill breakfasted, dined, supped and slept 
again at Weston. This morning Mr. Bowles and one 
Mr. Cobbe of Dereham, a Rat Catcher called on me 
this morning, and as he was recommended by Mr. 
Bowles, I agreed with him to destroy my Rats per 
annum for me for . . . .1.1.0 

I gave him as usual so to do at first . o. ii. o 

He wanted to have included victuals and drink and 
keeping his Horse besides in the Bargain, but I would 



by no means agree with him on that account, which 
he declined soon of asking the same. No demand on 
that head upon any account. Peachment called upon 
me this morning to talk with me about a little Piece 
of Land called Bell-string Rood which he claims for 
the Parish as being Church Warden. Mrs. Dunnell 
has it, and has paid for it 13 years together as a Piece 
of Glebe to Dr. Ridley — I also claim it. 

Nov. 3rd. . . . This mormng about 1 1 o’clock Dr. TJiorne 
of Mattishall came to my House and inoculated my 
two servants Ben Legate and little Jack Warton. 
[A very elaborate description follows of Dr. Thorne’s 
method of inoculation — ^in the arm — and the Diet 
and Physics to be taken during the period of inocula- 
tion: see also-pp. 40-1.] . . . Pray God my People 
and all others in the Small Pox may do well, several 
Houses have got the Small Pox at present in Weston. 
0 Lord send thy Blessing of Health on them all. 

Nov. 14th. . . . My Inoculating Folks took their salts 
very well this morning and drank well of Water Gruel. 
. . . They had for dinner Norfolk dumplins and Vinegar 
Sauce and Potatoes also, and they eat very hearty. 
Gave my Brewers Man that brought some 
Beer . . . . . o. o. 6 

Molly made me very angry this morning, so angry 
that I gave her warning to go away at Christmas. The 
inoculated People had for supper Rice Milk and I am 
afraid Molly put some eggs into the same, I had 
a pint of the same, I am astonished at her. 

Nov. 8th. . . . Dr. Thorne who inoculated my Servants 
dined and spent the afternoon with us. I gave the 
Dr. for dinner a Couple of boiled Fowls and some 
Pork, a boiled plumb Pudding and a fine piece of rost 
Beef, roots etc. I paid the Dr. for inoculating our 



People o. 10. 6. I gave him also towards inoculating 
a poor Family o. lo. 6. Neighbour Downing’s 
children. The Doctor’s price for moculatmg a single 

person is only o. 5. 35 

Ben’s arms look much inflamed, much forwarder than 
the Boy’s, Jack complained of a Pain under his Arm 
to-night. . . . 

Nov. 9th. . . . Had a very civil and very agreeable 
Letter from Mr. Franas Senr. and in it one from 
Mr. Morphew to inform me that Mrs. Ridley will 
pay my last estimate of dilapidations. . . . 

Nov. loth. . . I read Prayers, Preached, Churched 

a Woman, and christened two children by name 
Christopher and John this afternoon at Weston 
Church. A large congregation at Church, Mr. and 
Mrs. Carr there. All People well pleased with the 
Alteration at the Church. This afternoon was the 
first time of my using the reading Desk and Pulpit, 
since its being removed, and also of a new Common 
Prayer Book in my Desk. I can be heard much better 
than where it was, and easier 

Nov. 1 2th. . . . Dr. Thorne called here to see his 
Patients, but did not stay long. He told Ben that 
he might now live as he used to do before Inoculation 
and that Jack should live low as yet. One Herring, 
a young Man that has taken Rivett’s Estate in Ring- 
land called on me just at Dinner time, came into the 
Parlour which I ^d not hke, stayed there all the 
time we dined and did not go away till near 6 o’clock. 
. . . He seems a sensible man but rather too free. . . . 

Nov. 19th. ... At Cary’s Shop this morning for Snuff, 
Garters and Herrings, pd. o. i. 6. Mr. Bowles 
spent the afternoon at my House. He came quite 
full in liquor and talked very foolishly and weakly. . . 



Nov. 22nd. . . . Bill and myself took a walk in the 

afternoon to Mr. Bowles, but we did not stay long as 
our reception was not quite so handsome as our last 
visit was. We drank one glass of wine apiece and that 
was all. John Bowles’s Wife is under Inoculation, was 
inoculated by one Drake formerly a serjeant in the 
Militia. He makes a deep incision in both arms and 
puts a Plaister over, he gives no calamile but they 
take salts every other day. Price 5/3 each. Had 
a fine calf fall this morning from my flaked cow. My 
neighbour Downing, the Father of the Children that 
were lately inoculated has got the small pox in the 
natural way and likely to have it very bad — there- 
fore I sent over Harry Dunnell this evening to Dr. 
Thorne’s, to desire him to come to-morrow and see 
him, which he promised. 

Nov. 23rd. . . . Dr. Thorne came this morning to poor 
Downing and I went to meet him there and saw him 
there. He has a great Quantity and I think will 
have a difficult matter to get over it. But by the 
blessing of God upon him, hope that he will do well. 
He is a poor labouring Man and has a Wife and seven 
small children. I told the Dr. that I would see him 
paid, if he would assist him etc. . . . 

Nov. 26th. . . . Dr. Thorne came to see my neighbour 
Downing this morning, and I was with him there. 
He desired him to let him take some matter for 
Inoculation, but he was so obstinate and ungrateful 
to refuse him . . 

Nov. 28th. . . . Poor Neighbour Downing very bad 
indeed this evening the Small Pox being upon the 
turn. They sent to me to desire me to come and see 
him they all thinking that he was dying. I went to 
him and saw him, his Pulse was very high owing to 



drinking some Beer etc. to-day. He was quite light 
though not in a dying way, tho’ he laid as if he was. 
I ordered them to give him some electuary in warm 
water, and when I came away he seemed a little 
better. My man Ben I ordered to sit up with him 
to-night. We did not get to bed to-night till after 
12 o’clock. 

Dec. 1st. ... Had notice given at Church this morning 
for People to come to my House on Tuesday next to 
pay Tithe. I went and saw Downing after Church 
this mormng and he is brave. I thank God for it. . . . 

Dec. 3rd. . . . My Frolic for my People to pay Tithe 
to me was this day. I gave them a good dinner, 
surloin of Beef rosted, a Leg of Mutton boiled and 
plumb Puddings in plenty. Reed, to-day only for 
Tithe and Glebe of them . . . 236. 2. o 

Mr. Browne called on me this morning and he and 
myself agreed and he paid me for Tithe only 55. o. o 
included in the above, he could not stay to dinner. 
They all broke up about 10 at night. Dinner at 2. 
Every Person well pleased, and were very happy 
indeed. They had to drink Wine, Punch, and Ale as 
much as they pleased ; they drank of wine 6 Bottles, 
of Rum I gallon and half, and I know not what ale. 
Old Harry Andrews, my clerk, Harry Dunnell and 
Harry Andrews at the Heart all dined etc. in Kitchen. 
Some dined in the Parlour, and some in the Kitchen. 
17 dined etc. that paid my Tithe, that is to say, Stepn. 
Andrews, Baker, Burton, Cary, Man, Pegg, Norton, 
Bowles, Dade, Case, Pratt, Legate Senr. and son of 
Ringland, Bidewell, Michael Andrews, Burrows and 
Legate Junr. at the Horse. Mr. Peachment came just 
at dinner time, but he had dined ; he spent the after- 
noon and evening however. There was no supper 

193 o 


at all provided for them. We had many droll songs 
from some of them. I made use of about 1 3 lemons 
and about 2 Pds of sugar. Bill and myself both well 
tired when we went to bed. 

Dec. 7th. . . . My Nephew had a new suit of cloaths 
brought home to-day of the best broadcloth, given to 
him by me. A light brown with yellow buttons 

Dec. 8th. ... I gave notice of a Fast being kept on 
Friday next, concerning the present War between 
America and us. 

Dec. 9th. . . . Paid my Taylor Clarke this morning for 
a new suit of cloaths for my Nephew, Materials and 
making ...... ^5. 2. 4-i- 

Dec. loth . . . Mr. Chambers the Schoolmaster who is 
lately come here called on me this morning to let me 
know that he would teach my Servants Ben and Will 
to write and read at a quarter each — ^which 

I agreed for. 

On December nth at Norwich he receives through his 
solicitor the sum of gs. jd. m respect of dilapidations 
from Mrs. Ridley, which with goods valued at ^38 2j. 
makes up his demand of £11$ 12s. 4J. So the dilapida- 
tion controversy is settled at last. 

Dec. 13th. . , . This day being appointed a Fast on 
our Majesty’s arms against the rebel Americans, 
I went to Church this morning and read the Prayers 
appointed for the same. I had as full a congregation 
present as I have in an afternoon on a Sunday, very 
few that did not come. . . . 

Dec. 17th. . . . Busy this morning and day in Bjevsnng 
some Ale being the first time of brewing since I came 



to Weston. I had my Malt and Hopps of Mr. Palmer 
of Morton. I brewed only i Vessell of 36 gallons 
and I allowed one Coomb of Malt and one Pound 
and half of Hops, which I think will make tolerable 
good Ale. . . . 

Dec. 23rd. ... I had a very fine Turkey for dinner 
to-day, and the best I ever tasted in my life. Mr. 
Baldwin clerk to Mr. Bircham the Brewer at Reepham 
being in a low way, one day last week hanged himself. 
The Lord have mercy on his Soul. I paid him a Bill 
for his Master not long ago. To Poor People of my 
Parish again Xmas gave . . . o. 1 3 o 

• • « 

Dec. 25th. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Bill breakfasted, dined supped, and slept 
agam at Weston. Mr. Brooks my Upholsterer sent 
over a Man on purpose from Norwich this morning, 
with a fine Hind Quarter of London Lamb, pro- 
digious fine It was indeed. I gave the man some 
victuals and dtink and o. i. o. The undermentioned 
poor old People dined at my House to-day being 
Christmas Day and went to Church with me in the 
afternoon, to each of them gave o. i . o. 

Old Richard Bates . .0.10 

Old Richard Buck . . .0.1.0 

Old Thos. Cushion . o. i. o 

Old Harry Andrews . . o. i. o 

Old Thos. Carr . . . .0.1.0 

Old Robin Buck Mrs. Dunnell’s man . o. i. o 

James Smith the clerk o. i o 

By God’s Blessing I intend doing the same next 
Christmas Day. Gave old Richard Bates an old black 
coat and waistcoat. I had a fine sirloin of Beef 
rosted and Plumb Puddings. It was very dark at 

19s o 2 


Church this aft. I could scarce see. I read Prayers 
and Preached this afternoon at Weston Church. 

Dec. 30th. . . , Paid Molly Salmon my servant-Maid 
her Wages this morning for half a year . 2. 12. 6 

and then she went from me to Hockering, being no 
longer a Servant of mine. I should have been glad 
to have kept her as she is good-tempered, but she 
never once asked to stay after I had given her notice, 
therefore I dismissed her. Had a fine Hare for dinner 

1777. Jan. 9th. . . . Had a letter this evening from my 
old Friend, Dr. Bathurst, Canon of Christchurch and 
nephew of my Lord Chancellor’s,^ to desire me to 
receive his Mony and look after his affairs at 
Witchingham, as Mr. Francis charges him at six- 
pence in the Pound for his trouble for receiving the 

Jan. 13th. . . . Went on my Mare, and my servant Will: 
with me to Mr. Du Quesne’s where I dined spent the 
afternoon and stayed till 8 at night with him, Mr. and 
Mrs. Howes and Mr. Donne We had for dinner 
a Leg of Mutton boiled, a batter Pudding, and 
a couple of Ducks. It is a Clubb meeting and goes 
by the name of Rotation. I became a Member of it 
to-day and they all dine with me on Monday next. 
Every Monday is the day. At Quadrille this after- 
noon — ^lost o. I. 3. I gave nothing at all to 

As there was no Moon to come home by, it was 
very disagreeable to come home thro’ the Wood that 
I did, but I thank God I got safe and well back tho’ 
very dark. When there is no Moon for the future 
will get back before it is dark. 

^ See note on pp. 156-7, and p. 295. 



Jan. i6th. . . . To one Richard Andrews a Snauggler 
for a Pound of 9/0 Tea, and 3 silk India Handkerchiefs 
at 5/6 . . . . I. 5. 6 

Tom Dunnell begun making a Pr of handsome large 
deal Gates for the Barton this afternoon. . . . 

Smuggling was a commonplace of eighteenth-century 
life, and was due entirely to high Protection. During 
the Seven Years War, when the English Army was freeing 
North America from the French, the American colonists 
did a thriving business in supplying their ancestral enemies 
(the French) with smuggled goods. That the trade was 
highly discreditable to them, in these circumstances, goes 
without saying. At the same time it is only just to point 
out that the duties imposed by the English Government 
were excessively damaging to American industries, and 
were one of the exacerbating causes leading to the revolt 
of the American colonists. 

In England, before Pitt took the whole business in 
hand in 1784 onwards, smuggling was carried on on a scale 
which was simply colossal. The annual defalcation of 
the revenue was estimated at ^£2,000, 000 out of a total 
revenue of ^12,500,000. Whole fleets of ships and 
armies of persons were engaged in the smugghng business. 

‘ Pitt ’, says Lecky, ‘ computed that at least 13,000,000 
pounds of tea were annually consumed in the kingdom, 
but duty was only paid on 5,500,000. Assuming, what 
was notoriously untrue, that the consumption of foreign 
wines was only equal to what it had been thirty-six 
years before, the revenue had in this single article been 
defrauded of ^280,000 a year.’ 

Pitt struck at smuggling partly by carrying through 
great reductions in the duties — the tea duty, for instance, 
was reduced from 119 to I2J per cent., and partly by 



reviving Walpole’s attempted policy of substituting excise 
for customs duties.^ 

Jan. aoth. . . . Mr. du Quesne, Mr. Howes and Mr. 
Donne dined and spent the afternoon with us being 
my Clubb day. I gave them for dinner a couple of 
Rabbits smothered with onions, a Neck of Mutton 
boiled and a Goose rested with a Currant Pudding 
and a plain one. They drank Tea in the afternoon, 
played a pool of Quadrille after, drank a glass or two 
of Punch, and went away about 8 o’clock. No Supper 
is a Rule. And no vails [tips] to servants, however 
Mr. Donne gave o. i . o to my servant Will. The other 
two gave nothing. Mr. Frost called on me in the after- 
noon, and I paid him a Bill for deals etc 9. 1 1 o 
Gave Mrs. Dunnell’s Man Robin . o i. o 

At Quadrille this evening, lost . . o. o. 3 

Feb. 6 ... Had f an Anchor of Rum brought me this 

evening about 10 o’clock by one Richard Andrews 
(the smuggler) paid him for it . . i. 15. o 

He brought me also •§• an Anchor of 
Geneva, for that paid . . i. 5. o 

Feb. 9. . . I buried one John Greaves of East Tudden- 

ham this afternoon at Weston — ^recd for burying him 
as he was a stranger the sum of o. 6. 8 and which 
I gave back to his widow as she is poor and has many 
• children. . . 

Feb. 14th. . . To 36 children being Valentine’s day 

and what is customary for them to go about in these 
parts this day gave o. 3. o being one penny apiece to 
each of them. 

^ Lecky’s England tn the Eighteenth Century, vol iv, pp 46-8 ; vol v, 
pp 294-300 See Memoirs of Wtlltam Htckey, vol 1, pp 248-50, for an 
account of how smuggling was carried on at sea 



March i. ... Dr. Dodd for forging a Bond on Ld. 
Chesterfield for 4000 Pd was tried this week and by 
the Jury brought in guilty. He is a Dr. of Divinity 
and late Chaplain to his Majesty.^ 

March 13. . . To Mr. Cary for a Turkey ii pd. at 

4-i- . . . pd o 4. i^. My nephew and self took a walk 
to Hockering this afternoon to see Mrs. Howes who 
is ill and keeps her room. Mrs. Davey there from 
Norwich We drank tea but did not see Mr. H. 
Mr. Howes was at the Cock at Hockering, he was sent 
for but he sent word that he could not come at all. 
It snowed going there and coming back. . . Mrs. 
Howes IS very indifferent and very low-spirited. 

March 18. ... My Servants Will and Suky went to 
a Puppett Show this evening at Morton and kept me 
up till after i o’clock. 

March 23 . . I read Prayers and preached this morn- 

ing at Weston. I gave notice this morning at Church 
that there would be Prayers on Friday night being 
Good Friday — there used to be none that day, which 
I think was very wrong. 

March 25. ... My great Pond full of large toads, 

I never saw such a quantity in my life and so large, 
was most of the mormng in killing of them, I daresay 
I lolled one hundred, which made no shew of being 
missed, in the evening more again than there were, 

^ William Dodd (1729-77) was a popular preacher and Chaplain to 
the King He also acted as tutor to Philip Stanhope, the great Lord 
Chesterfield’s heir and godson. On February i, 1777, he committed the 
famous forgery in Lord Chesterfield’s name of ,^4,200, ;£3,ooo of which 
he returned on being found out He was condemned, and despite popular 
appeals and the interposition of Dr Johnson himself, was hanged on 
June 27, 1777. Dodd was a voluminous writer It was through his 
Beauties of Shakespeare (1752, constantly reprinted since) that Goethe 
first became familiar with Shakespeare’s works (See D N B) 



I suppose there are thousands of them there, and no 
froggs. . . . 

March 26. ... Went a fishing with Nets down to the 
river to-day, but had little or no sport, caught 2 brace 
of Pike, one fine Perch, some Gudgeons and a few 
flat Fish — I sent the men before I went, and I found 
them at Attlebridge, and it made me quite angry to 
find them there, so angry that I left them immediately 
and ordered them of, and then my nephew and self 
took a ride to Witchingham and saw the Parsonage 
House there and Church. The Church is a very neat 
one and in good repair, the House not bad, tho’ 
better than I thought it to be. 

As we returned we found the Fishers at Leonard 
Bridge trying there for fish, and there we stayed with 
them till 5 o’clock and then returned home to dinner. 
For some Beer for them at the Inn there 

pd o. I. o 

Harry Dunnell, Ben, Will, Allen and Barney and 
Tom Carr were the Fishermen and they all returned 
and dined at my House . . . gave them .020 
I let the Fishermen have a Bottle of Rum to carry 
with them. We returned quite tired and hungry and 
much fatigued. . . . 

March 27. . . . We took half a large basket full of toads 
this morning out of the great Pond, put them into 
a kettle and poured some boiling water upon them, 
which killed them instantaneously. I daresay we 
killed 200. Harry Dunnell and my boy Jack Warton 
took them up in their hands alive and put them into 
the basket, . . . 

March 28. ... I read Prayers this morning at Weston 
Church at 1 1 o’clock. No Sermon. I had a tolerable 
good congregation. I did not dine to-day being Good 



Friday till 5 in the afternoon, and then eat only a few 
apple fritters and some bread and cheese. 

March 29. ... Andrews the Smuggler brought me this 
night about ii o’clock a bagg of Hyson Tea 6 Pd 
weight. He frightened us a little by whistling under 
the Parlour Window just as we weire going to bed. 
I gave him some Geneva and paid him for the tea 
at 10/6 per Pd 3* 3* o 

April 6. ... I read Prayers and administered the H. 
Sacrament this morning at Weston. No Sermon. 
My Clerk Js. Smith dined here to-day being Sacra- 
ment Day. About 9, o’clock this evening I saw in 
the Element a prodigious Light, exactly the form of 
a Rambow and near the breadth but vast deal larger, 
as It extended from N.E.N. to W.S.W. very bright 
indeed. I apprehend it to be the Northern Lights, 
but I never saw them in that form before ; it went 
of soon and quivered about as the Northern Lights. 

April 9. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept at the 
King’s Head. Bill breakfasted, dined, supped and 
slept again at the King’s Head. [They had gone on 
a jaunt to Norwich ] Called on Mr. Francis this 
morning, he asked me to dine with him, but I would 
not be so troublesome. 

Called on Mr. Priest and pd him for 

Wine etc 5. 6. o 

Paid Mr. Beloe China Man for glasses 

and decanters . 

. 0. 



To a Mariner’s Compass 


. o. 

4 - 


To a Silk Purse 


. 0. 



To a Spice Box 


. 0. 



We drank tea in the afternoon at Mr. Francis’s 
with him, his wife and Father. From thence we went 
to the Theatre Royal and saw Tancred and Sigis- 



munda — ^with Bon Ton for the entertainment. We 
sat in the Front Box — ^paid for z tickets o. 6. o. Gave 
a soldier a Dragoon of the ii Regiment whose name 
was Martin and came from Somerton o. i. o. 

April 10. I breakfasted and dmed at the King’s Head. 
Bill breakfasted and dined at the King’s Head. Had 
a letter yesterday from Mr Pouncett who informs 
me that Sister Clarke is going to be married to one 
Ryal of Sherborne, a man who drives his own waggon 
to Bristol, IS much in debt and has lo children 
already. I sent her a trimming letter to-day on the 
above account. Called on Mr Aram, gardner, and 
paid him . . . . 2 ii. o 

My nephew and self took a walk this morning to see 
the Dragoons exercise on Mousehold Heath about 
3 miles from Norwich. We returned by 3 o’clock. 
Gave to my servt. Will Coleman who came to Norwich 
yesterday, towards a Pr of Leather Breeches o. 10. 6. 
Gave my nephew towards a Hautboy o. 8. o After 
dmner towards the evening we set of for Weston. . 

April 17. ... Sent my servants Will: and Ben with 

a cart this morn’ to Norwich after some Wine from 
Mr. Priest and some dishes and plates etc. from Mr. 
Beloe’s — China Merchant. Sent by them a note to 
Mr. Priest and one to Mr. Beloe. They did not 
return till 7 in the evemng. They might have come 
home much sooner I think. The things came home 
very safe however as well as wine. I have now a corn- 
pleat Table service of the cream coloured ware, with 
some other useful things. . . . My servants were both 
rather in liquor, and as for WiU, he behaved very 
surly and went to bed before I supped, a pretty 
return for givmg him half a guinea last week. 

April 19. . . Mr. du Quesne drank a dish of tea with 



me this afternoon, he walked over and had his wheel 
to measure the distance from his house to mine, 
with him, and it was 2 miles and 6 furlongs. I played 
a game at Backgammon with him — ^he beat me. . . . 
Had a letter this evening from Sister Clarke to assure 
me that the affair with Ryal is entirely over. Had 
a letter also from Jefferies of Brecon to desire me to 
send his brother 6 quart of Turnip seed. 

April 25 . . I got up this morning at 5 o’clock and 

shot a Rook in Cary’s Pitt, that was eating up my 
oats that are set. Lent Spaule my Blacksmith this 
morning 2. 2. o. Mr. Donne and young Mr. Shelford 
of North Tuddenham dined and spent the afternoon 
with us. Had for dinner a Face and Greens, a leg 
of Mutton rosted and a plumb Pudding. 

May 8 . . After dinner my nephew and self with Ben 

and the Boy walked down to the river with the 
casting net for a little diversion at Fishing. I caught 
three fine trout, the largest two pound and half all 
but 2 ounces The next largest near two pound, 
the other about f a pound besides gudgeons and 
roach and dace, all of my own catching and by my 
own throwing the net. BiU caught only one little 
Miney but he did not throw above four times. Wc 
saw Mr. Custance Junr. down at the River a-fishing 
with a fly and we spoke to one another — he said he 
had had bad sport. I think I had very great sport 
being the first time of my ever throwing a casting net 
into a river. I was very wet and dirty, got home 
about mne. 

May 15. ... Mr. Custance called on me this morning 
to go a fishing. We rode down to the river. Mr 
Custance’s mistress a Miss Sherman and one Sandall 
an oldish man a broken gentleman and who keeps 



a Mistress also tho he has a Wife living, went with 
us on horseback. I returned home to dinner tho’ 
very much pressed to dine with Mr. Custance. We 
had but middling sport — a lease of trout, i pike and 
some flat fish. Mr. Custance behaved exceedingly 
civil to me. He sent me the finest trout and the 
pike this evening by his man Phillips. Gave the 
servant o. i. o. 

May 25. ... I read Prayers and administered the H. 
Sacrament this morning at Weston. My nephew was 
at the Sacrament. Bill was quite sulky at dinner and 
all the afternoon on account of having a shoulder of 
veal for dinner which he did not hke and would not 
eat one mouthful of it. I asked him to take a walk 
in the evemng but he did not, therefore took a long 
walk by myself. I talked to him in the evening very 
home about his behaviour of late. . . . 

June 4. ... Reed, of Mr. Legate Ben’s Father this 
morning for 2 small piggs which Sukey sold him 
o. 15. o. Gave Sukey out of it for selling them o. i. o. 
. . . The toads in my great Pond made an extraordinary 
loud noise for this last week past. This being his 
Majesty’s Birth Day had my Blunderbuss fired of by 
Bill above 2 hands high three times in honour of the 
day, and with powder only. We had the fine Pike 
that Mr. Custance sent me rested for dinner with 
a Pudding in his Belly, and very good it was indeed, 
we dined on it chiefly, tho’ we had a fine piece of 
Beef boiled besides. The Pike was more than 2 foot 
long after being rested. . . . 

June 10. [He rides with his servant to Norwich on the 
9th for the Bishop’s Visitation and stays, as usual, 
at the King’s Head.] ... I dressed myself in a gown 
and cassock after breakfast and at ii o’clock went to 



the Cathedral and heard Prayers and a Sermon 
preached there by Mr. Whitmell Rector of Wood- 
Norton and a good discourse he gave us. The Chan- 
cellor Dr. Sandly who represented the Bishop was 
there, and the Dean and a great many of the Clergy 
of the Deaneries of Blofield, Sparham and Taverham. 
After Divine Service we all went into the Consistory 
Court in the Cathedral and there the names of the 
Clergy were called over and each delivered the Bishop’s 
letter with the answers to his Lordship’s questions. 
We all then attended the Chancellor to the Maid’s 
Head Inn not far from the Cathedral, where we 
dined and spent the afternoon and the Chancellor 
'with us. . . . We had a very elegant dinner and 28 
sat down to dinner together. I sat next to the 
Preacher by the Chancellor. The Chancellor is a very 
chatty man with httle or no pride in him. He is 
a Wiccamist and I had therefore a good deal of talk 
with him. I delivered John Bank’s compts. to him 
of Wooton in Oxfordshire, who was a contemporary 
of his. Mr. Baldwin, Mr. Priest, Mr. Wilson Junr. 
and Mr. Millard who read Prayers at the Cathedral 
I saw and had conversation with them. Also one 
Mr. Hammer a Chumm of Mr. Du Quesne’s, a very 
merry and sensible as well as good-natured man. Soon 
after the Chancellor went I departed also. I went and 
drank tea this evening after I had undressed myself, 
with Mrs. Davy in St. Stephen’s Parish, wdth her, 
Mrs. Roupe, her mother-in-law and a very pretty 
young Lady from the boarding School. We took a walk 
afterwards in Chapel Field etc. Paid this evening for 
things o. 10. o. Made a very late evening of it being 
out after supper and so engaged in Company that 
I could not leave them till near 2 in the mor ning . 



per Fish lost— o. 4, o. We were very merry viith 
Mrs. Howes today. I gave them a plumb cake with 
their tea. 

On June 23rd he and his nephew, and the servant, Will 
Coleman, started on their journey to Somerset to visit 
our old fiiend ‘Sister Jane’, Mrs. Pounsett. They 
went on horseback, and the journey, which was un- 
eventful, took six days. The route lay through Attle- 
borough, Thetford, Barton Mills, Newmarket, Cam- 
bridge, Royston, Baldock, Hitchin, Dunstable, Tring, 
Aylesbury, Thame, Abingdon, Farnborough, Hungerford, 
Everly, Wiley, Long Lane to Ansford, which they reached 
on June 28th. 

July 2nd. . . . made old Mr Burge a visit this afternoon 
at Cary. Poor old Mr. Burge is amazingly altered 
since I saw him last year ... he is fell away to nothing 
almost, and I think will not hold it very long, he has 
a cough also. He was exceeding glad to see me at 
Cary. A grand christening to-day at Mr. Frank 
Woodfordes. I was not invited, neither Mr. and 
Mrs. Pounsett, nor my Brother Heighes. We the 
only ones not invited thro’ Anford amongst their 
Relations. . . . 

July 3 I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again at 
Mr. Pounsetts. Brother John being at the Christen- 
ing last night being merry disturbed the whole 
Company so much that they were obliged to break 
up about 1 1 o’clock. Js. Clarke and Jack were going 
to fight. He made terrible work there I heard this 
morning. He is the worst Company I ever was in 
in my Life when he is got merry. Nothing pleases 
him then but making the whole Company uneasy, , . . 



July Sth. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at Mr. Pounsetts. Brother Heighes and his son Sam 
dined etc. with us. Sam brought his violin with him 
and played several tunes to us — ^he is amazingly 
improved both in Painting and in Musick — ^he is a 
very clever youth. Gave Sam this afternoon 
o. 2. 6. . . ^ 

July yth. ... I dined, spent the afternoon, supped and 
spent the evening at Mr. James Clarkes who treated 
me most cordially. Mr. Richard Clarke and Sam, 
Brother Heighes, and his two sons Sam and Bill, 
Mr. and Mrs. White, and Mr. and Mrs. Pounsett 
dined, supped etc. there. We had a most elegant 
dinner, a whole Salmon, 3 boiled chicken and a Ham, 
a Neck of Mutton boiled with Capers, a green Goose 
rested and Peas, with Plumb Puddings and a Goose- 
berry Tart. . . . 

July 9th. ... I dined and spent the afternoon at Mr. 
Donnes at Westcomb to-day with him, his Wife and 
the two Miss Boards from London ; Relations to 
Mrs. Donne and with very high Heads. Mr. Guppy 
and his sister Mrs. Pounsett, and Mr. Pounsett and my 
Sister. Mr. and Mrs. Pounsett and old Mrs. Pounsett 
had Ansford Inn Chaise. We had a fine Haunch 
of Venison, a fine Venison Pasty, with many other 

^ Sanmel Woodforde, the Diarist’s nephew (1763-1817) was a con- 
siderable artist in his day, and was elected an associate of the Royal 
Academy in 1800, and an academician in 1807 He was the most dis- 
tinguished of the sons of brother Heighes He contributed no less than 
133 pictures to the Royal Academy, He was enabled to visit Italy and 
study there through the hberality of the banker, Henry Hoare of Stour- 
head, of whom the Diarist speaks more than once. Farington mentions 
Samuel Woodforde in his diary — now being published His ‘ Dorinda 
wounded by Silvio’ is in the Diploma Gallery at Burlington House, 
(SeeD N.£) 



good things for dinner there. A Mr. Watts a Clergy- 
man and was of Trinity College drank tea and coffee 
there in the afternoon, I remember his name at Col- 
lege and something of his Person. He has travelled 
about lately and rather shoots in the bow. . . . 

July 22. I breakfasted and slept again at Ansford. We 
were rather disturbed about an Hour after we got to 
bed, and Jenny came to my door and waked me, and 
asked me if something did not fall down in my Room, 
and that she had heard something walk in the Passage 
to my door, and also thought that I was ill — but it 
all ended in nothing. Mr. Pounsett, myself and 
Sister dined, spent the afternoon, supped and spent 
the evening at Richd Clarkes at Cary with him, 
Mr. Thomas, Brother Heighes and Sam Clarke. 
Dr. Clarke, Sister White and Sam: Woodforde supped 
etc with us. In the afternoon I walked down to 
Charles Clarke’s and bought me 20 yds of Huccaback 
Cloth for kitchen Table Cloths in Norfolk ^ wide 
at I /I per yd i. i. 6. To Richd. Clarke’s servants 
coming away gave o. 2. o. Cousin Lewis and Son 
went of this morning for Nottingham. ... I was 
much better to-day and more easy in my Mind. 
Robert Biggen for stealing Potatoes was this afternoon 
whipp’d thro’ the streets of Cary by the Hangman at 
the end of a Cart. He was whipped from the George 
Inn to the Angel, from thence back thro’ the street 
to the Royal Oak in South Cary and so back to the 
George Iim. He being an old offender there was 
a Collection of o. 17. 6 given to the Hangman to do 
him justice. But it was not much for all that — the 
Hangman was an old Man and a most villainous 
looking Fellow indeed. For my Part I would not 
contribute one Farthing to it. 




The Dianst’s stay at Ansford lasted for another month 
— the days are spent in much visiting of old friends, in 
fishing, and so on — and then on August 2ist they set 
out for Norfolk, returning via Bath and Oxford. At 
Oxford they stayed two nights at the Blue Boar, while 
the Diarist visited his friends at New College. They , 
reached Weston safely on the 29th, and found ‘ things 
in decent order 

Sept. 16. ... Very busy with the engine [for pump- 
ing out the pond] this mormng. Mr. du Quesne, 
Mr. Donne and Sister, Mr. Bodham, Mr. and Mrs. 
Howes and Mrs Davy came to my House about 
12 upon account of seeing some fishing before dinner 
as my great Pond was near empty. We were obhged 
to sink the engine lower, and in doing of the same in 
raising the engine one of the triangular Poles broke 
and very near killed my man Will Coleman, he was 
knocked down by the Pole falling on his Head, but it 
only stunned him for some time. I then gave him 
a dram and he was soon pretty well. It frightened 
us all very much. We caught a number of small 
Tench with the casting net, but could not get all 
the water out to-day for the Mud. The Ladies and 
Gentlemen all dined and spent the afternoon with us. 

I gave them for dinner half a dozen of my own fine 
Tench (taken out of my Pond in the yard) stewed, 
a Rump of Beef boiled, and a Goose rosted, and 
a Pudding. Mrs. Howes found great fault with many 
things especially about stewing the Fish — she could 
not eat a bit of them with such sauce etc. Mrs. Davy 
fell downstairs jDut did not hurt herself. Miss Donne 
swallowed a Barley corn with its stalk. Many acci- 
dents happened but none very bad. . . . The company 



went away about 9 o’clock. They all admired my 
plated candlesticks and snuffers. . . . 

Sept. 21 . We breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at Weston. I read prayers and preached this morning 
at Weston. Harry Dunnell dined with our folks 
today. In the afternoon my dog Pompey came home 
shot terribly, so bad that I had her hanged directly 
out of her Misery. My greyhound Minx who was 
with her did not come and we suppose she has met 
with the same fate. It is supposed that Mr. Town- 
shend’s gamekeeper who goes by the name of black 
Jack, shot Pompey My nephew and self took a walk 
in the afternoon. 

Sept. 27* • • • I took a walk about 5 o’clock this evening 
by myself to Mr. Townshend’s at Honingham accord- 
ing to a promise from me to Mr du Quesne, and was 
very politely received, and drank Tea there with him, 
his Lady and Mr. du Quesne. The Hon: Charles 
Townshend ^ handsomely apologised for my dogs 
being shot by his gamekeeper, and told me moreover 
that whenever I had an Inclination for a Hare I was 

^ This Mr Charles Townshend (1728-1810) is not the celebrated 
Charles Townshend Chancellor of the Exchequer, who 

perhaps more than any one man was responsible for making war with the 
American colonies inevitable — by his imposition of duties, tea and other, 
in 1767 Our Mr Townshend was cousin of the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, and was mck-named * Spanish Charles ’ (to distinguish him 
from his cousin) — on the ground that he was Secretary to the British 
Embassy at Madrid from 1751-6 From 1761-84 he represented Great 
Yarmouth in Parliament, and during this period held various minor 
offices in various administrations Lord of the Admiralty (1765), Com- 
missioner of the Treasury (i77o)» Vice-Treasurer of Ireland (1777), Vice- 
Treasurer of the Navy (1783)’ He was made a Peer in 1797, tabng the 
title of Baron Bayning of Foxley. His wife (marned August 1777) was 
Annabella, daughter of the Rev Richard Smith, and an heiress. (See 
D.N B) 


very welcome to take a Course with Mr. du Quesne 
upon his Lands* Mr. Townshend’s Lady is a most 
agreeable Lady indeed, very handsome and ex- 
quisitely genteel. She has been married but very 
lately and is about 22. I returned to Weston before 
8 o’clock. . . . 

Sept. 30. ... Harry Dunnell found an old silver spoon 
this morn in levelling parts in' the Pond to make it 
more even. It weighed one ounce and marked with 
M.E. and I apprehend it belonged formerly of the 
Family of the Englands, one of which was Rector in 

Oct. I. We breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Harry Dunnell behaved very impertinent 
this morning to me because I would not privately 
name his child for him, he having one Child before 
named privately by me and never had it brought to 
Church afterwards. He had the Impudence to tell 
me that he would send it to some Meeting House to 
be named etc. — ^very saucy indeed — ^To 2 Peck more 
of Pears of Js. Taylor, paid o. i. o. Gave to his 
little maid for bringing them o .0. 6. My servant 
Will has a bad Leg owing to its being scalded two 
days ago. My Folks say he has the Ague in it. 
I put to it some Family Plaister and a Poultice 
over it. 

[On October i6th he and his nephew go on a jaunt to 
Norwich — next day they visit St. Faith’s Fair]. 

Oct. 17. ... We then set forth and Mr. du Quesne 
with us for St. Faith’s Fair which begins to-day, and 
going there the road was crowded with People. 
St. Faith is about 4 miles North of Norwich. It is 



a very large Fair for all things and lasts for a fort- 
night — a great concourse of People there. Sir Har- 
bord-Harbord and Sir Wm. Jernegan we saw theie, 
the latter is a very handsome young Man. We rode 
about the Fair till 2 o’clock and then went of. We 
had some oysters for which I paid o. o- 6. Sir Wm. 
Jernegan overtook us and rode "with us some way — 
he is a mighty agreeable man. Mr. du Quesne went 
home with Sir WiUm by Proimse. Sir WiUm’s coach 
and four there with the children. Mr. du Quesne 
being'deficient in cash I lent him i i. o. . . . 

Oct. 26. ... Gave poor John Grant this morning 

o. o. 6 Upon yesterday’s Norwich Paper the Revd 
Benjamin Russen Master of the Charity School at 
Bethnal Green and who has a Wife and six children, 
was tiied at the Old Bailey for a Rape on the Body 
of one Ann Mayne only ten years of age, of which 
he was convicted and received sentence of Death. 
Three more indictments found against him on other 
children. I read Prayers and Preached this afternoon 
at Weston. 

Nov. 5th. We breakfasted, supped and slept again at 
home. Took a ride down to Leonade Bridge this 
mormng upon Bathurst’s account to receive his 
Tithes for him. Bill went with me as did my servant 
Will: Coleman We dined and spent the afternoon 
there with Mr. Wilson, Bathurst’s curate and many 
Farmers that paid money. I received in the whole 
for Bathurst 10. if. Paid out of it to Mr. 

Wilson I yr and f stipend 62. 10. o. For dinner etc. 
at the audit to-day pd ,^3. 17. i. To Wm. Springal 
for Work done in the Chancel £ 0 . 19. 6. We came 
away about 6 o’clock. The Farmers were well 
pleased with their Frohc. We had for dinner a Rump 



of Beef boiled, a leg of Mutton rosted and a fat 
Goose and Puddings. 

Dec. 2. We breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. The Hounds were round by my house 
this morning. My Nephew mad to go after them. 
This day being my Frolic for receiving money for 
Tithe and Glebe the following Parishioners dined 
with us. Mr. Dade, Stephen Andrews, Mr. Palmer, 
John Bowles, Mr Mann, John Pegg, Royal Ringgar, 
Wm. Bidewell, Mr. Burrows, Mr. Legate Sent. John 
Baker, Wm. Case, Js. Pratt, Thos Cary, John Horner, 
and Mr. Legate Junr. Mr. Peachman with his 
Friend a young man Mr. Herring, and Mr. Galland 
came to us after Dinner. I gave my Parishioners for 
dinner a good Rump of Beef boiled, a Leg of Mutton 
rosted, a Ham boiled, vast quantities of plumb and 
plain Puddings and Roots. I gave them to drink 
Wine and Punch in plenty. They all stayed with me 
till about lo in the evening, and then they all went 
to their respective homes. They were all well pleased 
and merry and tolerably sober. Cobb my Rat-Catcher 
was here to-day and he dined with the Folks in the 
Kitchen. I paid him i. o. I gave the Folks in 
the Kitchen some Punch after dinner. Mrs. Hardy 
and Boy at work for me today. Mrs. Durmell’s man 
Robin Buck, Mr. Hardy and Boy, Thos Thurston 
Senr. who lent me a Punch Bowl, Harry Dunnell 
and my Clerk Js Smith dined etc in Kitchen. Harry 
Dunnell had the ague in the evening. My People 
today drank 6 Bottles of Rum, of Wine 5 Bottles, 
and of Ale great Quantities. I reed today for Tithe 
^^204. 17. o. I paid out of it to the undermentioned 
as follows : — 

To Mr. Palmer for 30 Hudrd of Hay at 2/6 315. o 



To Stephen Andrews for Carriage of Coal o. 5. 4 
To John Pegg for ditto . . . o. 5. 4 

To Mr. Mann for a Cow and Calf . . 5. o. o 

To „ for I Bshll and i- of apples o. 4. o 

To „ for 2 Coomb and 2 Bshlls 

of seed wheat 2. 15. o 
Pd in all to the above . . . , 12. 15. 8 

We did not get to bed to-night till near i o’clock. 

I gave to my Servant Maid Sukey . . o. 2. 6 

I gave also to my Servant Will: Coleman o. 2. 6 
They having had a good deal of trouble to day and 
did everything entirely to my satisfaction. 

Dec. 25. We breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. I went to Weston Church this morning at 
i past 10 and read Prayers and administered the H. 
Sacrament there, being Christmas Day. About 24 
Communicants. My Nephew made one of them. 
Neither Peachment, Dade, Burton, Andrews nor 
Bowls, nor Mann there. Being Christmas Day the 
following poor People dined at my House, old Rich? 
Bates, old Rich; Buck, Thos Carr, old Thos: Dicker, 
old Tom Cushion, Robin Buck and my Clerk Js. 
Smith. I gave to each after dinner i/o being o 7. o. 
Harry Dunnell dined also at my House today. I had 
for dinner a fine surloin of Beef rosted and Plumb 
puddings for them. 

Dec. 31. ... We sat up tonight till after i o’clock on 
account of being the last Day in the old year. After 
the Clock struck 12 we drank a Happy New Year to 
ourselves and Friends in a glass of Gin Punch. 

1778- Jan. 3rd. . . . Bill went out a-shooting again to- 
day and he brought home— just nothing at all— tho’ 
he had several shots at Pheasants and missed every- 


one . . 


Jan. 5* • • • Bill went out a shooting again this morning 
and he killed only one small Thrush. . . . My servant 
Man Ben spent the day at his Fathers by my leave. 
Sukey went out in the afternoon and returned in the 
evening with her sister who laid at my House N.B. 
I did not know of her going out, nor of her sister 
sleeping here till after lo at night. I think it is taking 
too great Liberties with me to bnng home a stranger 
to sleep here. I do not hke it at all — as every servant 
may do the same. 

Jan. 6. We breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Sukey’s sister breakfasted here and then 
went home. I did not speak one word to her, as she 
came unasked. Bill went out a shooting again this 
morning and he brought home only 4 Blackbirds. 
Gave Bill this evening for powder and shot 2/6. 

Jan. 19. ... This being the day for the Queen’s Birth 
Day to be kept Bill fired my Blunderbuss 3 Times, 
each charge three Caps of Powder with a good deal 
of Paper and Tow on it. I fired him of in the even- 
ing with 3 Caps of Powder also. . . . 

Jan. 22. ... I took a nde about 2 o’clock and my 
servant Will with me to Justice Buxtons at Easton 
Reeds and there I (fined and spent the afternoon 
with the Justice and Mr. du Quesne. We had for 
(fiimer a boiled Leg of Mutton and a Hare roasted. 
Gave Mr. Buxton’s servant Boy coming away o. i. o. 
About 6 o’clock we went from Mr. Buxton’s, Mr. du 
Quesne went home in his carriage and I went on to 
Norwich where I supped and slept at the King’s 
Head as did my Nephew. Mr. Buxton has a very 
good House and a very fine situation with a pleasmg 
Prospect from the same. After we drank Coffee at 
our Inn this evening we went to the Play House and 



as we did not get in till after the 3rd Act, we paid 
only I /6 each for seats in the Front Box. The Play was 
the Maid of the Oaks with a Fete Champetre which 
was very pretty and the Entertainment was the 
Deuce is in him. I went away from the Play House 
before the Entertainment began. My Nephew stayed 
all the time. . . . 

Jan. ^3. ... Mr. Donne, myself and Nephew took 
a walk after breakfast to the New Birmingham shop 
in London Lane and there I bought a pruning knife, 
and 2 Razors with cases to them for 2/6. Knife 6 d. 
Razors 2/0 . .... o. 2. 6 

• • • 

Jan. 27. ... Mr. du Quesne called on me [at Weston] 
this morning and stayed with me some time, he told 
me that a Meeting of the Nobility, Gentry and 
Clergy of the county of Norfolk would be held 
tomorrow Morn’ at the Maid’s Head at Norwich 
for opening a Subscription to advance a Regiment 
in these critical Times for the King. He asked me it 
I should be there, which I promised. ... 

[Accordingly he and Bill set forth for Norwich], 

Jan. 28. We breakfasted, supped and slept at the King’s 
Head. To my Barber this morning gave o. i. o. 
After dressing myself I walked by myself down to the 
Maid’s Head to the Meeting of the Nobility, Clergy, 
etc. Lord Townshend, Mr. Townshend, Sir John 
Woodhouse, Sir Wm. Jernegan, Mr. de Grey the Lord 
Chief Justice’s Son, a Mr Masham, Colonel Dickens 
etc. present. Sir John Woodhouse was Chairman and 
opened the business of the Meeting and he was 
answered by one Mr. Windham who spoke exceed- 
ing well with great Fluency and Oratory, but on the 
wrong side. Lord Townshend spoke after him, but 



is no Orator at all. Mr. de Grey then spoke very 
well and after him Mr. Townshend.^ The Question 
was then proposed by the Chairman that all those 
gentlemen that were against the subscription would 
retire, and many there were that retired. The sub- 
scription then was opened and Lord Townshend 
subscribed > Sir John Woodhouse also I believe 
did the same and some others. Mr. du Quesne was 
there and he subscribed 20 guineas : towards the 
end of the second sheet — I subscribed 5 gumeas, 
there were many others that followed my example. 
N B. I did not pay my subscription as many did not. 
The money is to be advanced as it is wanted. I dined 
and spent the afternoon at the Maid’s Head with the 
rest of the Nobility, & Clergy & Gentry. We had 
about 40 that sat down to dinner. Sir John Wood- 
house, Lord Townshend, Mr. Masham, Mr. Town- 
shend, Sir Wm. Jemegan, Colonel Dickens, Mr. de 
Grey, Mr. du Quesne etc. etc dined there. I sat 
between Colonel Dickens and Mr. du Quesne, the 
Colonel was at Christchurch in Oxford a Student 
there, therefore he and myself had a long Conference. 
The Colonel hves at Dereham and asked me to his 
House. The subscription amounted to near ^5,000. 
The subscription is to be kept open at Kernsons. 
There was also a Meeting of the opposite party at 
the White Swan to-day, to protest against it. The 
above Mr. Windham was one of them. Most People 
admired the manner of Windham’s speaking, so much 
Elegance, Fluency and Action in it. For my ordinary 
paid $s[od. Extraordinary isfod — o. 4. o. My 
Nephew dined and spent the day at the King’s Head. 
Mr. du Quesne and myself went from the meeting 
* See p 211 



about 6 o’clock and drank Tea with Mr Priest and 
his Wife. After tea Mr. du Quesne went home with 
Mr. Townshend. I then called on my Nephew, and 
we went to the Play. As we went in after the 3rd 
Act I only paid o. 3. 0. The Play was the provoked 
Husband & Bon Ton the Farce. We sat in the centre 
Box which was quite full. Sir Wm. Jernegan was in 
the same box and spoke to me as he came out ; a very 
good House tonight. We slept in our own Beds at 
the King’s Head tonight. 

The Mr. Windham ‘ who spoke exceeding well ’ is the 
celebrated William Windham (1750-1810), friend of 
Dr. Johnson, scholar, diarist, and statesman. He was 
educated at Eton and Oxford. His first appearance in 
public hfe was the occasion here referred to by the 
Diarist. His liberal opinions, however, changed under 
the influence of the French Revolution. From 1784- 
1802 he represented Norwich in Parliament, and in 1794 
he joined Pitt’s administration as Secretary for War, a 
position he held till 1801. He was again War Secretary 
in the Ministry of All the Talents, 1806-7. was 
a very remarkable man, a good Greek and Latin scholar, 
fluent in French and Italian, and a student of mathe- 
matics. His Diary (1784-1810) is of very considerable 
interest — edited in 1866 by Mrs. Henry Baring. It is 
in his Diary (pages 30-4) that occurs the memorable 
description of Dr. Johnson’s last hours, and the words 
addressed to Windham, ‘ “ God bless you, my dear 
Windham, through Jesus Christ,” and concluding with 
a wish that we might meet in some humble portion of 
that happiness which God might finally vouchsafe to 
repentant sinners.’ (See the Diary and the notice of 
Windham in the D. N, B.) 



Feb. 8 ... We had for dinner to-day the finest and 

fattest Turkey Cock rested that I ever saw. It was 
2 Inches thick in fat upon the Breast after it was 
rosted. We had nothing else besides as it weighed 
14 Pd. 

Feb. 12. ... Mr. du Quesne called on me this morning 
about II o’clock, and about 12 I took a ride with 
him to Ling and there we dined and spent the after- 
noon at Mr. Baldwin’s with him and his Wife and 
Youngest Daughter and Mr. Priest of Reepham. 
Mrs. Baldwin seems to be of a gloomy complexion — 
with a Beard. . Before dinner we went into Mr. 
Baldwin’s boat and went up the River a httle way to 
take up some Hooks that were laid for Jacks, but 
never a Fish. Having done that Mr. du Quesne, 
Mr. Priest and self went and saw the Paper Mills 
close to Mr. Baldwin’s. Mr. du Quesne and myself 
bought a Ream of writing Paper, 20 quires belonging 
to the same. I had one half and he the other. 10 
Quires apiece. I paid for mine o. 5. 0. The Mastei 
Mr. pi]Amerton went with us and shewed us the 
whole Machinery which is indeed very curious. We 
had for dinner at Mh. Baldwin’s, some fricasseed 
Rabit, some Mutton Stakes, a Piece of rost Beef, 
a fine rich plumb Pudding, Tarts and Syllabubbs. At 
Quadrille this evening at Mr. Baldwin’s lost o. o. 9. 
Gave Mr. Baldwin’s servant Man o. i. o. I returned 
home about 8 o’clock. Mr. du Quesne, and Mr. 
Priest slept there. 

Feb. 23. We breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Bill went out a coursing this morning on 
my little Mare, and Mr. Hardy went out with him 
and they brought home nothing at all, tho’ out for 
5 Hours and 3 Greyhounds, To Mr. Cary on Anne 



Taylor my Maid’s Account for a gown, 2 shifts and 
other small matters paid him i. o. gi. To Mr. Cary 
also for things from Norwich etc pd. o. 4 6. To my 
smuggler Andrews for a Tub of Gin had of him 
January 16 pd him this Morn i. 5. o. 

Feb. 27. We breakfasted, dined supped and slept again 
at home. My Nephew and self walked to Church 
this morning at ii o’clock and there I read Prayers 
only, being a day appointed for a general Fast, on 
account of the War with the Americans. I had a 
large congregation. My Servant Ben went after 
dinner to his Father’s unknown to me, and did not 
return home till near 11 at night and when he came 
home he went to bed without my seeing him, and 
I believe not very sober. It is very bad of him. 

Mar. I. ... Read Prayers and Preached this morning 
at Weston Neighbour Gooch’s Father was taken 
very ill today and thought to be dying. I sent him 
Tent Wine and in the afternoon went and saw him 
and read Prayers by him. He desired to have the 
Sacrament admmistered to him which I told him 
I would do it to Morrow morning. Poor Gooch has 
been an invalid for many years. His Pulse I thought 
was pretty regular, he had been convulsed in one of 
his hands, but talked pretty cheerful and well. My 
Clerk’s Wife Jane Smith got immensely drunk I hear 

Mar: 2. ... Poor Neighbour Gooch died this morning 
about 7 o’clock. I was quite surprised to hear of it 
indeed, as he did not appear to me yesterday near 
his latter end. I hope that as his Intention was to 
receive the Sacrament this morning, that his Will will 
be, to the Supreme Being, taken as if the Deed had 
been done. . . . 



Mar: 7. ... My man Ben went to Norwich with my 
brinded Cow and Calf to sell on the HiU, which were 
sold by Mr. Burton for the sum of 5. 7. 6. Mr. 
Burton had bought me a Cow and Calf and which 
were had home March 5. They cost 6. o. o. 

Mar* 21. . . The Papers mention a War with France 

to be inevitable and will e’er long be publicHy pro- 
claimed. . . 

April 7. ... My nephew and self took a walk about 1 1 
this morning to Mr. Howes and there we dined and 
spent the afternoon with him and his Wife, Mr. 
Bodham, Mr. and Miss Donne. We spent the after- 
noon in fishing Mr. Howes’s pond. I lent him my 
large drag net, and my cart earned it over for him, 
and Harry DunneU, Will and Ben went with the 
same. We caught vast quantities of Fish called 
Cruzers, they are a very beautiful Fish of a yellow 
hue, but none very large, almost all the same size — 
some few Carp and Tench. I gave Mr. Howes 
20 brace of stock Tench and he gave me in return 
50 brace of Cruzers. My folks all dined at Mr. Howes 
and then came away. We had for dinner some stewed 
carp, some Cruzers fried which were very good indeed 
— a Fillet of Veal rosted and a Ham, and some Mince 
Pies and Tarts. . . . 

April 10. ... Had a prodigious large Leg of Pork of 
Billy Bidewell this afternoon and which weighed 
28 Pd. and f and for which I owe him. 

April 15. ... We breakfasted, dined, supped and slept 
again at home. Brewed a vesseU of strong Beer today. 
My two large Piggs, by drinking some Beer grounds 
taking out of one of my Barrels today, got so amazingly 
drunk by it, that they were not able to stand and 
^ See p 230, and foot-note, pp 240-1. 



appeared like dead things almost, and so remained all 
mght from dinner time today. I never saw Piggs so 
drunk in my life, I slit their ears for them without 

April i6. We breakfasted, dined supped and slept again 
at home. My 2 Piggs are still unable to walk yet, 
but they are better than they were yesterday. They 
tumble about the yard and can by no means stand at 
all steady yet. In the afternoon my 2 Piggs were 
tolerably sober. 

April 18. ... Between 5 and 6 in the evening I took 
a ride to Honingham and buried one Willen late 
a schoolmaster there and who died very sudden being 
taken as he came from Durham. His son and Daughter 
attended him to the grave and were much concerned 
for their Father. Pray God comfort them. None 
but those that have lost their Parents can feel that 
sorrow which such an event generally produces. . 

April 24. ... Who should come to my House about 
2 o’clock this day but my cousin Js. Lewis from 
Nottinghamshire and on foot and only a dog (by 
name Careless) with him. He was most miserably 
clothed indeed in every respect. He dined and 
suppejd and slept at my House. He slept with my 
Nephew in the yellow Chamber. He looked much 
better than when we saw him in Somersett last, in 
Health. ... 

April 25. . . Cousin Lewis breakfasted, dined, supped 

and slept again at Weston. I gave Lewis a Tobacco 
Box this morning, a Pr of Shoes, a Pr of Stockings, 
a Pr of Breeches and Shirt and Stock, and an old 
Coat and Waistcoat. . . . 

May 16. ... About 7 o’clock this evening who should 
arrive at my House in a Post-Chaise and Pair, but 



Mr. Pounsett and sister Pounsett. [He had been 
expecting them but did not know exactly when they 
would arrive.] They had come that day lOO miles. 
They set out from Ansford on Wednesday morn’ last, 
and they came by way of London and in a Post 
Chaise all the way from London. They were much 
tired especially my Sister, but she was pretty toler- 
able. They supped and slept at my House. I was 
exceeding glad to see them, but did not expect them 
so soon. They slept in my yellow Chamber, and 
Cousin Lewis and Bill slept up in the garrett over my 

May 1 8. We all breakfasted, dined, supped and slept 
again at Weston. This morning I had my great Pond 
drawn to show Mr. Pounsett and Jenny some diver- 
sion. And we had the largest Pike we caught for 
diimer and it weighed 7 Pounds. Mr. Pounsett and 
Jenny said they never eat so fine a Fish in all their 
lives — ^it was prodigious nice indeed. In the evening 
I took a walk and showed Mr. Pounsett and Jenny 
my Church etc., they being not at Church on Sunday 
as it rained much that day in the afternoon. 

May 21. We all breakfasted, dined and slept again at 
Weston. I walked up to the White Hart with 
Mr. Lewis and Bill to see a famous Woman in Men’s 
Cloaths, by name Hannah Snell,^ who was 21 years 
as a common soldier in the Army, and not discovered 

^ Hannah Snell (1723--92) had enlisted in 1745, after being deserted 
by her husband, a Dutch seaman It was not till 1750 that she revealed 
her military adventures, a book of them being published under the title 
The Female Soldier , the surprising Adventures of Hannah Snell^ which 
the author of the notice of her in the 2 ) N B considers much embroidered 
She married a second and third time. An account of her extraordinary 
career will also be found in Fortescue’s monumental History of the British 



by any as a woman. Cousin Lewis has mounted 
guard with her abroad. She went in the Army by 
the name of John Gray. She has a Pension from the 
Crown now of i8. 5 * o per annum and the hberty of 
wearing Men’s Cloaths and also a Cockade in her Hat, 
which she still wears. She has laid in a room with 
70 Soldiers and not discovered by any of them. The 
forefinger of her right hand was cut of by a Sword 
at the taking of Pondicherry. She is now about 60 
yrs of age and talks very sensible and well, and travels 
the country with a Basket at her back, selling Buttons, 
Garters, laces etc. I took 4 Pr of Buttons and gave 
her o. 2. 6. At 10 o’clock we all went down to the 
River with our Nets a-fishing. ... At Lenswade 
Bridge we caught a Prodigious fine Pike which weighed 
8 Pound and half and it had m his Belly another Pike, 
of above a Pound. We caught also there the finest 
Trout I ever saw which weighed 3 Pound and two 
ounces. Good Pike and Trout we also caught 

May 24. ... About 10 o’clock this evemng my servant 
Will* came home rather intoxicated and was exceed- 
ingly impudent and saucy towards me. Said he would 
leave me at Midsummer or to Morrow morning etc. 
Will’s behaviour made me very uneasy, I gave him 
notice that now he should go away at Midsummer. . . . 

May 25. Mr. and Mrs. Pounsett and Bill breakfasted, 
dined, supped etc here. Cousin Lewis breakfasted 
with us and then took his leave of us, as he must 
now go to Beeston. Mr. Pounsett went with him so 
far as Lenswade Bridge. Bill went with Cousin Lewis 
as far as Elmham on foot. I gave Cousin Lewis going 
away o. 10 6. Cousin Lewis could not help crying 
on going away. 




On June 2 the Dianst, Bill, and Mr. and Mrs. Pounsett 
and Will the servant make an expedition to Yarmouth, 
staying at Norwich on the way. 

June 4. We all breakfasted and dined at the Wrestlers. 
After breakfast we took a walk about Yarmouth, 
called at Boulters shop in the Market Place and there 
I bought a fine doll for Jenny’s little Maid pd for 
It o. 5. o. For a dram Bottle covered with Leather 
pd o. 2. o. For a silk Purse pd. o. 3. o. For a turn 
screw and picker for a gun pd o. i. o. Jenny bought 
a good many little things for her girl. Boulter is 
a very civil Man and a Quaker. He is also an Anti- 
quarian and has a good many Curiosities as well as 
Medals. He shewed me a complete set of Copper 
Coins of the 12 Caesars. He offered to sell them to 
me for 10 guineas, but I could not spare the money. 
We went also and saw the Church and Church Yard. 
This being the King’s Birthday, Yarmouth was quite 
alive, the Cambridgeshire Militia was there and were 
exercised. Bells ringing The Flags from the Ships 
m the sea and on the Quay all flying. At 1 1 o’clock 
I drove my sister down to the Front in a Yarmouth 
Coach and there stayed till after the Cannon were all 
fired. Mr. Pounsett and BiU walked down to the 
Fort. At one o’clock the Cannons on the Fort were 
aU fired. I fired the first Cannon on it of six Pounders 
and the second — and I likewise fired two of the largest 
Cannons 24 Pounders. They made a prodigious 
report. I stayed upon the Fort all the time they were 
fired. Bill let of 4 Cannon, and Will let of one of 
the largest. Several Women were there. Mr. Poun- 
sett and Jenny walked about a Mile from the Fort 
during the firing of the Cannon. We eat and drank 



at the Fort and I paid and gave o. 7. 6. We returned 
at 3 to the Wrestlers and there dined. [They went 
back to Weston by coach and chaise which they 
reached at lo.o p.m.] ... we were all pretty much 
fatigued before we got to bed, which was not till 
I in the morning. We had a couple of Fowls rosted 
for supper after we got home and we eat very hearty 
of them indeed. . . 

June 5. ... Mr. Custance Senr of Ringland called on 
me this morn’ caught me in a very great disabelle, 
and long beard. He stayed with me about half an 
Hour. Talked exceedingly civil and obhging and 
behaved very polite. . . 

This is Mr. John Custance, ‘ my Squire ’, of whom 
and of whose wife we shall hear frequently hereafter. 
He was born in 1749, the son of Hambleton Custance, 
and grandson of John Custance who had purchased the 
Weston property in 1726. Mr. Custance’s wife was the 
second daughter of Sir Wilham Beauchamp-Proctor — 
created a baronet in 1745 — was, therefore, sister- 
m-law of Sir Edmund Bacon, busman of the owner of 
Earlham (see p. 233), a name which now conjures up 
charming pictures of later Gurneys through the pious 
art of Mr. Percy Lubbock. 'Die Custances, as will appear 
from the Diary, had numerous children, seven of whom 
survived. Squire Custance’s pleasant character and the 
charm of his wife are revealed as the Diary proceeds. 
The Squire, it is amusing to know, maintained some 
touch with the great world of London as being a Gentle- 
man of the Privy Chamber.^ 

June 9. . . .[The Dianst has to go to Norwich on 
^ Burke’s Landed Gentry, 1921, under Custance. 

227 Q 2 


business.] ... In th.e evening about 9 o’clock there 
was a great Riot upon the Castle Hill between the 
officers of the Western Battalion of the Norfolk 
Militia, and the common soldiers and Mob. Owing 
to the officers refusing to pay their men a guinea 
apiece, as they go tomorrow towards the Place of 
their encampment — several of them refusing to go 
without it and would not resume their Arms after 
Roll calhng for which they were put into the Guard 
Room and the mob insisting upon having them out, 
which occasioned a great not. The Mob threw stones 
and some of the soldiers running their Bayonets at 
the Mob and wounded them. Some of each side 
were hurt but not mortally wounded or any killed, it 
lasted tiU midnight and the officers behaved very 
well in it. I was at the Place for some time till near 
II o’clock To odd things this evening pd o. 3. 6 
I did not go to bed till after 12 and then only pulled of 
my Coat and Waistcoat and Shoes, as there was such 
a Bustle and Noise all night and Riot expected again. 

June 10. I got up this morning at 4 o’clock and went 
and saw the Mihtia march out of Town, a great Mob 
was present and a great Riot expected, but they went 
away at 5 and tolerably quiet. . . 

June 14. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Mr. Pounsett, Jenny and Bill breakfasted 
etc etc here again. I read Prayers and Preached this 
morn’ at Weston. Mr. Custance Senr. and his Lady 
were at Church and came m a coach and four. 

June 30. I breakfasted, supped and slept again at home. 
Jenny breakfasted, supped and slept here again. 
Mr. Pounsett and Bill breakfasted, dined etc etc here 
again. At i o’clock myself and Sister took a ride to 
Mr. du Quesne it being his rotation and there we 



dined and spent a very agreeable day with him, and 
Mr. Holkham from Pembroke, a friend of Mr. du 
Quesne’s, and is a very merry, cheerful, and sensible 
Man. St John Priest, Mr. and Mrs. Howes, Mr. and 
Mrs. Paine, Howes’s daughter, Mr. and Miss Donne 
and Mr. Bodham. Mr. Holkham is also a very musical 
Man, plays well on the violin and therefore we had 
a Concert also. We had for dinner some Maccarel, 
a piece of Beef boiled, 3 Fowls rosted, and Bacon, 
with Tarts etc. We had after dinner vast quantities 
of Strawberries. At Quadrille this afternoon lost 
o. I. o. Mrs Howes appeared in her new silk Sack 
today. It was very handsome, and of Lilac colour. 
My sister and self did not return to Weston till after 
9. To a poor old Man 80 years old, gave o. o. 6. 

July 6, . .In the afternoon about 5 o’clock Mr. 

Pounsett and Sister took leave of Weston and set of 
in Lenswade Chaise for Norwich, in which I went 
with them to Norwich and had my Mare led there 
by Will. Bill also rode the little Mare with us to 
Norwich. We saw Mr. du Quesne as soon as we got 
there. He had bespoke 2 Places in the Coach for 
Jenny and Mr P. Jenny, Mr. Pounsett and Bill 
drank Coifee at the King’s Head this evening, and 
afterwards went to Mr. Baker’s shop. Haberdasher m 
the Market Place and bought some trifling things — 
for what I bought pd o. 5. 0 Mr. du Quesne, mj^self, 
Mr. Pounsett, Jenny and Bill went to the Angel Inn 
in the Market Place from whence the Coach goes out, 
and there we all supped and stayed till 12 o’clock 
(the time the Coach sets forth for London) and then 
Mr. du Quesne, Jenny and Mr. Pounsett got into 
the Coach after taking leave, and went of for London. 
Pray God they might all have a good and safe journey. 



Bill and myself being rather low after, took a walk 
for about an Hour over the city and then went to 
the King’s Head and went to bed there. At the 
Angel for Bill and myself I pd o. 5. o. My poor dear 
Sister shook like an aspin leave going away, she never 
went in a stage Coach before in her Life. 

July 29. ... Reported today that the English and 

French Fleets had engaged. N.B. the English is 
reported to have beat the French Fleet to the 

Aug. 17. ... Begun shearing my Wheat this morning 
and gave the shearers according to the Norfolk 
custom as under, a good breakfast, at ii o’clock 
plumb cakes with caraway seeds in them, and some 
Liquor, a good dinner with plumb Puddings and at 
4 Beer again. N.B. the above are called elevens and 
fours’. Only Ben and Will my shearers of Wheat. 
Before the dew is of in the morn’ they mow Oats. 
My Wheat this year not above 4 Acres. They shear 
with sickles instead of Reap-Hooks. The form of 
them like a Reap-Hook but the Edge of it hke a saw, 
and they do exceeding well. Will brewed this morn- 
ing a barrel of Ale before he went shearing Wheat at 
12 o’clock. 

Aug. 18. ... I buried poor Miss Rose this evening at 
Weston aged 20 years. It was a very pretty decent 
Funeral. But Js. Smith the Clerk made me wait in 
performing the office at the grave near a Qr of an 
Hour, the grave not being long enough a good deal. 
It was a very great interruption. I gave it to Js. 
afterwards. I had a Hatband and a pair of gloves 
sent me. I was quite low this evening. 

Aug. 25. ... Ben went to help Stephen Andrew’s Men 

^ See pp 240-1, foot-note 



at Harvest, came home in the evening in Liquor, 
and at II o’clock after I got up to my Room to go 
to bed, I heard my little Puppy cry much and there- 
fore I went down to see what was the matter with 
him and he had got his Head between the Pales by 
the garden gate and could not get back again, I 
released him and carried him towards the back door 
and there I saw a light burning in Ben’s Room, upon 
that I walked up into his Room, and there saw him 
laying flat upon his back on the bed asleep with his 
Cloaths on and the candle burning on the Table. 
I waked him, made him put out the candle and talked 
with him a little on it, but not much as he was not 
in a capacity of answering but little. I was very 
uneasy to see matters go on so badly. , 

Aug. 26. ... Mr. Baldwin called on us this morning, 
and talked with us concerning a Midshipman’s Place 
for Bill and desired us to drink a Dish of Tea with 
him in the afternoon which we promised him. . . . 
In the afternoon took a walk with Bill to Mr Bald- 
win’s at Ling and there drank a dish of Tea with 
him. Miss Vertue Baldwin, Mr. Hammerton, Dr 
Neale. Had a good deal of Chat with Mr. Hammerton 
about Bill. Bill is to go to London when Mr. Hammer- 
ton goes which will be very soon, to show himself to 
a Captain of a ship and that Mr. Hammerton will 
use all his Interest for him. I have been most uneasy 
and most unhappy all day about one thing or another. 
When Bill goes away I shall have no one to converse 
with — quite without a Friend. 

The entry for this day has been much crossed out — 
I suspect by some early Victorian great-mece of the 
Diarist — but from such parts as are decipherable, taken 



in conjunction with later entries, I gather that the 
Diarist’s maid, Sukey, confesses to him that she is with 
child by one Humphrey. Bill also had been causing him 
anxiety for some time — again the entries have been 
deleted, but portions are just decipherable — apparently 
by paying too great attentions to the fair sex. The 
combination of anxieties, and it is clear the Diarist was 
much attached to his nephew — sufficiently accounts for 
the depressed conclusion of this day’s entry. 

Aug. 28. . . [The Diarist and Bill visit Mr. Hammer- 

ton.] We sat and talked a good deal about Bill’s 
proceeding with regard to the Navy. Mr. Hammerton 
said that he would do what he could, and would 
advance him money to rig himself out, if he succeeds, 
upon my promise of paying him again soon. It was 
so friendly in Mr Hammerton that I could not but 
comply in so critical an affair BiU is therefore to go 
in the London Coach on Sunday evening and wait 
at the Swan and two Necks in Lads Lane London till 
Mr. Hammerton calls on him, which he says will be 
either Monday evening or Tuesday mormng early — 
Mr. Hammerton rides. Very low and lU withal 
especially going to bed. Sukey went before Justice 
Buxton today with her [Information?] to swear to 
the Father of the Child she is big with. I had a note 
from,- Mr. Buxton which Sukey brought to desire the 
Parish Officer the Overseer to come with her, and 
then he would take her Information. 

Aug. 29. ... My Maid Sukey went with Mr. Palmer 
to Mr. Justice Buxton and he granted a Warrant to 
take up Humphrey 

Aug. 30. . .1 read Prayers and Preached this afternoon 
at Weston. Gave my Nephew to go to London this 



morning 5.5.0. About 8 in the evening I took a ride 
with Bill to Norwich and there took a Place in the 
Coach for him. We draiik Coffee at the King’s Head 
this evening. We supped at the Angel Inn, as the 
London Machine set out from thence at 12 at night. 
I stayed with Bdl till 12, saw him safe into the 
Machine and'then I went to the King’s Head where 
I slept but very little. ... At the Angel this evening 
I paid and gave o 7. o. I was very restless and 
uneasy all night. 

Sept. 3. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. I told Sukey this morning my Opinion of 
her respecting the late affair that has happened to her. 

Sept. 7 ... I sent a Note this morning to Mr. Custance 
of Ringland to let him know that I would dine with 
him to-day, but he was gone to dine with Sir Edmund 
Bacon at Earlham.^ I took a ride in the evening to 
Lyng, called at Mr. Baldwin’s and Mr Hammerton’s 

^ Earlham has recently been made famous by Mr Percy Lubbock’s 
book of that title A long history of the two manors there will be found 
in vol IV of Blomefield’s of Norfolk (pp 509-16, edition of l8o6) 

The property appears to have passed to the Bacon family in the second 
half of the seventeenth century through the marriage of Elizabeth Waller 
to Franas Bacon, Esq , a descendant of Queen Elizabeth’s Lord Keeper, 
Sir Nicholas Bacon Edward Bacon, Esq , is stated by Blomefield in 1745 
to be ‘ the present lord and patron, who hath his seat here ’. Edward 
Bacon was for many years M P for Norwich (returned m 1754, 1761, 
1768, 1744, and 1780), and Recorder. Sir Edmund Bacon had succeeded 
to the preimer baronetcy of England (1611) and another of 1627 creation 
on March 26, 1773 He married on January 29, 1778, Anne, first daughter 
of Sir Wilham Beauchamp-Proctor (first baronet, 1745), and died Sep- 
tember 5, 1820 (See Cokayne’s Baronetage under Bacon ) His wife was 
Mrs Custance’s sister It will be remembered that Mr Lubbock describes 
Earlham as being leased to the Gurneys towards the end of the eighteenth 
century, in 1786, to be precise The Vicars of Earlham date back to 
1267 , until the Reformation they were ‘ presented by the Nuns of 
Carrow ’, 



and returned home again. About lo at Night my 
Nephew returned from London and he brought me 
a letter from Mr. Hammerton who informs me that 
Captain Allen of the Chatham a 50 gun ship will 
take my Nephew if he is properly and handsomely 
equipped, which will cost about 60 Pounds He must 
therefore go into the West and try his Friends. For 
my part I cannot do it for him I am sure . . 

Sept. 8. ... BiU breakfasted, dined and spent the after- 
noon here and in the evening set of from my House 
for the West to consult his Friends on the affair, and 
try what they wiU do. I gave him to bear his expenses 
3. 13. 6. He went to Norwich on Horseback and my 
Servant Ben went with him, and then Ben returned 
about II o’clock. He could not get a place in the 
inside of the London Coach and therefore obliged to 
ride in the outside. He goes from London in the 
Frome or some other coach from the West. He is 
greatly fatigued already. 

Sept. 9. I breakfasted and slept again at home. Sent 
a Letter this mormng by Mr. Burton to Mr Priests 
at Reepham respecting my servant Boy whom I take 
out of Charity, whether I am to pay for him accord- 
ing to the late Act relating to Servants.^ Mr. Priest 
is one of the Commissioners and there is a Meeting 
this day at Reepham, concerning that and the duty 
on Houses. To Mr. Burrow’s Harvest Men gave 
o. I. o. I took a ride to Ringland about 2 o’clock 

^ The tax on men servants was imposed in 1777 by Lord North when 
compelled to find fresh revenue of nearly ^£250, 000 He borrowed the 
idea from Adam Simth’s Wealth of Nations, and Adam Smith had bor- 
rowed it from Holland, where the tax was in vogue In 1785 Pitt extended 
the tax to maidservants, despite ‘ many jokes of a free description as 
Stephen Dowell observes (See DowelFs History of Taxation, etc , vol 11, 
pp 169-70 and 190-1 ) 



and there dined, spent the afternoon and supped and 
spent the evening at Mr. Custance’s with him, his 
Wife and an old maiden Lady by name Miss Rush. 
I spent a most agreeable day there and was very 
merry. Mrs. Custance and self played at Back 
Gammon together. Mr. and Mrs. Custance are very 
agreeable people indeed, and both behaved exceed- 
ingly polite and civil to me. I there saw an Instru- 
ment which Mrs. Custance played on that I never 
saw or heard of before. It is called Sticcardo pas- 
torale. It IS very soft Music indeed. It is several 
long pieces of glass laid in order in a case, resting on 
each end of every piece of glass, and is played in the 
middle parts of the glasses by two little sticks with 
Nobbs at the end of them stricking the glass. It is 
a very small Instrument and looks when covered like 
a working Box for Ladies. * I also saw the prettiest 
working Box with aU sorts of things in it for the 
Ladies to carry with them when they go abroad, 
about as big again as a Tea Chest, that ever I saw in 
my Life. It could not cost less than five guineas 
We had for dinner some common Fish, a Leg of 
Mutton rosted and a baked Pudding the first Course , 
and a rost Duck, a Meat Pye, Eggs and Tarts the 
second. For supper we had a brace of Partridges 
rosted, some cold Tongue, Potatoes in Shells and 
Tarts. I returned to Weston about past ten o’clock. 
To Servants at Ringland — 2. — gave o. 2. o. Mr. 
Custance also gave me to carry Home a brace of 
Partridges, which my servant Will brought home. 
They keep 6 Men Servants and 4 Maids. 

Oct. 3. ... Had a letter this evening from my Sister 
Pounsett and another from Mr. Pounsett both in- 
closed in a Frank. Had another from Bill from 



London to desire me to send him a lo Pd Bill, but 
cannot. He has got however from his Friends 
so Pounds. 

Oct. 5. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again at 
home. Mr. Palmer called on me this morning and 
I had a long chat with him about Sukey, also about 
the Highways, and lastly about Methodists. To 
Mr. Cary for things from Norwich etc. pd — o. 8 4. 
About II o’clock at night just as I was going to bed 
my Nephew Wm. Woodforde came to my House on 
foot. He came this evening in the Norwich Coach 
from London. He was much disappointed at London 
on hearing that the Chatham was sailed and therefore 
prevented going on board her. He slept at my 
House but all the Folks were gone to bed and he 
obliged to sleep without any sheets. The Ship was 
sailed about a Week, 'they kept him in the Country 
so long about raising 50 Pounds, that occasioned his 
disappointment. 3 Weeks there. 

Oct. 10. . I went to East Tuddenham and read 

Prayers and preached a Charity sermon for du Quesne 
there. A Mr. and Mrs. Reevans by Will gave some 
Land to the Poor of that place and likewise money 
for a sermon to be preached as on this day for ever. 
I had not above 10 People at Church there to-day. 

. . . Due to me from du Quesne for preaching for him 
at Homngham 14 sermons at 10/6 each — 7. 7. o. 

Oct. 14. ... Paid my Servant Maid Sukey Boxly this 
morning a yrs wages due Oct. 10. The sum of 4. o. o. 
Gave to h6r besides her Wages, as going away 040 
I sent Cary’s Cart with one of my Horses by Ben to 
Little Melton about 4 Miles beyond Easton after my 
new Maid this afternoon, and she returned about 
6 o’clock Her name is Ehz. Caxton about 40 yrs 



of age, but how she will do I know not as yet but her 
Wages are 5. 15. 6 per annum, but out of that she 
is to find herself in Tea and Sugar. She is not the 
most engaging I must confess by her first appearance 
that she makes. My other Maid came to me also 
this evening Her name is Anne Lillistone of Lens- 
wade Bridge about 18 years of age but very plain, 
however I like her better than the other at the first 
sight, I am to give her 2. o. o per annum and to make 
her an allowance to find herself in Tea and Sugar. 
Sukey this evening left us, but in Tears, most sad. 

Oct. 29 ... Myself and Bill took a ride about Noon 

to Mr. Baldwins at Lyng and there dined, spent the 
afternoon, supped, and spent the evening and stayed 
till after l in the Morn. We were very merry and 
very agreeable there We had for dinner a dish of 
Fish, some boiled fowls, some Bacon, a Tongue 
boiled, a Leg of Mutton rosted, some Oysters, Mince 
Pyes and Syllabubs We had for supper fryed 
Herrings, hash Mutton, cold Tongue, Mince Pies, 
and Syllabubs and stewed Pears. Mrs. Hammerton, 
Mr. and Mrs. Baldwin, Miss Vertue, and Miss Nancy 
Baldwin, and a Mr. Shute, a young Man Ensign in 
the Guards, and a near Relation of Mrs. Baldwin, 
and whose Father lives near Oxford at a place called 
Shottover. We played at Cards both before and 
after Supper. At which I lost the most in all about 
o. 9. o. We did not get to Weston till 2 in the 
morning and did not get to bed till near 4 o’clock. 

Nov. 6. ... This morning I had some suspicion that 
Bill was concerned with my Maid Nancy and also 
that she appeared to me to be with child. I was 
uneasy. But the Truth will appear e’er long if so. 
Sukey my late Maid was at my House all day today 




to shew Nann to make Butter, and help 
ironing. . . . 

Nov. lo. ... Had a letter this evening from Sister 
Pounsett with a Bank Bill in it of lo. o. o. Had 
a letter also from Js. Lewis to petition my assistance, 
he having lately broke his left arm. Put some Peas 
into ground in my walled garden. 

Nov. 13 ... [The Diarist and Bill go to Norwich for 

the day.] I supped and spent the evemng with 
Mr. Francis Senr, his Son and Daughter and Family 
are at Saham. Bill was to have been at Mr. Francis’s 
this evening but I apprehend he was after some of 
the Town Ladies. After I came from Mr. Francis’s 
I took a walk in pursuit of Bill but he was got to the 

Nov. 21. . I told my Maid Betty this mormng that 
the other maid Nanny looked so big about the Waist 
that I was afraid she was with Child, but Betty told 
me she thought not, but would soon inform me if it 
is so. 

Nov. 23. ... I told Bill this mormng that I should 
have nothing more to say to him or do for him — 
and I gave him his money that he desired me to keep 
for him. He was very low on the Occasion and 
cried much. . . . 

Nov. 26. ... [He visits Mr. du Quesne with his servant.] 
As we came back it was stormy and dark and as we 
came out of the Lane that goes to du Quesne’s upon 
the Turnpike on the right hand just by the Direction 
Post we could perceive a black Horse standing stiU 
against the Hedge, but could not discover any Man 
upon it, but as we just got into the Wood, Will said 
he heard the Horse move as if coming after us, but 
we jogged on and thank God got home very safe and 



undisturbed. It was between ii and 12 at night. It 
had rather a suspicious appearance I thought. 

Nov. 28. ... Bad News upon the Papers this evening 
as the French, Spaniards, Americans and the Dutch 
are all against us. 

Nov. 29. ... I read Prayers and Preached this morning 
at Weston. I had notice given in Church this morn- 
ing for my Parishioners to meet at my House on 
Tuesday next and pay their respective dues for Tithe. 
Mr Hammerton sent a letter to Bill this afternoon 
and in it one from a Mr. Toulmin agent for the 
Chatham to Mr. Hammerton to inform him that the 
Chatham would be at Sheerness the ensuing week, 
and that Bill would set out to meet her there. Bill 
went down immediately to Lyng to Mr Hammerton 
and stayed there till near 8 o’clock. He is to go off 
the ensuing week which I am glad of. 

Dec. 7. . . About 8 this afternoon I went to Norwich 
with my nephew who goes in the London Machine 
this Night, on his sea expedition, which if he does not 
succeed in on board the Chatham, is not to return 
here but go into the West and get into a Bnstol 
Privateer. Mrs. Hammerton sent up a Bottle of 
Catchup to b€ carried to her son, but we could not 
carry it. I put up my Horses at the King’s Head 
and slept there. We drank Tea at the King’s Head 
this evening and we supped together at the Angel 
Inn in the Coffee Room there, from whence the Coach 
sets of, I stayed there till the Coach went of, which 
was exactly at 12 at night. I saw Bill safe into the 
Coach and then returned to my Inn to sleep. Bill 
set off in tolerable good spirits. I gave him to spend 
between young Hammerton and self as we could not 
carry the Catchup o. 10. 6. Gave to Bill besides for 



himself i. i. o. My servant Will went with us to 
Norwich, and carried behind him two very fine 
Turkey Cocks which went in the Coach, and they 
were Presents from me to Mr. Toulmin and Mr. 
Charles Hammerton Mr. Toulmin is Agent to the 
Chatham and Mr. Hammerton is Brother to Mr. 
Hammerton of Lyng and who behaved particularly 
civil to Bill when last in London for there he slept 
• • • 

Dec. 8. I breakfasted and slept again at the King’s 
Head. ... I went to Mr Priest’s where I dined and 
spent the afternoon with him, his Wife, Miss Fanny 
Priest their daughter who is but just alive, their son 
John, Mr. Priest of Reepham and daughter Rebecca. 
I paid Mr. Priest for Wine and Rum 6. 13. o. We 
had for dinner some Norfolk Dumplins and a Goose 
A very poor dinner for so many of us I think. The 
two Priests and myself went to the Castle Hill in the 
afternoon to see the Man Satire which was nothing 
more than a large Monkey. I gave there 006. 
It did not answer our Expectations at all. 

Dec. 19. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. I shot a Rook and a Jackdaw at one shot 
this morning and I believe 50 yards from me. I had 
a long letter from my sister, Pounsett, this even’. 
Admiral Keppell and Sir Hugh Palliser two of our 
chief Admirals have had a grand Quarrel and are both 
to have a Court Martial set upon them soon.^ 

^ The quarrel between Sir Hugh Palliser (1723-96) and Admiral Keppel 
(1725-86) arose out of the indecisive action in the Channel of July 24-7, 
1778, between the French and British Fleets Keppel was m command, 
and Palliser m second command. It appears that Palliser disobeyed an 
order of KeppePs at a vital moment, so the French Fleet got away, 
Keppel honourably but unwisely suppressed any official report of Palliser’s 
insubordination, but the facts leaked out, and Palliser, who hated Keppel 



Dec. 23. ... Mr. du Quesne, Mr. and Mrs. Howes, 
Mr. Bodham, Mrs. Dav7 and children Betsy and 
Nunn, Mr. and Miss Donne, and their cousin a little 
boy by name Charles D< 5 nne of London dined and 
spent the afternoon with me "being my Rotation and 
all but Mr. du Quesne supped, and spent the whole 
night with me being very dark and some falling rain. 
Mr. Bodham, myself and Mr. Donne sat up the 
whole night and played at cards till 6 in the morn- 
ing. Mr and Mrs. Howes went to bed in my Bed- 
room about 2 in the Morning. Miss Donne, Betsy 
and Nunn Davis slept together in the Yellow Room 
Mr Donnes Nephew slept in Will’s Room with Mr. 
Donne’s Man Charles. All my Folks sat up. About 
6 in the Morning we serenaded the folks that were 
a bed with our best on the Hautboy. Mr. du Quesne 
went home about 10 o’clock. I did all I could to 
prevail on him to stay, but could not. I gave them 
for dinner 3 Fowls boiled, part of a Ham, the major 
part of which Ham was entirely eat out by the Flies 
getting into it, a tongue boiled, a Leg of Mutton 
rosted, and an excellent currant Pudding. I gave 
them for Supper a couple of Rabbitts smothered in 
onions, some Hash Mutton, and some rosted Potatoes. 

— Keppel was a Whig and Palliser a Tory — surged his friend, Lord Sand- 
wich (see pp 249-50) to have Keppel conrt-martialled Keppel was 
charged with every bnd of inefficiency and even cowardice by his sub- 
ordinate The court-martial was held, and resulted (F ebruary 1 1, 1 779) in 
a triumphant vindication of Keppel The popular feeling was all on 
KeppePs side, and the overjoyed mob burnt Palliser^s house in Pall Mall 
and tore down the Admiralty gates London was illuminated for two 
nights, and KeppePs head was painted on the signs of country inns, where 
It is to be seen to this day (See notices of Keppel and Palliser in 
D N B and Lecky’s Htstory of England tn the Eighteenth Century^ 
vol IV, pp 93-4) 




We were exceeding merry indeed all the night. 
I believe at cards that I lost about o. 2. 6. 

Dec. 26. ... Bad news from Oxford on the Paper this 
evening, viz. that on Dec. 18 a terrible fire broke 
out in Queen’s College at 3 in the morning, and 
entirely destroyed the West Wing of the New 
Quadrangle with the Provosts Buildings and burnt 
quite to ground. I am very sorry for the sad 

Dec. 27. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. I read Prayers and administered the H: 
Sacrament this morning at Weston Mr. and Mrs. 
Custance of Ringland at Church and at the Sacra- 
ment. As Mr. and Mrs. Custance were going to see 
their brother, Mr. Press Custance after church, they 
took me up in their coach and brought me home, 
and they came into my House and warmed them- 
selves and stayed f of an Hour. J. Smith my clerk, 
Harry Dunnell and my late maid Sukey all dined 
with our Folks in the Kitchen. I had part of a Rump 
of Beef boiled and a Turkey rested. I sent Harry 
Dunnell’s wife a dinner to-day. I was rather dull, 
being quite alone. 

Dec. 30. ... Mr. and Mrs. Howes and Mrs. Potter 
dined and spent the afternoon with me and stayed 
till 8 in the evening. I gave them for dinner a piece 
of boiled Beef and a plain suet Pudding, and a fine 
Turkey rested. Mason of Sparham came to my 
House, with his 10 Bells this afternoon and played 
before my Company and they were as well pleased 
as Children on hearing them. . . 

1779. Jan. 1st. I breakfasted, dmed, supped and slept 
again at home. This morning very early about 
I o’clock a most dreadful storm of wind with Hail 



and Snow happened here and the Wind did not quite 
abate till the evening. A little before 2 o’clock 
I got up, my bedsted rocking under me, and never 
in my life that I know of, did I remember the Wind 
so high or of so long continuance. I expected every 
Moment that some part or other of my House must 
have been blown down, but blessed be God the 
whole stood, only a few Tiles displaced. My Servants 
also perceived their Bedsteds to shake. Thanks be to 
God that none of my People or self were hurt. My 
Chancel received great damage as did my Barn. The 
Leads from my Chancel were almost all blown of 
with some Parts of the Roof. The North West 
Window blown in and smashed aU to pieces. The 
East Wmdow also damaged but not greatly. The 
North W: Leads on the top of the Church also, some 
of them blown up and ruffled, besides 2 windows 
injured. The Clay on the North end of my Barn 
blown in and the West side of the Roof the Thatch, 
most aU blown away, leaving many holes in it. The 
damage sustained by me will amount I suppose to 
50 Pounds if not more. However I thank God no 
lives were lost that I hear of and I hope not. Mr. 
Shaddlelows Barn, Michael Andrews’s, with many 
others all blown down. Numbers of Trees torn up 
by the Roots in many Places. In the evening the 
Wind abated and was quite calm when I went to 
bed about li o’clock. Since what happened this 
morning, I prolonged the Letter that I designed to 
send to my sister Pounsett to relate what had happened 
here by the storm. And this evening sent it to her 
by Mr. Cary. A smart frost this evening. As the 
year begins rather unfortunate to me, hope the other 
Parts of it will be as propitious to me. 

243 R 2 


kept a place open entirely for him, and that he would 
have been very soon promoted. The Captain was 
much displeased as well as Mr. Hammerton, who had 
both been very Mnd to him and did all they could 
for him. He will never I beheve turn out very well 
anywhere, and his Parents whatever they may pro- 
mise, wdll do nothing. His Father had wrote a Letter 
to him to let him know that he would get a 
Lieutenancy of Marines for him — that his Uncle 
Thos. Woodforde had proimsed to speak to my 
L**. Guildford ^ for him about the same. I wish my 
Head might never ake before that Time. 

Jan 25. . . Busy this morning in cleamng my Jack, 

and did it completely. My stomach rather sick this 
evening — ^Mince Pye rose oft 

Jan. 26. [Rotation Day at Mr. Howes]. . . . Just as the 
Company was gone Mrs. Howes attacked Mr. Howes 
about putting down the chaise and she talked very 
loughly to him and strutted about the Room. It 
was rather too much m her. I did not stay long 
to hear it, but soon decamped and was at home 
before 10. 

Feb. 6 [at Norwich]. ... I went to Mr. Priest’s and 
Mr Priest, a Mr. Ferman and myself went to see 
a remarkable large Pigg, which even exceeded our Idea 
of him. He is said to weigh 50 stone, is 9 foot from 
the Tip of his Tail to the Top of his Snout in length, 
and 4 foot high when standing. He is obhged to be 

^ Francis North, first Earl of Guilford (1704-90) He was father of 
the famous Lord North, Prime Mimster (though he himself asserted that 
‘ there was no such thmg in the Bntish Constitution *) from 1770 to 1782 
Lord Guilford was not a remarkable man in any way, but he was a great 
favourite at Court (of George III and Queen Charlotte), and therefore 
very influential (SeeZ) N £) 



helped up when down. I never saw such a Creature 
in my Life. 

Feb. 9. I breakfasted and slept again at home. At 
I o’clock took a ride to Lyng and dined, spent the 
afternoon, supped and spent the evemng and stayed 
till after 2 this morning at Mr. Hammerton’s, with 
him and his Wife, Mr. and Mrs. Baldwin and Miss 
Nancy. Mr. Loyd and his wife of Belough, dined 
and spent the afternoon and stayed till near 8 in the 
evening with us at Mr. Hammerton’s. We had for 
dinner a Leg of Mutton boiled and Capers, 3 Fowls 
rosted, and a Tongue, a plain Pudding, Custards, 
Tarts and Syllabubs. For supper a hot Gibblett Pye, 
cold Fowl and Tongue, Potted Beef, Tarts, Custards 
and Syllabubs. Mr. Loyd is a very agreeable Man, 
sings exceeding well, keeps a Pack of Hounds, is 
a Captain in the Mihtia, a Justice of Peace, and of 
good Fortunes. At Loo this evemng Nancy Baldwin 
and myself going partners, we won between us 
o. 5. o. I took 2 shiUings and gave Nancy the rest. 
We were very merry indeed all the whole Time. 
I gave to Mr. Hammerton’s servants — 0. 2. o. I did 
not get to bed till after 4 this mormng. My Maid 
Nanny walked downstairs to the kitchen door naked 
this night in her sleep. 

Feb. 13. ... By this Days Paper an account is given 
that the trial of Admiral Keppel is over, and that the 
Court had ‘ declared and said that the Court are 
‘ unanimously of opinion that the charge of Sir Hugh 
‘ PaUiser is malicious and ill-founded, and that 
‘ Admiral Keppel behaved as became a judicious, 
‘ brave and experienced officer. This Court there- 
‘ fore do honourably acquit him. . . .’ At the receipt 
of the above mtelhgence a general Illumination took 



place throughout London and Westminster accom- 
panied hj ringing of Bells, firing of Canon etc.^ 
I gave the People at work for me at church a pretty 
severe Jobation this aft: finding them at the Inn. 

Feb. 17. ... I lent my servant Will: Coleman this 
evening to subscribe towards raising a Man for 
the Militia if he should be drawn, as there are 
many more that have done the same at 10/6 each 
I: i: o. 

Feb. 27. ... Never known scarce such fine weather at 
this season of the year, and of so long Continuance 
ever since almost the storm of the i of Jan. It was 
like June to-day. Thanks to God for such glorious 

March 5. ... Sent a letter this evening to Dr. Oglander, 
Warden of New College to petition him for assistance 
in repairing my Chancel with the Society. . . . 

Mar. 15. ... I spent some part of the morning at 
Church and my new seat (and a very handsome one 
made of Deal) was fimshed this day in putting up 
in the Chancel and made by Mr. Pyle of Hockering, 
but I found most of the Deal to do it with. The 
old seat that was is converted into a Servants seat — 
and they both look neat and will completely so when 

Mar. 23. I breakfasted, and slept again at home. 
Memorandum. In shaving my face this morning 
I happened to cut one of my moles which bled 
much, and happemng also to kill a small moth that 
was flying about, I applied it to my mole and it 
instantaneously stopped the bleedmg. 

Mar. 30. . . Never known perhaps such a long con- 

tinuance of dry and fine Weather, we have had no 
1 See pp 240-1, foot-note. 



settled Rain for any time for almost two years last 

Mar. 31. I breakfasted and slept again at home. I took 
a ride about 2 o’clock to Mr. Custance’s at Ringland, 
and there dined, supped, spent the even’ with him 
and his wife and Lady Bacon. We had for dinner 
for the I. course a dish of fish, a Leg of Mutton, 
rosted and some Ham and Chicken Tarts. The 2nd 
Course an Orange Apple Pudding, some Asparagus, 
Veal Collops, Syllabubs and Jelly Soon after dinner 
was obliged to return to Overton to bury old Mrs. 
Pegg at 5 o’clock which I did aged 73 yrs. I had 
a Hatband and a pair of white Mdd gloves. I returned 
to Mr. Custances by tea time and after tea we got 
to Cards to Whist at which I lost o 1.6. Mrs. Cus- 
tance and self attacked Lady Bacon and Mr. Custance. 
I spent a very agreeable day there to-day. We had 
some Parmezan Cheese after dinner and supper of 
which I eat very hearty and like it exceedingly. 
I gave to one of Mr. Custance’s servants o. i. o. 
I got home about 1 1 at night. 

April 3. ... Quite a Summer’s day and exceeding fair. 
Had a letter this evening from my Sister Pounsett. 
Had another from Dr. Oglander, Warden of New 
Coll: Oxford, in answer to mine, and very satis- 
factory it was. Five poor unhappy young men were 
hanged this day at Norwich, for divers misdemeanours, 
at the last Assizes they were condemned — Bell, Boddy, 
Bridges, Partridge and Gryfin, none of them but 
what were quite young, but Villains. . . . 

April II ... Between ii and 12 o’clock this morning 
I went to Church and publickly christned Mr. Cus- 
tance’s child of Ringland, it had been privately 
named before, and the name of it was Hambleton 



Thomas. The Gossips were Sir Edmund Bacon 
Proxy for Sir Thomas Beauchamp, Mr. Press Custance 
and Lady Bacon. Mr. and Mrs. Custance also present 
at the ceremony. There were Coaches at Church. 
Mr. Custance immediately after the Ceremony came 
to me and desired me to accept a small Present ; it 
was wrapped up in a Piece of white Paper very neat, 
and on opening of it, I found it contained nothing 
less than the sum of 4. 4. o He gave the Clerk 
also o. 10. 6. 

April 15. I breakfasted, and supped again at home. 
About 2 o’clock took a ride to Mr. Custance’s at 
Ringland and there dined, spent the afternoon supped 
and spent the evening with him and Mrs. Custance, 
and Lady Bacon. Sir Edmund Bacon came to us just 
at supper time and he supped etc there. Sir Edmund 
was rather merry, and was very cheerful. He is 
quite a young man and personable, but has an odd 
cast with his eyes, — ^rather cross sighted I spent 
a very agreeable day at Ringland. We had for dinner 
a Breast of Veal ragouted, a fine Piece of boiled beef, 
a Pidgeon Pye, Custards, Puffs, and some Lemon 
Cream. For Supper, a young Chicken, cold tongue 
etc. At Whist this evening, Mrs. Custance and 
myself against Lady Bacon and Mr. Custance — and 
I lost o. 2. o. It was astonishing hot and sultry most 
part of the day, and in the evening a good deal of 
lightening. Most uncommon weather for the time 
of the year. The Thermometer as high as at any 
time last summer. I got home about 1 1 at night. 

April 17. I breakfasted, dmed, supped and slept again 
at home. A Miss Wray Mistress to Lord Sandwich ^ 

^ John Montagu, fourth Earl of Sandwich (1718-92), after a varied 
career as general, pohtician, and ambassador, became First Lord of the 



was last week shot thro the head as she was getting 
into her Coach from the Playhouse in London, by 
one Mr. Ackman, a Clergyman, he was immediately 
taken into custody and will be hanged it is supposed. 
It is thought that it was done thro’ dispair of love. 
He immediately after shooting her discharged another 
Pistol at his own head, it grazed his fore-head but 
did not kill him, as some one pulled his arm. A 
Captain Bruce also last week shot himself thro the 
head, but not immediately killed him, he then fell 
on his sword which broke in his body , a servant then 
got into the room, a Surgeon was sent for who dressed 
his wounds and put him to bed. He then took 
a large knife, not having despatched himself and 
stabbed himself which also broke and that wound 
was dressed. He then took a Pen-knife and cut his 
throat and then expired soon He had not a great 
while ago married a woman of 3000 Pd per annum. 
No reason assigned for it. Such things indeed are 
very dismal to read. 

Admiralty in Lord North’s Ministry on January 12, 1771 — a post which 
he held till Lord North’s fall from power in 1782 His tenure of office 
synchronized with a deplorably corrupt and inefficient administration of 
the Navy, continumg throughout the Amencan War He was nick-named 
‘ Jemmy Twitcher ’ (of Beggafs Opera fame) as early as 1763, on account 
of his conduct against Wilkes, once his boon companion On the other 
hand he was the patron of the celebrated pioneer, Captain Cook, who 
named the Sandwich Islands after him Sandwich’s mistress, Miss Martha 
Ray, had lived with him for sixteen years when she was murdered by the 
Rev James Hackman She was a good musician, and the musical enter- 
tainments at Hinchinbroke (which the Montagus bought from the 
Cromwells in the seventeenth century) were celebrated for their excel- 
lence (See D N B, also Mr D A Winstanley’s The Unwerstty of 
Cambridge in the Eighteenth Century, for an account of the famous contest 
between Lord Sandwich and Lord Hardwicke for the Stewardship of the 



April 1 8. ... I read Prayers and Preached this morning 
at Weston, Mr. and Mrs Custance of Ringland were 
at Church and sat in my new seat in the Chancel — 
their new seat in the Church not being finished as 
yet. I gave Mrs. Custance a fine flower, a double 
Stock. . . 

April 28. I . . . took a ride ... to Sparham and made 
a visit to the Revd. Mr. Attle who behaved very 
complaisant and avil tho’ a visit so long due to him 
from me. I drank a dish of Coffee, and one dish of 
Tea there and returned home. He has a noble 
House and his fields about him look exceeding neat 
and well He built the House himself and it cost 
him 1000 Pound. 

Between May 4 and May 8, the Diarist and Mr. Hall 
of Winborough ‘ put into execution a Scheme upon the 
Northern Coast of Norfolk which had been some time 
talked of’. Servant Will went with them. First they 
went to Cromer, ‘famous for catching of Crabbs and 
Lobsters ’. Next they went to Cley and thence to 
Wells. At Wells they spent the mght at ‘ the Royal 
Standard kept by one Smith, a civil and obliging man ’, 
and the day following ‘ got into a small boat, and went 
to sea in it ’. The Diarist, however, did not enjoy him- 
self, though they went out but a httle way, as he was 
very ‘ near sick as was Will — and the waves so large that 
frightened me, as I thought it dangerous ’. From Wells 
they went to Houghton Hall, Lord Orford’s ^ seat, ‘ the 
House and Furniture the grandest I ever saw and the 
Pictures are supposed to be the best collection in Europe ’. 
After visitmg Lynn Regis, Swaffam, and Dereham the 

1 George Walpole, third Earl of Orford, 1730-91 , he was grandson 
of the Prime Mimster, Sir Robert Walpole. 



party returned to their respective homes on May 8, 
Mr. Hall to Winborough, and the Diarist and Will to 

May 15. . . Bled my three Horses this morning, 

2 quarts each. . . . 

May 18. . • Mr. Howes and Wife and Mrs. Davy, 

Mr. Bodham and his Brother, and Mr du Quesne 
all dined and spent the afternoon and part of the 
evening with us to-day. I gave them for dinner 
a dish of Maccarel, 3 young Chicken boiled and some 
Bacon, a neck of Pork rosted and a Gooseberry Pye 
hot. We laughed immoderately after dinner on 
Mrs. Howes’s being sent to Coventry by us for 
an Hour. What with laughing and eating hot 
Gooseberry Pye brought on me the Hickupps with 
a violent pain in my stomach which lasted till 
I went to bed. At Cards Quadrille this evemng — 
lost o. 2. 6. 

May 21. ... Sent a letter this evening by’ Cary to Dr. 
Oglander Warden of New Coll: with a bill of the 
expenses on the repairing of my Church — in all 
73. 10. Ilf. 

May 22. ... My Boy Jack had another touch of the 
Ague about noon. I gave him a dram of gin at the 
beginning of the fit and pushed him headlong into 
one of my Ponds and ordered him to bed immediately 
and he was better after it and had nothing of the cold 
fit after, but was very hot. . . . 

May 27. ... My Maid Nanny was taken very ill this 
evening with a dizzmess in the Head and a desire to 
vomit, but could not. Her straimng to yomit brought 
on the Hickups which continued very violent till after 
she got to bed. I gave her a dose of rhubarb going 



to bed. Ben was also very ill and in the same com- 
plaint about noon, but he vomited and was soon 
better. I gave Ben a good dose of Rhubarb also 
going to bed. 

May 31. I breakfasted at home, and at 6 this morning 
set forth on my Mare for the West-Country, and 
took my man Will Coleman with me, who rode my 
great Horse. . . . 

The journey occupied six days and was uneventful. 
On the 31st they slept at Barton Mills at the BuU ; on 
June 1st at Royston at the Talbot — as they passed 
through Newmarket in the morning they saw Lord 
Orford, ‘ just going out a-hawHng ’ — on June 2nd at 
Aylesbury at the George Inn ; on June 3rd at Newbury 
at the Pelican ; on June 4th at Amesbury at the New Inn ; 
and on June 5th they arrived at eight in the evening at 
Ansford, ‘ and I thank God found all my Friends there 
hearty and well, and exceeding glad to see me. I supped 
and slept at Mr Pounsett’s — ^my Horses there also. My 
man WiU: Coleman supped and slept there also. . . .’ 
The six days’ journey cost the Diarist in all y. 
including the horses. 

For more than three months the Diarist and Will 
stayed at Ansford — ^Mr. du Quesne taking the duty 
meanwhile at Weston. At Ansford we immediately get 
back into the old Somerset atmosphere, the days spent 
in a constant interchange of generous hospitality between 
the numerous relations and friends, in frequent fishing 
expeditions, occasional visitmg of feasts and fairs, and 
jaunts further afield. Needless to say the Lewis’s, father 
and son, very shabby as usual, turn up, having walked 
from Nottinghamshire, and live on their hospitable 
relations for some weeks. 



June 12 Mr. Js Clarke, Brother John’s Wife and 
Nancy Woodforde and sister Clarke, dined, spent the 
afternoon, supped and spent the evening with us. 
Richard Clarke and Wife and Brother John spent the 
afternoon with us also, but was very disagreeable, 
being drunk, and was going to fight with James 
Clarke and swore abominably. It was 12 o’clock 
before we got to bed being so much disturbed — I 
pity his wife much. . . . 

July I. ... About noon I walked down to Cary with 
Brother Heighes and read the London Paper at the 
George Inn. I treated Brother Heighes with a Pint 
of Beer — I pd o. o. 21- After that I went to Richard 
Clarkes and dined, spent the afternoon, supped and 
spent the evenmg there with him and his Wife, 
James Clarke, my Brother John’s Wife, and Nancy 
Woodforde, and my Sister Pounsett. We had for 
dinner 3 fowls boiled and a Piggs Face, a Haunch of 
Venison rosted and sweet Sauce, Tarts and Cheese 
cakes. N.B. Not a bit of Fat was there on the Venison. 
Brother Heighes, Brother John, Juhana Woodforde 
and Sister Clarke supped and spent the evemng 
with us. 

July 3. ... Brother Heighes complained of being 
very poor this afternoon. I therefore let him 
have I. I. o for which I had of him an old Family 
gold ring which he is to have again when he can 
repay me. 

July 9. ... I went a fishing by myself this morning 
down to Wick Bridge and angled from thence to 
Cole and there I dmed, and spent the afternoon at 
Mr. Guppey’s with him, his sister and Mr. Pounsett. 
We had for dinner some bacon and beans, a shoulder 
of Mutton and Currant Pye. I caught 3 Trout, the 



largest 14 inches and half long — ^which I caught with 
two Grasshoppers and a small hook. Whilst I was 
a fifilnng this morning, Bill Woodforde came to me 
on Horseback to take his leave of me as he was then 
going of for Portsmouth to go aboard the fortune 
Sloop of War, of 12 gunns, and in the same capacity 
as he was to have went in the Chatharn of 50 gunns. 
The latter would have been much better and he 
repents much of not going, but is now too late. 
I wished him well, but gave him nothing at all. To 
Mr. Guppey’s Maid Sybbyll, for a poor woman in 
distress at Shepton Montague — gave o i. o To 
Mr. Guppey’s man to Elhs Coleman gave 0. i. o. 
Sister Clarke supped and spent the evemng with us 
July 19. . . This being the Bishop’s Visitation at 

Bruton to-day I took my Mare and rode over to see 
some of the Clergy whom I have been long acquainted 
with. I went to the Church, heard the Prayers read 
by Mr. Hall and heard also the Visitation Sermon 
preached by Mr. Wickham of Shepton Mallett, and 
after that I heard the Bishop’s charge to his Clergy, 
which chiefly consisted of advising them to catechise 
the children publickly and to give them Lectures on 
the same, recommending the late Metropohtan’s 
(Dr. Seeker) ^ Dissertations on the Catechism, and 
lastly of visiting the sick with an encomium on the 

^ Thomas Seeker (1693-1768), Archbishop of Canterbury He was 
one of the best of the lesser known archbishops, a man of great intel- 
lectual ability — ^the devoted friend of the great Bishop Butler — of wonder- 
fully tolerant mind, sympathetic to Wesley, friendly with the Dissenters, 
hostile to any persecution of the Jacobite Scottish clergy after the defeat 
of 1745 Originally intended for the Dissenting ministry, then temporarily 
turning from theological studies to medicine — he was made an M D of 
Leyden in 1721 for a brilliant medical thesis — ^he finally decided to enter 
Anglican Orders Through the stages of country parson and London 



King. I saw Will: Bailey, little Mr. Hunt, Mr. 
Wragg, Mr. Marsh, Mr. Rawkins, Mr. Wickham, 
Mr. Millard, Mr. Goldsborough, Mr. Thomas of 
Cary etc. etc.. The Bishop of Bath and Wells is 
Dr. Charles Moss. . . N.B. I stole a goose this 
morning from my Sister White and asked her to 
dine upon it to-morrow, and she is to know nothing 
of it. I told her I had a Swan. Mr. White went to 
Sherborne Fair this morning. I lent him my great 
Horse to go there. 

July 21. I breakfasted and spent the morning at 
Ansford. About 12 o’clock I got into the Weymouth 
Machine from Bath and set of by myself for Wey- 
mouth. There was only one man in it who was 
dressed as a gentleman and behaved as such. His 
name was Watson. We dined at Sherborn at the 
George, a shabby Inn and had a most miserable 
dinner, about 2 Pound of boiled beef and a old tame 
Rabbitt. I paid for my dinner at Sherborne o 1.6. 
We then went on to Dorchester and there we had 
a bottle of the famous Dorchester Beer and very good 
It was. For the bottle of Beer I paid myself o. o. 6. 
We got to Weymouth about 8 o’clock and there 

parson he became 8nccessiTel7 Bishop of Bnstol and Bishop of Oxford, 
finally entering Lambeth Palace in 1758 (See the account of Archbishop 
Seeker in Mr A W.'RoyrieD.’iThePrmatesof the Four Georges , Murray, 
1916 Also D.N.B) 

^ Charles Moss (1711-1802), Bishop successively of St Davids and of 
Bath and Wells, nephew of Robert Moss (1666-1729), Dean of Ely, and 
father of Charles Moss (1763-1811), Bishop of Oxford. He was son 
of a Norfolk gentleman-farmer, and inherited a large fortune from his 
unde the Dean He was an amiable prelate, and strongly" supported 
Hannah MoreV educational activities in Somerset Most of his con- 
siderable wealth he left to his son, upon whom he had already bestowed 
vanous promotions in the Church (See D.NB) 



I supped and slept at the King’s Head kept by one 
Loder a very good Inn and very civill people. To 
the Coachman for my fare paid o. 9. 6. To the 
Coachman for himself gave o. i. o. Mr. Watson and 
self supped together — ^for my share pd o. 2. o. 

July 23. ... Mr. Watson who came with me (I heard 
this afternoon) was a Hair Dresser from Bristol and 
dresses Ladies heads. Weymouth at present has but 
little company in it. F or my dinner to-day and supper 
to-mght and lodging three nights paid this evening 
to Mrs. Loder o. 6. 9. 

July 27. . . About II this morning I took a ride with 
my Sister (who rode behind my Servant) to S. Cad- 
bury, and there I left her at Mr. Slades, where she 
dined etc. I went afterwards on my Mare by myself 
to Milborne Port about 5 miles from S. Cadbury 
and there I dined and spent the afternoon at Mr. 
Lucas’s, with him, his Mother and Sister Chandler 
and 2 young gentlemen. Lucas is just the same man 
as at New College. He has the Vicarage of Milborn 
Port being Fellow of Wmton Coll; his Mother and 
Sister keep his House for him, — ^he told me that his 
present income was about 350 Pd. per annum. 
One of the young Gentlemen that dined with us 
lives at Queen Camel and is a Clergyman — ^his name 
Charles. The other was a lad and lately a Chorister 
of New Coll" His name was Charles Marsh, and 
I remembered him there. Lucas was very glad to 
see me. At 5. left him. We had for dinner some 
boiled Pork and Beans, a couple of Ducks rosted, and 
an Apricot Pudding. Going to Lucas’s, I saw Jack 
Windham and his Wife in a Phaeton and Pair going 
from Corton to Cadbury, but was not near enough 
to speak to him. He has the Living of Corton and 

257 S 


resides there. He married a Miss Bowls of Sahsbury, 
Canon Bowis’s daughter. Jack Windham is a Doctor 
of Law. I returned to Cadbury about 7 in the even- 
ing, stayed there half an hour, and returned with my 
Sister to Ansford about 9 o’clock. 

Aug. 12. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at Bath [whither he had gone on a jaunt on August 10, 
visi tin g Bristol also] Js. Lewis and his son called on 
pie this morning at Bath but did not stay long — ^they 
were going for Nottingham. I did not give either of 
them anything at all. [The Lewis’s had been at 
Ansford since July ii, having walked from Notting- 
ham.] To a Barber this morning of Bath gave o. o. 6. 
After breakfast and dressing I took a walk and near 
the Parade met with my good old Friend Dr. Penny 
who was hearty and well. I walked with him to the 
Bank and to the Coffee House, and the Dr. seeing 
a Miss Bhsse walking by the Coffee House, he joined 
her and I saw nothing more of him afterwards at 
Bath. I called at the 3 Innes etc but he was gone. 
At the 3 Innes for some Rum and water pd. o. o. 3. 
For a pair of Garters this morning pd. o. i. o. To 
some Fish Hooks — 2 dozen pd. also o. 2. o. To 2 new 
Pamphletts concerning a Tithe cause pd. o. 6. 0 
I went and saw the Abbey Church which is kept 
very neat, and a great many Monuments in it. At 
Davis’s Fruit Shop this aft. for a Melon pd. o. 2. 6. 
For 3 Pd of Filberts pd also o i. 4. After tea this 
evemng I took a walk in the Fields and met in my 
walk two Girls, the eldest about 17, the other about 
15, both common Prostitutes even at that early age ; 
I gave thend some good Advice to consider the End 
of things. I gave them o. i. 0. I paid my Bill this 
evenmg at the Christopher as I intend going of 


early tomorrow morn’ in all o. 14. 6. Bells ringing 
etc at Bath today, being the Prince’s Birth Day. 

Aug. 13. I got up this mormng about 6 o’clock and at 
7 got into the Dihgence for Ansford. To the Chamber 
Maid at Bath gave o. i. 6 Waiter i/o. Dep. Waiter 
6 d. Boot Catch 6 d. o. 2 o. A Clergyman by name 
Austin from the City of Kilkenny in Ireland went 
with me in the Dihgence from Bath he being going 
to see a Friend at Weymouth. He was a very good 
kind of man by his appearance. He knew Js. Lewis 
and his Father very well. He was a Scholar of old 
Mr. Lewis and he gave him a very high character, 
but a very bad one of Js Lewis He told me that 
Js. Lewis was one of the most wild turn, that when 
a Boy he shot another Boy thro’ the head but by 
accident. That he had been a Deserter to the French 
in the Rebelhon 45 and saved bemg shot by bringing 
back 10 Deserters with him. That he had quite tired 
his Friends in Ireland and would do the same in 
England. A common expression of Js. Lewis’s when 
in Ireland was that his Being was in En gla nd, We 
breakfasted together at Gannards Grave on some 
Brandy and Milk for which I paid o o. 6. At Gan- 
nards Grave we took up 2 Passengers one inside and 
one outside — three Passengers in the inside made it 
very disagreeable in so small a Diligence. I got to 
Ansford about 12 and there I supped and slept at 
Mr. Pounsett’s— gave the Driver Tom Smith o. 1. o. 
Mr. Guppey, Mr. Thomas, Sister White and one 
John White of Brinton who came with Mr. Guppey 
dined etc here. We had a fine young Hare for 

Aug. 19. ... When I returned home [from a fiabing 
expedition] I found the people at Ansford etc in 

2S9 s 2 


great Consternation, a report being spread hy John 
Burge of Castle Cary that the French and Spanish 
Fleets were engaging at Portsmouth, that 3 of our 
Line were sunk and that the Spanish and French 
Fleets consisted of more than 60 Ships of the Line, 
and ours only 40 Ships That the Stones in Ports- 
mouth Street were taken up etc. As it came from 
such Authority I don’t credit it at all. John Burge 
said that he had it from a Man who saw the engage- 
ment, and saw also our 3 Ships sink and that the Sea 
looked on fire where the Engagement was. It 
fnghtened my Sisters White and Pounsett very 

Aug. 20 . In the evening I walked to South Cary 

to old Mrs. Pennys and there Mr. Pounsett and self 
smoked a Pipe with Dr Penny. Nothing true about 
the French as mentioned yesterday. . . . 

Aug. 23rd I got up this morning between 5 and 6 and 
at 6 I took a ride and my servant with me to Wells, 
we got there about 8 and there we breakfasted at 
the Goat kept by Robin Coleman’s Widow For my 
Breakfast etc. pd. o. i 4. After breakfast I walked 
down to Mr Wickham’s who hves close to the 
Deanery and there saw Mr. and Mrs. Wickham their 
son Tom and his two sisters, Betty and Fanny. 
A Mr. Skinner and Son from Richmond were there 
also. Mr and Mrs Wickham pressed me to dine 
with them. I then went back to my Inn got upon 
my Mare and went on to Cheddar 8 miles from Wells. 
We got there about ii o’clock, put up my Horse at 
the Buck there and then Will and myself walked to 
the Cliffs to see them, about f mile from the Inn, 
and most grand appearance did they make. We 
walked quite thro’ them, which could not be less 



than a mile They are supposed to be rent asunder 
by an Earthquake. Some of the Rocks I suppose are 
above 300 feet Perpendicular, each side of the Rocks 
exactly corresponds with one another, like the teeth 
of a gm when extended. It exceeded my expectation 
greatly indeed. I set of from Cheddar a Qr before 
2 o’clock, and we returned "to Wells by 3. I got of 
at Mr. Wickhams and Will had the Horses to the Goat 
and there he dined etc. Paid at Cheddar for our- 
selves and Horses o i. 4. I dined and spent the 
afternoon at Mr. Wickhams with him, his Wife, 
2 daughters and son, Mr. Skinner and son, and 
a clergyman by name Purcell who lives on the public. 
We had for dinner some boiled Beef, a Fillett of Veal 
rosted and a plumb Pudding. Mulberries and Pears 
after dinner A Mr Cambridge and his two sisters 
from Richmond called at Mr. Wickhams in a Chaise 
this afternoon, being just returned from Plymouth, 
he informed us that Plymouth and Exeter were in 
great consternation about the French and Spanish 
Fleets who wer-e on Wednesday last about 5 leagues 
from Plymouth, they saw them very plam from the 
Hill near Plymouth and could distinctly tell the 
numbers of the Ships and they amounted to only 
73 sail instead of 103 as reported. Mr. Cambridge 
saw an engagement between one of our Ships by 
name the Ardent of 50 Gunns, Capt. Boteler, and 
3 of the Enemy’s and she was obhged to strike to 
them after an engagement of 4 Hours and half. It 
happened on tuesday last, — Sir Charles Hardy not to 
be found a. general engagement is daily expected 
between the Fleets. . . 

The entries of August 19th and 23rd bear vivid witness 



to the extraordinary perE the country was in in this 
summer of 1779. Mr. John Burge was, of course, a mere 
purveyor of rumour, but the actual danger was very 
great. The French and Spanish Fleets had combined, 
and entering the Channel in August, outnumbered the 
English Fleet under Sir Charles Hardy (1716-80) by 
practically two to one ‘ For the first time ’, says Lecky, 
‘ since 1690, England saw a vast fleet commanding her 
seas, and threatening and insulting her coasts.’ Invasion 
was almost hourly expected ‘ The danger appeared 
extreme. The humiliation was intolerable, and the 
letters of the most serious members of the Opposition 
show that, in their opinion, the country had been con- 
ducted to the very brink of ruin. Fortunately, however, 
the hostile fleet was feebly commanded, and very imper- 
fectly equipped. Sickness raged violently in its crews, 
and early in September, as the season of the equinoctial 
gales was rapidly approaching, it retired to Brest, where 
it remained inactive for several months. A great pamc 
and humihation, and the capture of a single ship of war 
of sixty-four guns, were the sole fruits of the expedition.’ ^ 

Sep- 6 I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept agam at 
Ansford Nancy Woodforde dined and spent the 
afternoon with us. I gave this mornmg to my Sister 
Pounsett I. I. o to be laid out in something for her 
little Maid To Nancy Hossy late my Sister’s Maid 
for making some Handkerchiefs for me etc. — ^gave 
her — 0. 2. 6 I gave her coimng away bemg a pretty 
Girl one Kiss. Mr. White, Js. Clarke, and Mr. 
Pounsett and self walked up to Ansford Tnu m the 
afternoon and smoked a pipe there. On Liquor etc. 

^ Lecky’s History of England tn the Eighteenth Century, vol iv, pp iii- 
1 3 See also notice of Hardy in D. N. B 



we each paid o. i. o. Dr. Rock an old Schoolfellow 
of mine and Mr. Wickham’s son Thomas, came to 
Ansford Inn this evening in a Whiskey and they were 
with us half an hour. Gave to James White and little 
Ann White this evening o. lo. o. Great firing of 
Cannon heard at Ansford this afternoon 

Sep. 8 . At 9 this morning I took my Leave of my 

Friends, leaving them in Tears, and was of for 
Norfolk. . . [He and his servant sleep that 
mght at Sahsbury ] I went and saw 1 50 French 
Prisoners this even’ that are on their march to 

Sep 9. I slept exceeding well last mght having a veiy 
good bed. I got up at 6 this morning and saw the 
French Prisoners march of for Winchester, accom- 
panied by a Troop of Horse. After that I took 
a walk by myself to the Camp about two miles South 
of Sahsbury, and there breakfasted at the Camp 
Coffee House for Officers etc. All Horse encamped 
there 6 Regiments in all. The Camp made a very 
pretty appearance. . . . [They proceed on their way 
and sleep at Winchester ] 

Sep. 10. I slept very sound last night having a very 
good bed. I breakfasted at the George [Winchester] 
and after breakfast took a walk to the King’s House 
and saw the French Prisoners, walked over the Prison 
with a civil Soldier. I gave the Soldier that went 
with me o. o. 6. I saw also the 150 French Prisoners 
that came from Stockbridge this morning, dehvered 
into Prison, each of them had a new straw Bed given 
him and a coarse Hammock to lay it upon. There 
are now in the Prison about 4000, and it is said that 
the Prison will hold 6000 more. Many of the Prisoners 
are supposed to be English, especially some of the 



Boys wlio talk English very well. About noon we 
marched of from Winton. . . . 

These references by the Diarist to the cavalry camp, 
south of Salisbury, and the prison for Trench prisoners 
at Winchester, bring out with vivid force the fact that 
our defensive system throughout the eighteenth century 
and until the end of the nineteenth century was directed 
against the ancestral enemy France So entirely had the 
national energies been concentrated in facing towards 
France that when the menace changed — ^historically 
with dreanailike rapidity — ^from the Channel to the North 
Sea, we were so unprepared that no really safe harbour 
was ready in 1914 for the Grand Fleet on the eastern 
coasts either of England or Scotland. This is admirably 
brought out in Mr. Winston Churchill’s book, The,^ 
World Crisis, xgix-X 4 ?- The general unpreparedness of 
the eastern coast of Great Britain, on the outbreak of war 
with Germany, is in itself an overwhelming proof that 
our intentions towards Germany were pacific 

Sep. 12. 1 breakfasted and slept again at the Blue Boar 
[Oxford, whither the Diarist and Will had come via 
Andover where they had slept the night of the nth]. 
About I o’clock dressed myself and then walked to 
New College where I met with Crowe, Webber, who 
has the Living the Adderbury late Blackstones, Eaton, 
Coker Senr. and King. I dmed, supped and spent 
the evenmg with them at New CoU. They were the 
only Fellows now in College and all Seniors. I saw 
the Chapel and Garden before dinner. In the West 
Window of New Coll. Chapel are three most beautiful 
emblematical figures of Faith, Hope and Charity, 

^ See specialty p. 154, Notes hy the First Lord of the Admiralty. 



painted on glass. They were done by one Jervase of 
London, and only put up in the Chapel the last week. 
No Painting can exceed them I think on glass. The 
whole of that great West Window is to be painted 
by him. The design is of Sir Joshua Reynolds’s 
I could not go to St. Mary Church either morn’ or 
aft I called and spoke with Locke this evening, my 
late Silversmith and he looks very well, he lives where 
he used to do. 

Sep. 13. I breakfasted and slept again at the Blue Boar. 
Before breakfast I took a long walk on the Botley 
Road, having a violent pain in my stomach, otving 
I beheve to eating too many waUnutts yesterday at 
Coll: On my walk called at a House and had a dram 
pd. o. o. 2. After breakfast I took another walk but 
longer over Port Meadow, called at 2 Houses and had 
some Rum and Water at each, being in great pain, 
pd. o o. 6 , going over the Ferry at Binsey gave 
o. o 2. I dined, supped and spent the evening at 
New College with Webber, Crowe, Coker Senr, 
Eaton and King. Coker, and King looked rather 
cool on me I thought. It was after ii this evening 
before I got to my Inn Dr. Wall I hear is marned 
and hves m St. Giles in Oxford, I had no opportunity 
of seeing him. Webber’s Fellowship is vacant today 
or tomorrow. The High Street in Oxford is exceed- 
ing handsome, being lately paved. Magdalen Bridge 
also fimshed. The Upper Room of New CoU. 
Library also finished. 

On September 13 they proceeded by the usual route 
to Weston, which they reached on September 17th 

Sep. 18. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 



at home. Soon after breakfast my Friend Mr. Hall 
called on me and dined and spent the afternoon with 
me. Poor Mr. Hall was very uneasy concerning an 
aflEair that happened at Walton about 3 weeks ago, 
wheie he was insulted m public Company by one 
Nelthorpe and endeavouring to come at him to lick 
him had greatly hurt his leg between a door and its 
hntel. Mr. Hall could not get at him or else would 
have licked him' handsomely, I wish that he had done 
It. I gave him for dinner some rost Beef and an 
Apple Pudding. I sent Will- this morn’ to Mr. 
Custance’s at Ringland and Mr. Du Quesne’s at 
Tuddenham to enquire after them. 

Sep. 23. ... Mr. Howes called on me about dmner 
time and stayed and dined with me and spent the 
afternoon. Mr. Howes made so free with my strong 
Beer that he got himself quite drunk, tho’ I pressed 
him not to make too free. I sent my man Ben home 
with him 

Sep. 25. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Mr. Priest of Reepham and son St. John 
made me a morning visit as they came from Du 
Quesne’s. Mem: On Monday morn’ last about 
II o’clock I pulled of the head of a large Flesh Fly, 
and the Body had hfe in it and stood upon his legs, 
and at different times moved his legs, and so con- 
tinued till Thursday last, and then fell down. . . . 

Sep. 30. ... I let my man Ben have my httle Mare to 
go to Norwich this mormng to try to get a Substitute 
to serve for him in the Mblitia as he is drawn. . . . 
I paid Mr. Du Quesne for serving my Church for 
me in my absence, 15 Sundays at 10/6 7. 17. 6. . . . 
My man Ben Legate returned home in the evening 
from Norwich, havmg got a Substitute and seen him 



sworn in immediately, as well as accepted. He was 
obliged to give the Substitute 9. 9. o. I gave him, 
in part of it, this evemng i. i. o. 

Oct. 2. ... As I was out in my Garden this morning 
in my Ermine old Hat and Wigg, Beard long and 
a dirty shirt on, who should wait by at the end of 
the garden but my Squire and Mr Beauchamp with 
him, Mrs. Custance’s Brother. They walked into my 
Garden and went over it, they liked it exceedingly. 
They would not walk into my House. . . . 

Oct. 9 . Had a letter this evening from my Sister 

Pounsett in which she tells me that Sister Clarke and 
Sam, and Nancy Woodforde are coming to Weston 
and were to set of from Ansford on last Wednesday, 
to stay three or fo’ur days in London and then of for 
Weston. Two boxes with their cloaths were already 

Oct. 12 . . About 8 this evening my Sister Clarke, 

Nancy Woodforde and my Nephew Sami Clarke 
arrived at Norwich [where the Diarist was meeting 
them] in the London Machine from the West greatly 
fatigued by being up all last night. They drank 
some tea immediately and soon decamped to bed — 
they slept at the King’s Head. 

Oct. 21. . . Mr and Mrs. Kerr sent over to us this 
morning to desire that we would dine with them, we 
sent word back that we could not having no carriage 
to go there, he then sent back word that he would 
send his one Horse Chair after the Ladies — ^which we 
could not refuse complying with, — therefore at about 
I o’clock Sister Clarke and Nancy went in the Chair 
and myself walked to Mr. Kerr’s, and there dined, 
spent the aft: supped and spent the evening, with 
Mr. and Mrs. Kerr, Mr. Bodham of Mattishall. We 



had for dinner a Leg of Pork boiled, a Turkey rested 
and a couple of Ducks We had for Supper a couple 
of Fowls boiled, a fine Pheasant rested and some cold 
things. Dinner and Supper served up in China, 
Dishes and Plates. Melons, Apples and Pears, Wal- 
nuts and small Nutts for a desert. We played at 
Quadrille after tea, at which I won o. o. 6 My 
Servants Will and Ben went out a coursing this 
morn’ by my order and did not return till after we 
were gone. They coursed a brace of Hares but killed 
never a one. We returned as we went and got home 
about II o’clock. Mr. Kerr would make me accept 
of a Hare also. To Mr. Kerr’s servants gave o. i 6. 
Sister Clarke gave the Servants o. 3. o. We spent 
a very agreeable day indeed at Mr. Kerr’s. 

Oct. 23. . . Had a letter this evening from BiU Wood- 
forde from on board the Fortune Sloop of War, and 
now at Spithead performing Quarantine, being lately 
arrived from the Barbary Coast, had been out about 
2 months. He informs me that he had suffered many 
hardships, and he seems to be tired of the Sea already. 
He now sincerely repents of his late behaviour at my 
House at Weston, and of his not taking my advice to 
him. He also tells me that he has bought some 
curious things for me and desires me to accept of 
them — one of them is a large Moorish sword — also 
a cunous^Purse with some pieces of money in it. . . . 

Between October 26th and 30th the Diarist, Sister 
Clarke, Sam Clarke, and Nancy Woodforde enjoyed the 
now familiar ‘ Scheme ’ to Yarmouth, the* Diarist’s 
guests being ‘ highly dehghted with the sea, having 
never seen it before’. They were away — spending a 
night or two at Norwich, four nights in all ‘we got 



home to Weston about 3 o’clock and there we dined, 
supped and slept at the old House. We all seemed very- 
glad of our getting home.’ 

Oct: 31. ... I read Prayers and Preached this morning 
at Weston. My Squire and Lady were not at Church 
being from home. Sister Clarke and Nancy had 
a httle MifiE today. 

Nov. I. ... Sister Clarke and Nancy had a high quarrel 
this morning. . . . Stephen Andrews gave me a grey- 
hound Bitch this morning by name Fly. To 5 
Chickens this morning pd. o. 2 6. To Chambers of 
Lyng for a Pr of Breeches paid i. o. o 
Nov. 13 ... Had a letter this evemng from Mr. 

Kingston, Bursar of New College, -with a Draught in 
it on Hoare the Banker for the sum of 73. 10. lif 
being a Present from that Society for the Loss 
I sustained the first of January, owing to the high 
Wind, concermng my Chancel — ^very handsome in- 
deed was It of them. . . 

Nov. 18. . At 3 o’clock myself and nephew took 
a ride to the Hon. Charles Townshend’s at Honing- 
ham where we dined and spent the afternoon — by 
invitation Just as we got to Mr. Townshend’s, 
Mr. du Quesne overtook us and went with us there 
and dined etc etc. A Mr. Hill and son from Wells 
a rich Merchant and o-wner of the Standard Inn at 
Wells where Mr. Hall and self slept at Wells, kept 
by one Smith — ^He -with another Wells Merchant 
by name Spiingle a very droll, sensible man and who 
has travelled much abroad, also dined and spent the 
afternoon wnth us. Mrs. Townshend was dressed in 
a scarlet tiding dress, her head dressed very high and 
^ See foot-note, p. 21 1. 



ao cap at all on. We had for dinner a loin of Mutton 
rested, rost Beef, a-boiled Chicken, Soup, Pudding 
etc. first course. A Turkey rested, a rested Hare, 
Mushrooms, Tarts, Maccaroni and a Custard Pudding 
etc. Neither Turkey nor Hare above half done. 
I never made a worse dinner I think. We dined at 
4 drank tea at 7 or after. At 9 we returned home, 
left the other Company there. Madeira and Port 
Wine etc. to drink after dinner. I gave nothing to 
the servants at Mr. Townshend’s. Mr. Townshend 
is going next week for London. 

Nov. 30. ... This being my Frolic, I had about 20 
Farmers that dined with me and paid me their several 
Compositions. Reed, this day from them 229. 8. 6. 
To John Pegg for Taxes for f a year pd 9. 4. 6. . . . 
I gave them for dinner a fine Rump of Beef boiled, 
4 fowls boiled and Bacon, a fine neck of Pork rosted 
and quantities of plum puddmgs. Sister Clarke and 
Nancy dined by themselves in the Study. Wine, 
Punch and Beer as much as they would. There was 
drank 3 Bottles of Wine, of Rum 5 Bottles. . . . They 
all went away about ii o’clock. . . . We did not get 
to Bed till I in the morning. 

Decern. 2. ... To a Letter from Bill Woodforde pd 
o o. 7. Bill Woodforde is now on board the Ariadne 
Frigate of 32 [guns] and now at Sheerness. The 
Captam (whose name is Squire) is exceeding civil to 
him. Bill sent me in a Box a present of a sword — 
pd. for the carriage of — 0. i. 2. 

Decern. 4. ... This evening by Mr. Cary came Bill’s 
present to me, viz: a large Moorish sword and a 
curious Moor’s purse made of Morocco leather with 
some coins in it. He also sent me two cunous shells 
and a quill that came from FalHands Island. It is 



By Samuel Woodforde, R A. 

(The Dianst^s nephew is here depicted as a Lt Colonel in command of the 
Western Battalion of the East Somerset Rifle Volunteer Infantry in 1805 ) 


some gratitude in him I must confess — ^but he expects 
something in return as he complains in his letter to 
me of being very low in pocket. • . 

Dec. i8. ... In the Norwich Paper this evening I saw 
my name put down to preach a Charity Sermon at 
St. Stephens, Norwich, the i6th of April next. . . . 

Dec. 25. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Sister Clarke, Nancy and Sam breakfasted 
etc. here again. Bitter cold indeed all day and froze 
within doors. Js. Smith, my Clerk, Richd Bates, 
Tom Cary, Tom Carr, Richd. Buck, Thos. Dicker, 
and Tom Cushion all dined at my House today being 
Christmas Day and I gave them for dinner a Surloin 
of Beef rosted and plumb Puddings, and to each of 
them to carry home to their Wives — ^gave is/o — 
o. 7. o. I read Prayers, Preached and chnstened 
2 Children of Palmers (by name John and Sarah) this 
afternoon at Weston — ^had but a small Congregation. 
Neither my Squire or Lady at Church today. 

Anno Domini 1780 

Jan. 1st. ... Had a Letter this evening from my 
Brother Heighes in which he informed me that he 
had lately reed, a letter from Ld. Guildford ^ con- 
cermng his Son William, who lately waited on Ld 
Guildford in Person as a Midshipman — and his Lord- 
ship desired to know his name and age. We were 
pleased with ft. . . . 

Jan. 5. ... My Maid, Nanny Lihstone left my service 
this morning having had proper notice before given 

I paid her a Qrs wages due now o. 10. o. To her 
also for a Qrs allowance for tea — o. 2. 6. I gave to 

^ See foot-note, p, 245 


her also a free gift of o. 2. 6. I had no other fault 
to find with her, but that she did not chuse to be 
under the other Maid. In every other respect 
a very good Servant I believe. Betty Greaves a girl 
of about 15 came to my House in the room of Nanny 
LiUistone. She is a neat girl and I hope will do — 
tho she is small 

Jan. 15. ... Reed, a Letter this evening from Sister 
Pounsett in which she tells me that poor Mrs. Joany 
Russ of Dimmer is dead. She was a good Woman 
and I hope now happy. Reed, also a Letter from Bill 
Woodforde on board the Ariadne Sloop now of the 
Yarmouth Roads. He teUs me that his Ship had been 
in great danger striking on the Sands near Yarmouth 
It was also on the Norwich News Paper — ^but got of 
again. He also tells me that he has not a single 
farthing in his Pocket and desires me to send him 
some Cash. 

Jan. 18. ... This being our gracious Queen Charlotte’s 
Birth Day I fired my Blunderbuss with 3 Charges of 
Powder in it and a good deal of Paper — and gave 
3 Cheers . . . 

Jan. 28. ... I breakfasted, supped and slept again at 
home. Sister Clarke, Nancy and Sam breakfasted etc. 
here again. I went to Church this mormng a httle 
before 12 and publicHy presented Mr Custance’s 
child in the Church Sir Edmund Bacon and Lady, 
and Mr. Press Custance assisted as Sponsors. Mr. 
Custance was also at Church with the others. After 
the ceremony Mr. Custance came up to me and 
presented me with a Norwich Bank Note of five 
Guineas, wrapped up in some writing Paper. He 
asked me to dine with the Company at Ringland at 
2 o’clock, therefore I walked by myself there and 



dined and spent the afternoon and stayed till after 
7 in the evening and then walked back home. The 
Company present were Sir Edmund Bacon and Lady, 
Mr. and Mrs. Custance and Mr. Press Custance. 
Coming away gave George the servant o. 2. 6. We 
had for dinner a Calf’s Head, boiled Fowl and Tongue, 
a Saddle of Mutton rested on the Side Table, and 
a fine Swan rested with Currant Jelly Sauce for the 
first Course. The second Course a couple of Wild 
Fowl called Dun Fowls, Larks, Blamange, Tarts etc. 
etc. and a good Desert of Fruit after amongst which 
was a Damson Cheese. I never eat a bit of a Swan 
before, and I think it good eating with sweet sauce. 
The Swan was killed 3 weeks before it was eat and 
yet not the lest bad taste in it. 

Jan. 31st. . .A very comical dull day with us all. 

Sister Clarke very low. In the evening Sam spoke in 
favour of the Methodists rather too much I think. 
We did not play Cards this evening as usual 

Feb. 4. ... This being a Day [it was a Friday] for 
a general Fast to be observed thro’ the Kingdom, to 
beg of Almighty God his Assistance in our present 
troubles being at open rupture with America, France 
and Spain, and a Blessing on our Fleets and Armies ; 
I therefore went to Weston Church about ii o’clock 
and read the proper Prayers on the Occasion, but 
there was no Sermon preached. My Squire and Lady 
at Church, and there was a very respectable Con- 
gregation that attended at it. Most of my Family 
went and Sister Clarke and 3 Servants. We did not 
dine till 4 o’clock this afternoon. Sent a long Letter 
to my Sister Pounsett this evening. Sister Clarke, 
Nancy, Sam, and myself, all took it in our heads to 
take a good dose of Rhubarb go ing to bed. 



Feb. 8. ... We were rather comical this evening as 
we did not play Cards on account of Sam who dis- 
liked it. 

Feb. II. ... Sister Clarke and Nancy had a few words 
at breakfast. My Sister cant bear to hear anyone 
praised more than herself in any thing, but that she 
does the best of all. 

Feb. 14. ... To 60 Children being Valentines Day at 
id each o. 5. o. We were all comical with Sister 
Clarke today agst her. Nancy and self played at 
Cribbage I won of her 0. o. 9. 

Feb. 17. ... [The Diarist takes tickets for the Play 
for himself and his Guests at Norwich.] About 4 my 
Sister Clarke, Nancy and Sam came in Mr. Du 
Quesne’s Chaise to the King’s Head and a httle 
after them came Mr Du Quesne and Mr. HaU to 
the same place — and we all drank Coffee and Tea 
together and then we aU went to the Play. Sister 
Clarke and Nancy and Sam went in a Coach which 
I hired. The Play was Hamlet and the Entertain- 
ment the Camp. The Play was very well, but the 
other like a Puppet Show, fit only for Children. 
I treated Mr. Du Quesne and Mr. Hall with a Ticket. 
Mr. Priest and his Brother of Reepham came to the 
Theatre to us, and they returned with us to our Inn, 
and there we all supped and spent an agreeable 
evening together. For the Hire of the Coach pd 
and gave o. 3. 6. We had for Supper a couple of 
rost Fowls, a Barrel of Colchester Oysters, some cold 
Meat and Tarts. It was after one o’clock before we 
got to bed. Mr. Du Quesne and Mr. HaU slept at 
the K; Head. Mr. Pnest and Brother went home. 
Both the Mr Pries, ts offered faintly to pay their part 
of the reckoning this evening, but I told them there 



was no occasion for it — ^which at once they acquiesced 
in. They did not press it again. Gave Mr. Du 
Quesne’s Man Stephen to go to the Play by my 
Servant Man Will o i. o. 

Mar. 8. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Sister Clarke breakfasted, etc here again, 
as did Nancy and Sam. We were very quere after 
dinner today, having but a plain dinner, viz. some 
hash Mutton, a plain sewet Pudding and a couple of 
Rabbits rosted. Sam made me rather angry at 
dinner when I asked Sister Clarke if she would have 
the outside of the Pudding or the first cut of it, upon 
which Sam said I hope you will not Madam, for you 
know that I always give the outside to the Dogs. . . 

Mar 12. . . : My Maid’s Brother came to our House 
this morn’ to inform his Sister that their Father was 
dead ; he breakfasted and dined here. My Maid 
Betty Carton Betty was very low all day upon the 
account, pray God comfort them all under so great 
a loss. . . . 

Mar. 14. ... I let my Maid Betty Carton have my 
Great Horse to go to the Funeral of her Father. 
Ben went with her. She returned with Ben in the 
evening. . . . 

Mar. 26. ... I went to Brand this morning for Mi. 
Bodham and there read Prayers and administered the 
H. Sacrament for him, as he served Mr. Hall’s Church 
at Garveston. Brand is about 7 miles from my 
House and very difficult road to find — ^had a very 
small Congregation there, not above 20 People and 
not more than 7 People at the H. Sacrament. When 
I returned from Brand I eat a bit of cold Mutton, 
pulled of my Boots and went to Weston Church at 
half past 2 and read Prayers and Preached, gave notice 

275 T 2 


of a Sacrament on Sunday next and read four Briefs 
also. Mr. Custance and Lady at Church and after 
Church they asked my Sister etc to dine with them 
on Tuesday next and that they would send their 
Carriage after them. TTiey apologised in not asking 
them before to dine. I had a large Congregation at 
Church this afternoon. Sister Clarke, Nancy and 
Sam went to Church. Being Easter Day I had 
a Loin of Veal rested. Sister Clarke was very ill in 
the Cholic after dinner. We did not dine till 4 o’clock 
this afternoon. 

Mar. a8. ... We all dined and spent the afternoon at 
Mr. Custance’s of Ringland today and were hand- 
somely entertained. Mr. Custance sent' his Coach 
and four after my Sister and Nancy with a Servant 
to ride by the Coach besides. There were two 
drivers to the Coach. My Sister, Nancy and Sam' 
went in the Coach and returned on her. My Man 
Will went with me. Just as I was going out of my 
gate to go there I met Mr. Du Quesne on horseback 
who was going to dine with us and he and I rode 
together there. We returned to Weston after tea 
and got home abt. 8. We had for diimer for the 
first course some fine Soup, a rested Pike, a saddle of 
Mutton rosted, some Veal CoUops etc. The second 
course, some Eggs, a rost Fowl, Orange Pudding, 
Custards, Jellies etc. Madeira, Port and Calcavella 
Wines to dnnk. Oranges and Apples by way of 
desert. Mr. and Mrs. Custance, Mr. Du Quesne 
and ourselves all the Company. We did not give 
any vails to Servants. Sam talked rather strange to 
me before breakfast today — ^that I did not behave 
well to him yesterday. Poor Sam cant take a Joke. 
I forgot what I said to disoblige him. 



Mar. 30. ... Mr. Du Quesne sent his Chaise after my 
Sister, Nancy and Sam this mormng to go and see 
Mr. Townshend’s House at Homngham. Mr. Du 
Qhesne and self rode on horseback. We got to 
Honingham about ii o’clock, saw the House, and 
then went round by Sir Wm. Jernegan’s at Copsely 
and so home. We made quite a pleasant jant of it. 
The weather at first was a little stormy but at last 
it turned out fair and fine. Mr. Townshend’s House 
most superbly furmshed — Stately Rooms and very 
grand Furniture. Mr. Du Quesne returned with us 
to dinner and stayed with us till about 9 in the 
evemng. I gave him for dinner a bit of boiled Beef 
and a Turkey rosted. At QuadriUe this evening lost 
o. o. 6. 

Apnl 2. . Sam lost his Purse this afternoon in which 
was a Gmnea and some silver, supposed to be lost 
within doors but could no where be found today. 

April 3. ... No Tidings of Sam’s Purse or Money at 
all today, but my Servants are suspected, as Sam says 
he is certain that he dropped it in my Kitchin — 
I cannot think they are guilty. 

April 4. ... A Guinea and one of the Rings of Sam’s 
Purse were found by my httle Maid Betty this morn- 
ing among the ashes in the Kitchen grate. Sam in 
takmg out his Handkerchief out of his Coat pocket 
(where he alivays kept his Purse) must take the Purse 
out with it, and standmg by the Fire, might fall into 
the Fire. Both Guinea and Ring quite black. My 
Servants were very glad the above was found as they 
were very uneasy on being suspected. . . . 

April 6. ... I sent Justice Buxton this morning a 

Baskett of my fine Beefans, a very fine kmH of 
Apples. . . . 



April 9. ... I read Prayers and Preached this afternoon 
at Weston. Mr. Press Custance’s Laiy at Weston, 
she sent before Church to me for Leave to sit in my 
seat, which I granted. My Sister did not go to 
Church, as I desired her not, on account of the above 
Lady sitting in my seat today. . Mr. and Mrs. Kerr 
at Weston Church and in my seat in the Chancel. 

April 15. ... Sister Clarke made me rather angry this 
morning about the 50 Pound that I have of hers. 
She wants to have it now, but I told her that she 
could not have it till the Estate that I bought with 
the money was sold again, that of Speeds. I told 
her that I would let her have five guineas to carry 
her home but no more. . . 

April 16. . . [The Diarist is at Norwich to preach 

a Charity Sermon.] At 3 o’clock this afternoon 
I walked with Mr. Francis Senr to St. Stephens 
Church and there heard the Revd. Mr. Carrington 
lead Prayers, and as soon as Prayers were over I 
walked out of my seat into the Vestry and stayed 
there till the Psalm was near sung and then I walked 
out and went up into the Pulpit a Man walking 
before me with a Wand, and preached a Chanty 
Sermon, towards the rehef of the Charity Schools in 
the City of Norwich. Many of the Children attended 
at the Church. The Church was very fully crowded 
by rich and Poor. The Mayor was present being 
Treasurer of the Charity. I had some conversation 
with the Mayor in the Vestry Room and enquired 
for his Brother the Bishop of Rochester, Dr. Thurlow 
— ^late of Magdalene Coll, in Oxford and who has 
dined with me at New College. I gave towards the 
Chanty — o. 10. 6. There was collected at Church 
for the Charity 7. 13. of. . 



April 17. ... About 5 o’clock my Sister and Sam went 
of in Lenewade Chaise for Norwich, to take Coach 
for London this night. I sent my Man Will with 
them to Norwich Will returned about 10 at night 
and informed us that they got safe to Norwich, but 
could not go from thence till to-morrow night, the 
Coach being full. I lent my Sister towards bearing 
her expenses — 5 5. o. I gave Sam my little book 
of Mapps — ^Atlas Mimmus. . . . We were all very low 
at parting with each other, poor Nancy very low 
indeed. I gave to Nancy this evening o. 5. o. . . . 
My Head Maid slept with Nancy and is so to do. 

April 18. ... Mr. Du Quesne sent his Chaise here 

today about i o’clock to carry us to the Rotation, 
and about half past one we both got into it and went 
to his House and there we dined, spent the after- 
noon and part of the evening with him, Mr. and 
Mrs. Howes, Mr. and Mrs Dawson, httle Miss 
Roupe, a Captam Lodington, and Mr. Bodham. We 
were very merry till just at last, when Mr. Howes 
behaved strangely, that is Mrs. Howes had invited all 
the Company to dinner on Thursday next and all 
settled, but just as Mr Howes was going away, he 
desired to be excused from having Company at his 
House to dinner on the above day, but should be 
glad to see them at Tea It made all the Company 
stare again. . . . Nancy and myself got home about 
10 in Mr. Du Quesne’s Chaise, but was rather afraid 
as the driver was merry, but he drove us very well 
and very safe. . . . Captam Lodington is a cheerful 
little man and not above 20 years of age if so much. 
He was on board the Monmouth when last engaged 
by the French. He has seen a good deal of service 
abroad in the E. Indies, has been in the 




of my Squire’s, thence to the old Bridge at Lenewade, 
then close to the River till we came near Morton, 
then by Mr. Le Gnsse’s Clumps, then by Bakers 
and so back till we came to the place where we first 
set of. Mr. Custance Senr then called the six follow- 
ing old men (that is) Richd. Bates, Thos. Cary, Thos 
Dicker, Richd Buck, Thos Cushion and Thos Carr, 
and gave each of them half a guinea — ^To George 
Wharton, who carried a Hook and marked the Trees, 
my Squire gave also five shilhngs. To Robin Hubbard 
also who carried a Spade he gave 5 shilhngs, and sent 
all the rest of the People to the Hart to eat and 
drink as much as they would at his expense. The 
Squire behaved most generously on the occasion. 
He asked me to go home and dine with him but 
I begged to be excused being tired, as I walked most 
of the way. Our Bounds are supposed to be about 
12 miles round We were going of them full five 
hours. We set of at 10 m the morning and got back 
a little after 3 in the afternoon. Nancy was got to 
dinner when I returned. Ben, Will and Jack all went 
the Bounds. Ben’s Father Wm Legate in crossing 
the River on horseback was thrown of and was over 
head and ears in the River My Squire’s man John 
was likely to have had a very bad accident in leading 
the Squire’s horse over a boggy place, both horses 
were stuck fast up to their Bellies, and by plungmg 
threw him of in the mire and was very near being 
hurt by the horses plunging to get out, but by great 
and providential means escaped free from any mis- 
chief. The horses also were not injured at all. The 
man had his new suit of Livery on and new hat, 
which were made very dirty. Where there were no 
Trees to mark, Holes were made and Stones cast in. 



May 9. ... To a man (whose name was Pedralio an 
ItaUan, and who is the Manager of the Fire Works 
at Bunns Gardens at Norwich) and who makes 
Thermometers and Barometers and carries them 
about the country, called at my House this morning 
with some of them and I bought one of each for 
which I paid him i 16. o. 

May 13. . . Had a letter this evemng from my Sister 

Pounsett inclosed in a Frank of Ben Allen’s — ^in which 
she informed me that my Aunt Jane of Bath was dead 
and had left all that she had to her Maid Betty. A 
great disappointment to my Uncle Tom and Family. 
However, pray God she may be for ever happy. 

May 17. ... I did not go to bed till after 12 at night, 
as I expected Richd. Andrews the honest Smuggler 
with some Gm. 

May 21. ... Nancy had a new Pr of Stays brought 
home this morn’ by one Mottram a Staymaker at 
Norwich. She paid him for the same i ii. 6. For 
his journey from Norwich to measure her she pd. 
2. 6. I read Prayers, Preached and christened a child 
by name George this afternoon at Weston Church. 
My Squire and Lady, Mr. and Mrs. Carr, Mr. Press 
Custance’s Mistress and some other genteel Strangers 
at Church this afternoon Mr. Hardy and Wife 
dined with our Folks in Kitchen. 

May 27. ... To Richd. Andrews [smuggler] for 2 Tubbs 
of Ginn pd. 2. 10. 0. . . . Had another letter from 
Bill Woodforde on board the Ariadne. He has been 
in an engagement but not hurt. Mr. Cary [Carrier] 
forgot my Wiggs from Norwich this evening . . . 
Mr. Du Quesne’s name mentioned on Chase’s Nor- 
wich Paper today, to succeed to a Prebendary of 
Ely in the room of Dr. Harvey, lately deceased. 



June 3. . • Had a very long Letter this evening from 
my Sister Clarke and a very civil one. I wished she 
had sent it before, especially as I have sent a Letter 
to my Sister Pounsett wherein I upbraided Mrs. 
Clarke for not writing. . . 

June 5 . Mr. Mann’s Boy who was taking care of 

some Horses in a Field, where there was a large Clay 
Pitt full of water, by accident fell in and was drowned 
and found about Noon Time quite dead. He was 
a Child of one Spincks by the Church — a sad mis- 
fortune indeed, but hope the poor Lad is much 
happier than if he had stayed longer here. Mr. Mann 
very uneasy. 

June 9. . About 2 o’clock who should make his 

appearance at my House but Nancy’s Brother William, 
who IS a Midshipman aboard the Ariadne of 20 Guns. 
He came from Yarmouth on horseback this morning. 
He wore his Umform, and he dined, supped and 
slept at my House. Nancy was very happy to see 
him indeed. 

June 10 . . Great Riots have been in London this week. 

These were the Gordon Riots, an outburst of uncon- 
trolled mob violence fomented by the maniacal Lord 
George Gordon, son of the Duke of Gordon, against the 
Roman Catholics They were the sequel to the measure ^ 
recently promoted by Sir George Savile which aimed at 
mitigating some of the acerbities of the existing anti- 
Cathohc statutes, the sequel in the sense that the fanatical 
spirit of rehgious persecution was aroused thereby. The 
house of Lord Mansfield, the Lord Chief Justice, who 

^ A measure supported in the House of Lords by that singularly 
magnanimous statesman, Lord Shelburne. See Lord Fitzmaunce’s 
ShelbuTtu, vol u, pp. 41-2 (1912 ediuon). 



was supposed to be sympathetic to the Catholics, was 
burned with its pnceless library, and he himself narrowly 
escaped destruction. ‘ Wednesday night will be remem- 
bered by all the present inhabitants of London and 
Westminster to their latest hour for the horrors and 
calamities with which it abounded. . . . The King’s 
Bench, Marshalsea and Fleet Prisons, the dwelling-house, 
shop, and distillery of a Roman Catholic in Holborn, the 
house of another in Great Queen Street, and of a third 
in the Poultry — all these and more furnished a sight 
from my observatory, particularly that of the distillery, 
which surpassed the appearance of Mount Vesuvius in 
all its fury.’ So wrote Dr. Charles Burney to the Rev T. 
Twining on Sunday, June i ith.^ Readers of the Memoirs 
of William Hickey will remember his descnption (vol. li, 
pp. 265-6) of the scene of desolation in London follow- 
ing the riots. The outbreak was, of course, purely 
a fanatical mob aflfair, and decent Protestant opimon was 
greatly shocked. Of such was the Rev. T. Twining, who 
replying, in July 1780, to Dr. Burney, brilliantly observes : 
‘ As to toleration, we are children yet ; the very word 
proves it , religious hberty can never be upon its right 
footing while that word exists. Tolerate ! — ^it is a word 
of insult Suppose a man should say to you when you 
were commending Pachierotti [a famous musician], “ Sir, 
your opmion is very diflEerent from nune, but, however, 
I shall put up with it.” ’ 

June II. ... Bill breakfasted, dined and drank Tea this 
afternoon and about 5 o’clock this evening he went 
for Yarmouth to go on board the Ariadne — Nancy 
very low at parting. I made Bill a Present this after- 
noon of 5. 5. o. 

^ Tmmng Correspondence, pp. 80-4 (John Murray, 1882). 



June 13. . . I dined and spent the afternoon at Mr 

Du Quesne’s being his Rotation, with him, Mr. Howes 
and Mr. Bodham. We had for dinner a Leg of 
Mutton boiled and Capers, three nice Spring Chicken 
rosted and a Piggs Face and a Pudding. ... I returned 
home about 9 o’clock and who should I see but 
Nancy’s Brother returned from Yarmouth his Ship 
being sailed but will return e’er long. . . . 

June 16. ... Bill painted our Coat of Arms today on 
the front of the Temple [just erected] in my 
garden. . . 

June 17. . Bill breakfasted and spent the morning 

at Weston and about i o’clock set of for Yarmouth. 
He had my little [Mare] to ride some of the way 
and my Servt Will went with him on the great 
Horse. Will did not return till near ii at night. 
I began to be very uneasy on his not returning — 
but he told me that there was no Coach set out for 
' Yarmouth all this day for Norwich and therefore he 
went with Bill as far as Accle ii miles beyond Nor- 
wich. A confirmation of the news of yesterday on 
the Papers — and the disturbances in London quite 
over. Charles Town [in Carolina] taken and 8,000 of 
the Rebels killed and taken.^ 

June 18. ... I read Prayers and Preached this after- 
noon at Weston. My Squire and Lady at Church 
and a Brother of hers. Press Custance’s Woman at 
Church and in my Seat also. 

June 19. . . My Squire called on me this morn’ and 

talked to me a good deal about his Brother’s Mistress 

^ This success and subsequent victories by Lord Cornwallis roused 
hopes which were shattered on October 19, 1781, by the surrender of 
Yorktown, into which Cornwallis had been hemmed by Washington and 
the French 



sitting in my Seat yesterday and whether she had 
leave, and also that she strutted by them in a very 
impudent manner coming out o£ Church — and stared 
at Mrs. Custance. 

June 20. ... At i past 12 I took a rid.e to Norwich 
and Will with me ; got to Norwich about 2 Got of 
my Mare just within the Gates and called at a Pubhc 
House and had some Porter pd o. 2. Gave Will to 
go to Quantrells Gardens this evening o. i. o. I 
walked thro’ St. Giles’s Street, and it being the Guild 
Day for swearing in the New Mayor (one Day) and 
who lives in St. Giles’s, the Street was full of People 
and a number of Flaggs hanging out of the Windows. 
The Market Place also was full of People and quite 
down to St. Andrew’s Hall where they all dined. 
I saw the Procession from St. Andrew’s Hall up to 
the old Guild HaU in Coaches and all full dressed, 
and a very great appearance they made — a band of 
Musick before, and the Musicians dressed in Gowns. 
Bells ringing etc. etc. After that I walked about the 
City by myself till near 5 in the afternoon, and in 
my walk saw Quantrells Gardens. At 5 drank tea at 
the King’s Head. After that went to Mr. BucHes, 
there stayed and talked with him and Mr. Sterling 
till near 6 o’clock — ^from thence walked to Quantrells 
Gardens by myself, heard a sad Concert and saw the 
Fireworks which were very good and worth seeing — 
gave on going — 0. i*. o. For which you have 6d 
worth of anything at the Bar. I supped and spent 
the evemng there and stayed till 12 o’clock. For my 
Supper and Liquor pd o. i. 6 A very heavy Storm 
fell about 9 o’clock. A prodigious number of common 
girls there and dressed. TTie Fire Works began 
about II o’clock and lasted about an hour. In it, 



a representation o£ the Engagement between the 
English and French Fleet under Sir George Rodney.^ 
About 12 I came away, called at a House on the 
Road, spent o. i. 6. I was very much tired by walk- 
ing so much today, was upon the Foot almost from 
2 to 12 at night. I returned to the King’s Head 
about I o’clock, had some Rum and Water and went 
to bed. My Squire and Lady at the Mayor’s Feast 
and at the Assembly in the evening, and they went 
home after. Near 400 People at Dinner with the 
Mayor and some of the first Fashion — 300 dishes for 
dinner Dainties of all sorts there besides 3 Bucks 
June 23. . After breakfast this morning I sent my 

Maid Betty to Mr Press Custance’s Mistress (Miss 
Sharman) to desire her not to make use of my Seat 
in the Chancel any more, as some Reflections had 
been thrown on me for giving her Leave. I hkewise 
sent Will to Mr. Kerr’s on the same account as I was 
willing to make it general Miss Sharman sent word 
back by Betty that she was much obliged to me for 
the use she had already made of it, and did not take 
it at all amiss in me, she knew from whence it came — 
and that she would get a new Seat made Mr. Kerr 
sent me word that he was not the least angry with 
me, and he expected it. About 2 took a ride to 

^ These fireworks seem to have been in celebration of the engagements 
between Admiral Rodney (1719-92) and the French Fleet off the West 
Indies m April and May 1780. The actions were, in fact, quite meffective, 
the French Fleet on each occasion escapmg More successful was Rodney’s 
attack on and seizure of the wealthy Dutch Island of St Eustatius early 
m 1781 But Rodney’s fame is, of course, based on the wonderful victory 
over De Grasse on April iz, 1782, off the West Indies, a victory which 
enabled the Government to enter on peace negotiations, after an other- 
wise disastrous war, on much more favourable terms (See D N.B. 
under Rodney ) 



Ringland and dined and spent the afternoon with my 
Squire — ^his wife, Lady Bacon, and a Mr Prideaux, 
grandson of the famous and learned Dr Prideaux 
who wrote the Connections.^ . . Mrs. Custance 

asked for Nancy but Mr. Custance said nothing at 
all about her — ^which I think not right. 

June 24. ... Mr. Kerr called on me this morning and 
talked to me about my sending to him yesterday, but 
not the lest angry with me. He told me he thought 
it would make a breach between the two Custances. 
My Squire sent his Brother a note before I sent. . . . 
To old Joe Adcock’s Wife, Her Husband being ill 
o. I. o. 

June 25. . . I read Prayers and Preached this morning 
at Weston. My Squire and Lady at Church, but 
both went out of Church much sooner than they used 
to do. Nobody in my Seat. 

July 13. ... Mr. Du Quesne’s Man Robert brought 
me some Cherries this afternoon, I suppose by his 
Master’s orders. Mr. Du Quesne set off yesterday 
morn’ with Mr. Townshend for Scotland alias North 
Britain. Mrs. Townshend also with them. Cousin 
Js. Lewis same to my House this evening on foot and 
only a dog with him by name Juno — and he supped 
and slept at my House, — ^he came" here about 8 
o’clock. . . 

July 15. ... Had a Letter this evening from my Sister 
Pounsett in which she mentions that our Brother 
^ Humplirey Prideaux, D D (1648-1724), Dean of Norwich from 1702 
was a considerable Oriental scholar. His chief works were his Ltfe of 
Mahomet, 1697, and his Connectton (1716-18) — ^which dealt with the 
interval between the Old and New Testaments, a book frequently re- 
pnnted and translated into French and German. His letters were edited 
for the Camden Society by Sir E Maunde Thompson in 1875 (See 



John had a fall lately from his Horse at Evercreech 
and put out his shoulder bone, being a little merry. 
I hope it will be of service to him as it is a Miracle 
almost that he never hurt himself before. . . . 

July 21. ... I heard nothing from Justice Brainthwaite 
(alias Gobble) today about fishing yesterday. [The 
Diarist had had leave to fish below Attlebridge from 
one Michael Andrews, and the Justice’s estates only 
came up to the river on one side : from his nicJcname 
— Gobble — ^he must have been an unpleasant fellow. 
E[e had seen the Diarist fishing and said he would 
‘ send to ’ him ] 

July 24. ... The Press Gang ^ from Norwich came to 
Weston last night and carried of a man from Oddnam 
Green about 9 o’clock. 

Aug. 3. . . Mr. Thomas of Dereham (Brother of the 

Bishop of Rochester), a Mr. Paley (who is to be 
ordained deacon on Sunday next and is to be Curate 
to Mr. Thomas Michaelmas next at Dereham), and 
Mr. Hall, dined, and spent the afternoon with us 
and stayed with us till after 7 in the evening. I gave 
them for dinner some Fish, a Piece of boiled Beef, 
Beans and Bacon, a Couple of Ducks rosted and some 
Apple Tarts. We spent the afternoon in the Temple. 

Aug. II. ... My great Horse much worse this morning 
[he had been taken ill the day before, and dosed with 
Gin and Beer] was walked up to Reeves again and 
Ben with him. The Dr. gave Ben a draught for him 
to take, but the poor horse was so [lU] on his return, 
that we could not give it him, and about 10 o’clock 
this morning died. I endeavoured to bleed him 
a little before and sent Will to Gould of Attlebridge 
to come and see him, but he was dead long before he 

^ See p. 9 



came. Gould said that he died of a Fever in the 
Bowels — and that he should have been bled, had 
a Cl7?ter and some cooling Physic also. Am very 
sorry for him as he was so good natured a Beast. 
Don’t intend to employ Reeves any more as a Farrier. 
I could not have thought he would have died so 
soon. The death of my poor good natured Horse 
(by name Jack) made me very uneasy all the day 
long. Ben and Will skinned him, we kept one half 
of him and we gave the other half to Mr. Press 
Custance. Whatever the skin fetches is to be divided 
between Will and Ben and Jack. 

Aug. 12. ... Fretting and vexing about my Horse 

made me much out of order to-day — quite low 

Aug. 21. . . Cousin Lewis breakfasted here and about 
9 o’clock took his leave of us and set of on Foot for 
Nottinghamshire I gave him going away i. ii. 6 
I gave him besides a Coat and Waistcoat, 3 Pair of 
Breeches, a Pair of Stockings and a Pr of new Shoes 
since he has been with us. . . 

Aug. 26 ... Bad news on the Papers — 60 Sail of East 

and West India Ships taken by the French and 
Spanish Fleets. 

Sep. 8. . . Mr. Howes sent his Chaise after my Niece 
to go and dine at Hockering, I rode my Mare there. 
We dined and spent the afternoon at Mr Howes’s 
with him, his Wife, Mrs Davy and daughter Betsy, 
Charles and Turner Roupe, Mr Paine and Wife 
with a long chin, Mr. Donne and his new married 
Lady, and Mr. and Mrs. Hewitt of Mattishall at 
whose House Mr and Mrs. Donne are at. Mrs. 
Donne is an agreeable Lady, but rather deaf We 
had for dinner a Leg of Mutton boiled and Capers, 
a Couple of Fowls boiled and a Tongue, a couple of 



Ducks rested, some Blamange and Tarts. At Quad- 
rille this afternoon — ^won — o. o. 6. Turner Roupe 
is in the Militia and appeared in Regimentals. We 
returned to Weston about 9 o’clock Charles Roupe 
accompanied Nancy back in the Chaise. I was on 
my Mare and caught in a little storm on the Road. 
Gave Tye the Driver of the Chaise o. 2. o. Gave 
to a Boy that went behind the Chaise o o. 6 Great 
bustle at Norwich on account of the Dissolution of 
Parliament — ^great Opposition expected. The Elec- 
tion is to be for the City on Monday next. 

Sep. II. . . This day the Election began for the City 
of Norwich N.B. Candidates for Norwich Mr. 
Bacon [see p. 233 foot-note], Sir Harbord Harbord, 
Mr. Wyndham, and Mr. Thurlow. 

Sep. 12. . Sir Harbord Harbord and Mr. Bacon re- 

chosen for Norwich. 

Sep. 19. . . My Man Will Coleman had a Citation 

from the Ecclesiastical Court to appear there the 
3 of October in a cause respecting defamation ^ of 
one Ann Lillystone, who lived with me last year, 
and is now with child by a Servant Man of John 
Bowles — by name Robt Woodcock Will was in a 
Peck of troubles about it, tho’ nothing Nancy and 
myself dined and spent the afternoon at Mr. Cus- 
tance’s of Ringland with him and his Lady — ^We 
spent a very agreeable day there. . . . Mrs. Custance 
came after Nancy in a Coach and four — in which 
also I went and we returned in the same about 7. 
To the Coachman and Postilion and an Outrider — 
gave o. 3. o. 

Sep. 22. ... My Squire called on me this morning to 
desire me to come over in the afternoon and privately 
^ See remarks on pp 6^70. 

291 u a 


name his new born son. I married one John Wont 
and Rose Branton this morning by License at Weston 
Church — a. compelled marriage. N.B. am owed by 
Mr. Mann the Church Warden for marrying them, 
as I could not change a Guinea — o. lo. 6. I took 
a ride in the afternoon to Mr. Custance’s of Ringland 
and privately named his child by name Edward. 
I stayed and drank a dish of Coffee with the Squire 
and one Mr. Martineau of Norwich, a Doctor and 
Man Midwife.^ Reed, a printed Letter from the 
Bishop to send him an account of the Roman Catho- 
licks in my Parish — ^but I don’t know of one in it. 

Sep. 23. ... Had another Letter from my Sister 

Pounsett this evening to inform me that my Niece 
Sophy Clarke, and my Nephew Robt White were set 
of together to be married. Js. and Richd Clarke, 
Frank Woodforde and his Wife were all confounded 
angry about it — as they think Robt too much of the 
Clown. Their Pride is hurt much — ^for my part 
I think it a good Match on both sides and if they 
marry I wish them happy — they are both good 

Sep. 28. [The Diarist and Will ride to Norwich]. . . . 

^ Doubtless an ancestor — ^possibly grandfather, certainly a busman of 
the famous mneteenth-century Martmeaus, Harriet and her brother 
James The Martmeaus were of Huguenot origin, Gaston Martineau of 
Dieppe setthng as a surgeon in Norwich after the revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes In the biography of James Martineau by James Drummond 
and C B Upton (1902), it is stated (pp 2-3) . ‘ The profession of this 
founder of the English branch of the Martmeaus became to some extent 
hereditary In the records of the French Church at Norwich we twice 
meet with the name of David Martineau entered as that of an eminent 
surgeon Phihp Meadows Martineau, the uncle of James, was also dis- 
tmgmshed , and within the family in Magdalen Street the eldest son 
devoted himself to the ancestral calling ’ 



Went to Mr. Morphews Office to talk with him 
about my Servant Will being cited into Court, but 
he was not at home. 

Sep. 29. ... After breakfast walked again to Mr. 

Morphews but he was not come home — I talked with 
his Clerks. From thence went to Mr Uttens of the 
Cathedral and employed him as a Proctor for my 
Servant. Gave him a retaimng Fee of o. 5. o . . . 
[We hear no more of the case, and may presume that 
Will was exculpated from the charge of defaming 
Ann LiUystone ] 

Oct. 13. . . Mr. Cary’s daughter (the Widow Pratt) 

is we hear with child by her Servant that lived with 
her last year, but she pretends to say that she was 
ravished one night coming from her Father’s by a man 
whom she does not know. 

Oct. 15 ... Wdl came home drunk this evening after 

Supper from Barnard Bunnell’s at Morton and he 
and my head Maid had words and got to fighting. 
Will behaved very saucy and impudent and very bold 
in his talk to me. Shall give it to him to-morrow 
for the same. . . . 

Oct. 16. . . I gave Will a Lecture this mormng con- 
cermng last mght’s work. 

Oct. 24. ... My Squire Mr. Custance called on me 
this morning and spent the best part of an hour with 
me. He talked with me about his new Tenants, 
Galland and Howlett, concerning Tithe, but spoke 
very open and ingenuous about it, and left it entirely 
to me respecting the same. Mrs. Davie came to us 
this morning and dined and spent the afternoon with 
us. . . . Mrs. Davie slipped of the Horse as she was 
getting up to go home ; she did not hurt herself — 

I laughed much. 



Nov. 12. . . I read Prayers and Preached this morning 
at Weston Neither my Squire nor Lady at Church 
this morning. As I was returnmg from Church this 
morning Mr. Press Custance overtook me and 
acquainted me that Mr. Custance had lost his last 
[i. e. latest] Child this morning — ^it had been ill some 
time. I walked with Mr. Press Custance back to 
Church and fixed on a Place in the Church where the 
Child is to be buried. We heard this morning by 
Mr. Press Custance, that many people were robbed 
yesterday between Norwich and Mattishall by two 
Highwaymen. They are both known and were very 
near being taken — One of them is a Nephew of one 
Parferoy (a gardner at Ringland) and his name is 
Huson. My Man Ben knows him very well. These 
two Fellows slept at Ben’s Father’s on Friday Night 
and were m the Parish of Weston most of the day 
yesterday Nancy was much alarmed on hearing the 
above. It was lucky that I did not go to Norwich 
last week. 

Nov. 13. ... About II o’clock this morning took a ride 
to Norwich and my Servant Will” Coleman went 
with me. I carried with me upwards of 150 Pound 
m Bills and Cash, and got to Norwich very safe with 
the same. Went to Mr. Kerrison’s Bank and there 
reed, a Bank Note of 150 Pd which I immediately 
inclosed in a Letter and sent it by the Post to Dr. 
Bathurst of Christ Church, and which I hope will 
get safe to him there. [This was tithe the Diarist 
had collected for his friend, Dr. Bathurst, the non- 
resident Parson of the neighbouring parish of 
Witchingham.] Kerrison the Banker asked me 

to dine with him but cd not. ... At 4 o’clock 
this afternoon I set of for Weston, and got 


.afe and well thank God about 6 in the 

lurst’s name is mentioned frequently in the 
an outline of his hfe may help the reader, 
ury Bathurst (1744-1837), nephew of the first 
rst, and from 1805 Bishop of Norwich He 
)iarist’s contemporary and friend both at 
and at New College. As a Bishop he was 
leing in politics a Liberal — considered, indeed 
; ‘ the only Liberal bishop ’ in the House of 
as a warm supporter of Catholic emancipation, 
son, Henry, was also in the Church, and was 
-presumably by his father — ^Archdeacon of 
1 1814. The Diarist did not live to see his 
nade Bishop of Norwich, otherwise he himself 
i been promoted for his faithful services in 
ithes for the non-resident Rector of Witch- 
Between 1775 and 1805 Dr. Bathurst was 
3 hrist Church, Oxford. The author of the 
le Dictionary of National Biography says that 
urst’s love of hterature was great, and his 
tinct just ’. There is a fine statue of him in 

. . . Went to Church this morning at 1 1 o’clock 
re buried Mr. Custance’s son Edward — aged 
i and 3 days. The Corpse was brought in 
a and four attended by two Servant maids 
deep mourning and long black Hoods. Mr. 
Instance was the Chief Mourner, none of 
elations attended besides Neither Mr. nor 
iistance there. The Coffin was Lead with a 
Breast-Plate on it and on that was engraved 


the Age and Name of the Child. The breast-Plate 
was plain and made thus 0. The Child was buried 
in the Church in the North Aile. The Coach came 
up close to the Church door. The Drivers and other 
Servants had hatbands and gloves I had also a fine 
black silk Hatband tied with white Love-Ribband and 
a pair of white Gloves. After the Funeral Mr. Press 
Custance gave me a Bit of White Paper sealed up 
with Mr. Custance’s Arms on it and in which there 
were — 5. 5. o Only a clean white Napkin covered 
the Lead Coflfin. Very rough with much snow this 
morning and very cold. 

Nov. 18- . . Had a Letter this evening from my Sister 
Pounsett, who mformed us that the late Mr Guppey 
had left Mr. Pounsett whole and sole Executor — that 
Mrs. Pounsett of Cole had 30 Pound per Annum for 
her life — that Mr Guppey’s Maid, Sybbyl, had ten 
Pounds in cash and a httle House and garden left her 
by Mr. Guppey also. Reed also a Letter from Bill 
Woodforde from Sheerness who tells us that he is* 
going to leave the Ariadne, the Captam whose name 
is Squire and him not agreemg and that he intends 
to try again for a Lieutenancy of Mannes. Am 
afraid he will not turn out well in the end, as he is 
so unsteady. I doubt not but that he has given 
Captain Squire just cause to be angry with him. 
Robt White and Sophia Clarke [who eloped] my 
Sister tells us are married, were married in Devon- 

Nov. 21. ... The two Highwaymen that lately infested 
these Roads were taken at Swaffam last night or this 

Nov. 25.' ... I took my men. Will, Ben and Jack out 
a coursing this mormng after breakfast, and coursed 



till 3 in the afternoon, caught a brace of Hares and 
a Rabitt. . . . 

Decern. 2. ... Had Edmonds on Complete Body of 
Heraldry, 2 large Folio volumes in boards brought 
home tins evening by Mr. Cary, and which I bespoke 
some time ago, being desired by Bathurst to accept 
of some books a great while ago, and therefore fixed 
on the above.^ 

On December 5 the Diarist has his annual tithe- 
frolic, with the usual excellent hospitality for the farmers 
who attended it : ‘ Mr. Press Custance neither came or 
sent to me which I think very ungenteel, after my send- 
ing so civil a note . . .’ 

Decern. 7. . . Paid Mr. Thos. Palmer for Malt for 
a year — 22 o. o To a travelling Pedlar for Moore’s 
Almanack pd o. o. 8. To ditto for the Ladies Pocket 
Book o. I. o. Mr. Palmer brought me a very large 
Hare, but very old one I believe it be, however it 
was kind of him. 

Decern. 9. ... Reed a letter from Edmund Lewis son 
of Cousin Js. Lewis to let us know that his Father, 
the above Coz. Js. Lewis was dead, that he died the 
24 of September last, owing he said to laying in a Pair 
of damp sheets on his return from my house, home- 
ward. I had a letter from Cousin Js. Lewis soon after 
he got home, which mentions nothing of his catch- 
ing the least cold, and it was wrote in good spirits 
by him. Edm*^ also mentions in his letter that his 

^ This book IS now in the possession of Dr R E H Woodforde (see 
prefatory note), and contains a charming Latin inscription refemng to 
their (W.’s and B ’s) early fnendship from Wmchester days See also 
P 29s 



Father shd say that he had left some shirts behind 
him here, but poor man, he never brought any but 
what he had on his back when he came here. I am 
very sorry for him, hope that God will pardon his 
past Errors and that he is now happy. It is strange 
that his son should not acquaint us of his death long 
before. His sending now was only to beg Charity of 
me and hope I would be kind to the Family. 

Dec. 15. ... Nancy and myself being rather out of 
spints and iU last night, took a dose of Rhubarb each 
last night and this morning we were both brave. 
Mr. HaU dined and spent the afternoon with us. He 
also dined here the day that I went to Norwich, 
with Nancy — ^Nancy was not well pleased with him, 
and about leaving a dog here behind him, which 
however he did not, as Nancy was against it. I gave 
him for dmner some Fish and a Shoulder of Mutton 
rosted — ^he left us about 4 o’clock Mrs. Davie called 
here this aft. in Mr. Howes’s Chaise with her daughter 
Retsy, who is just returned from School and is to 
spend a few days with Nancy, therefore Mrs. Davie 
left her with us. . . Betsy slept with my Niece 
Nancy Woodforde. 

Dec. 16. ... Nancy had a letter from her Brother Will 
this evening wherdn he mentions that all matters 
between him and his Captain are made up — dated 
from Sheerness. Little Betsie Davie cned a good 
deal this evening after Supper, but about what 
I know not. She is of a very meek Spirit, poor httle 

Dec. 20 ... Mrs. Davie came on foot to our House 

this morning just after we had breakfasted, and she 
stayed and dmed and spent the afternoon and part 
of the evening with us till 7 o’clock, and then went 



home on horseback behind Mr. Howes’s Servant who 
came after her. It was very dark when Mrs. Davie 
went away. . . . Little Betsie Davie complaining of an 
Head-Ache this morning, I gave her a little Rhubarb 
this evemng which she took exceeding well and I hope 
will do her good. Betsie Davie is a very good, sensible 
Child, talks hke a Woman, tho but lo years of age. 

Dec. 21. . . To poor People of this Parish being 

St. Thomas’s Day gave each of them 6 d against 
Christmas Gave in the whole today — ^44 in number 
I. 2. o. My Squire gave them a shilling apiece. . . . 

Decern. 25. ... I read Prayers and administered the 
Holy Sacrament this morning at Weston, being 
Christmas Day. My Squire and Lady both at 
Church and at the Sacrament. This being Christmas 
Day, the following old poor men dined at my House, 
and I gave each of them a shilling to carry home to 
their vdves — Richard Bates, Richard Buck, Thos. 
Dicker, Thos. Cary, Thos. Cushion, Thos. Carr, 
and my Clerk Js Smith — ^in all gave them o. 7. 0. 
I had a prodigious fine surloin of Beef rosted ivith 
quantities of plumb-Puddings We also began on 
Mince Pies today at dinner. 

Dec. 30. ... Nancy had her new Cotton Gown brought 
home this evening from Norwich by Mr. Cary and 
I think very handsome, trimmed with green Ribband 
— a Cotton of my Choise. 

Dec. 31. ... This being the last day of the year we 
sat up till after 12 o’clock, then drank a Happy New 
Year to all our Friends and went to bed. We were 
very merry indeed after Supper till 12. Nancy and 
Betsie Davie locked me into the great Parlour, and 
both fell on me and pulled my Wigg almost to Pieces. 
— I paid them for it however. 



1781. Jan. 9* • • • Mr. Hall breakfasted and spent the 
morning with us — and about noon he eat a bit of 
cold Beef and then went of for Dereham. — ^This 
being the Assembly night at Dereham and the first 
this winter there. Mr. Hall is a Subscriber to the 
Dereham Assembly Dereham Assembly is monthly 
and only 4 Assemblies. . . . 

Jan. II. ... This day heard the news that Jersey was 
taken by the French and retaken by the Islanders 
afterwards — ^between 4 and 6000 French landed there, 
but were all destroyed or taken Prisoners by us. It 
IS too good news to be true I am afraid the whole 
of it is. Country News very bad, hearing of nothing 
but Highwaymen and breaking houses open at Nor- 
wich Trade at Norwich never worse — ^Poor no 

Jan. 13. ... Mrs. Dade was robbed this evening coming 
from Norwich near the 3 Mile Stone and had 2 guineas 
taken from her by a single Footpad. 

Jan. 14. ... Gave Betsy Davie this evemng a fine 

bright shilling. Betsy was sent for on horseback this 
afternoon but I would not let her go as she is not 

Jan. 16. ... Betsy Davie very bad indeed today, was 
obliged to be brought down stairs about noon, but 
could not sit up long being m such violent Pain in 
her right knee and left Foot, somethmg hke the Gout. 
The Pain was so great towards the Evemng that she 
cried incessantly. Betty [the Maid] sat up with her 
all night as she waa so ill. It alarmed me much and 
the more so, as we had sent in the morning to her 
Mama, to let her know that she was better, which she 
was till she was had up. Nancy and myself sat up 
m the Study all the mght long as she was so ill, and 



we thought her very dangerously so. We amused 
ourselves most of the night by playing Cribbage. We 
played 12 Rubbers at 6d per Rubber at which I won 
o. I. o but had lost to her before 1/6, so that it 
reduced my loss to o o 6 [Next day Betsy’s Mama 
and Dr, Thorne are sent for, physic admimstered, etc., 
and in a few days Betsy is better.] 

Jan. 21. ... I read Prayers and Preached this morning 
at Weston. Neither My Squire or Lady at Church, 
but a small Congreg: Mrs. Davie, Nancy and Betsy 
gave me a good trimming this evening, 

Jan. 24 ... I was sadly used this evening by Mrs. 

Davie, Nancy and Betsy, had my money picked out 
of my Pocket of o. ii. 6. 

Jan 26. ... The 11/6 that was taken out of my Pocket 
the other Night Mrs. Davie is to lay out on an Apion 
for Nancy by my Consent. We had for dinner today 
some Beef Stakes and Mutton Stakes, a couple of 
Fowls rosted and Mince Pies, 

Jan. 27. ... Nancy had a Letter from- her Father and 
another from her Brother Will. Her Father informs 
that his son Sam was at Mr. Hoare’s and is taken 
great notice of by Mr. Hoare for his ingenuity in 
Paintmg etc.^ 

Mrs. Davie sent me some Brawn and Oysters by 
Mr. Cary and likewise a Silk Bonnett for my Maid 
Betty. . . . 

Jan. 30. ... Was very ill this morning, being much 
disturbed and had very little rest during last night, 
Mr. and Mrs. Howes, Mrs. Davie, and Mr. Hall 
dined and spent the afternoon with us. Mrs. Davie 
stayed and supped and slept here. I gave them for 
dinner a knuckle of Veal and a Tongue, a prodigious 
^ See p. 208 for a notice of Samuel Woodforde, R A. 

' 301 


fine Cock Turkey rested (and which weighed when 
alive 20 Pound) and a Currant Pudding. . 

Feb, 3. ... Had but an indifferent night of Sleep, 
Mrs. Davie and Nancy made me up an Apple Pye 
Bed last mght. . . . 

Feb. 12. ... We did not go to bed till after 12 this 
night, the Wind being still very high. We were as 
merry as we could be, I took of Mrs. Davie’s Garter 
tonight and kept it I gave her my Pair of Garters 
and I am to have her other tomorrow. . . . 

Next day Mrs. Davie, who had been staying at the 
Rectory on and off since January 30, went to Parson 
Howes’s of Hockering, taking Betsy with her, who had 
been at the hospitable Diarist’s since December 15th. 

Feb. 17. . . Mr, Howes made us a morning visit and 

brought Nancy a Pr of Tongs to pinch her Hair 
with, from Mrs. Davy, as a Present to her 
Feb. 18. I read Prayers and Preached, read a Pro- 
clamation for a Fast on Wednesday next and churched 
Forster’s wife this morning at Weston Church. My 
Squire at Church but not his Lady Received for 
churching Forster’s Wife — o. i. o 
Feb. 19. ... I christened two Children, Twinns, this 
morning privately at my House by names, Anne and 
Susannah. They are two Spurious Children of one 
Anne LiUistone late a Servant Maid of mine. . . . 
Feb 21. . . This being the Day for a general Fast to 

be observed dunng our present Troubles, I went to 
Church this morning and read Prayers, but did not 

preach. I had a large Congregation that attended 

Feb. 22. ... I was very stingy this mormng alias in 
a bad humour and made Nancy' uneasy by my t alkin g. 



About 10 this morning took a ride to Mr. Town- 
shend’s Clumps, there met Du Quesne hy appoint- 
ment, and went acoursing. . . We coursed till 2 o’clock, 
had a number of courses, saw at least I2 brace of 
Hares, and killed only i Hare. My Bitch Dutchess 
went with me, and she had not begun coursing before 
she was caught in a Rabbitt Gin, by one of her fore- 
feet. She did not perform at all well after, being 
very shy and her foot painful. I went home with 
Du Quesne and dined and spent the afternoon with 
him and Mr. Hall. . . . We had for dinner, some 
Brawn, boiled Pork and Peas, and a Hare rosted, but 
spoiled by being over done. 

March 3. . . Will went on my httle Mare to Du 

Quesne’s this morning with my Greyhound, Dutchess, 
acoursing, I could not go. I sent by Will, to Mr. 
Townshend’s Gamekeeper Jack o. i. o. They killed 
2 brace. Mr Du Quesne sent me back an Hare. 
Will returned time enough to wait at dinner. . . . 

March 14. . In the afternoon I took a ride to Nor- 

wich, Will went with me within a mile of Norwich, 
and then I got of and sent my mare back by Will 
to Weston. I supped and slept at the King’s Head. 
Put a letter to Dr Bathurst into the post this even- 
ing and in it two Bills of 10 Pound each. Great and 
good news brought from London this evening an 
account of the Enghsh having taken St. Eustatia and 
St. Martins two of the Caribbee Islands in the West 
Indies, from the Dutch, with 270 sail of Ships.^ 

Mar. 15. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at the King’s Head. Mr. Hall came to Norwich 
about 12 o’clock to the King’s Head and we dined 
etc. together there. We had some fresh Salmon for 
^ See foot-note, p 287 



dinner today. Great rejoicings in the City all day, 
St. Peter’s Bells ringing all day. The City Cannon 
5 in number were fired three times. The light 
Horse also were drawn up in the Market Place about 
12 o’clock and fired three vollies. Illuminations at 
night over the City with large Bonfires. After 
dinner Mr. Hall sent his Compts to a Captain Cole- 
man of the Marines and that he would come and drink 
a glass of Wine with us which [he did] and likewise 
went to the Play with us and after supped, and spent 
the evening with us till 2 in the morn. We went to 
the Theatre after the 5 Act of the Play which was 
the Plain Dealer. The entertainment which was, 
Harlequin Touchstone, was highly diverting. The 
Play etc. was over about lo o’clock. We did not sup 
till after ii at night. At the Theatre paid half 
price, o. 1.6. To other trifling expenses this evening 
pd o. 3. 6. The market place was full of People this 
evening and very noisy. Fireworks etc. playing off. 

Mar. 16. I breakfasted and spent the morning at 
Norwich. Mr. Hall and Captain Coleman break- 
fasted with me. After breakfast I took a walk to 
Priests and tasted some Wine and ordered a Qr of 
a Pipe, -with 3 gallons of Rum and 3 gallons of the 
best Holland Geneva. To 2 ivory Shuttles for 
Nancy of Baker, pd o. i. o. To 7 pieces of Wood, 
a Puzzle thing, pd o. o 6. About i o’clock Mr. Hall 
and myself left Norwich and he went home to 
Weston with me and dined and spent the afternoon 
with us and then went for Dereham. At the King’s 
Head for my part of the Bill pd. o. 13. o. For Horses 
at the King’s Head, pd. o. 3. o. To servants at the 
King’s Head, gave, o. 5. o. Mr. Hall nor myself 
would not suffer the Captain any part of the Bill to 



be paid hy him We had for dinner a Leg of Mutton 
rosted only. To a poor Man of Easton who lately 
lost an Horse and who came to my House this after- 
noon, gave o 2. 6. Mr. Hall being with me gave 
him the same. Mrs. Davie still at my House and 
dined and slept here again. Quite tired and fatigued 
this evening. 

Mar. 19. ... Sent by my Maid Betty to one Tooley, 
whose Family has^got the Small Pox and is very poor, 

o. 2 6. . . . 

Mar 20 . About 12 o’clock I took a nde to Dereham 

and Will went with me Got there about 2 o’clock, 
put up my Horses at the King’s Arms kept by one 
Girling and therd I supped and slept, had a very 
good Bed. Soon after I got to Dereham I walked to 
Mr. Hall’s Rooms, he lodges at a Barbers by name 
Field, and there I dined and spent the afternoon 
with him by appointment. We had for dinner a fine 
Lobster hot and some Mutton Stakes, had from the 
King’s Arms. Before dinner Mr Hall and myself 
took a Walk about Dereham, went and saw a whim- 
sical Building called Quebec. We dined at 3 o’clock 
and after we had smoked a Pipe etc , we took a ride 
to the House of Industry about 2 miles West of 
Dereham, and a very large building at present tho’ 
there wants another Wing. About 380 Poor in it 
now, but they don’t look either healthy or cheerful, 
a great Number die there, 27 have died since Christ- 
mas last. We returned from thence to the King’s 
Arms and then we supped and spent the evening 
together. To Mr. Hall’s Clerk of Garvaston who 
came to give him notice of a Burial on Friday, being 
very poor, gave, o. i. o. 

Mar. 21. I breakfasted with Mr Hall at his lodgings. 

305 X 


To a Barber for shaving me etc., gave, 006. After 
breakfast we took a walk, called at Miss Gage’s 
School and saw Betsy Davie, who cried on seeing 
us. Miss Gage the Mistress never came to us tho’ 
at home which I think was very rude and impolite 
in her. After that we took a long walk about the 
Town About i o’clock Mr. Hall took a ride with 
me to Weston and dined and spent the afternoon 
with us. Mr. Hall’s Horse fell with him on Hocker- 
ing Heath and threw him of, but luckily received no 
hurt. . . . 

Mar. 24. ... The four Highwaymen that infested these 
roads last Winter, were all tried at the Assizes held 
last week at Thetford, found guilty and all con- 
demned. Since that they made an attempt to get 
out of the Castle and very near completed an escape 

Mar. 31. ... Had a letter from one Singlehurst of the 
Town of Nottmgham petitioning for poor C. Lewis’s 
Family, but am not able to assist them having so 
many demands. . . . 

April I. ... I read Prayers and preached this morning 
at Weston. Neither my Squire or Lady at Church, 
being from home Mr. Hardy and his Wife dined 
with our Folks in Kitchen. Nancy and myself took 
a walk this afternoon to Mr. Custance’s new Hall 
stayed there an Hour and returned To one Bushell 
for shewing us the House, gave, o. i. 0. Nancy 
walked there and back very well, not very much tired 
She walked up to the top Rooms tho’ the stair Case 
has no Rail to it as yet, and looks dangerous to 
go up, 

April 7* ... Gave my servt Will leave to go to Norwich 
this morning to see the three Highwaymen hung 
there today. Will returned about 7 o’clock in the 



Evening. They were all three hung and appeared 
penitent. . . The names of the Highwaymen were, 
Wm Skipper, Michael Moore, and WiUm Fletcher. 
Skipper was most abandoned but cried at the last. 

April 14. ... I got up very ill this morning about 

8 o’clock, having had none or very httle sleep all the 
night, owing to the pain in my Ear which was much 
worse in the night and broke, and a good deal of 
blood only came away The pain continued still 
very bad all the morning tho’ not quite so bad as 
before. It made me very uneasy abt it. A throbbing 
pain in my Ear continued till I went to bed I put 
a rosted onion into my Ear going to bed tonight. 

April 15. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home Nancy breakfasted, dined, etc. here again. 
I thank God I had a tolerable good night to sleep 
and was much better this morning for it. I read 
Prayers and admimstered the Holy Sacrament this 
morning at Weston being Easter Day. Had a Loin 
of Veal rosted for dinner as usual on Easter-day. My 
Clerk and Js Hardy of Ringland dined with our 
Folks. Continued brave tho’ low, thank God, all day. 

April 22. ... I went to Brand this morning and read 
Prayers and administered the H. Sacrament there for 
Mr. Bodham. Brand is about 6 miles from my 
House. There were only 6 Communicants, myself 
one of them. I read Prayers and Preached this aft* 
at Weston. Had a very large Congregation this 
afternoon at Church. We did not dine till the 
afternoon service was over. 

April 23. ... Mr. Townshend’s gamekeeper Jack 

brought me over this mormng a greyhound Puppy 
by order of Mr. Toivnshend. I gave the Gamekeeper 
for bringing it over o. 2. 6. . . 

307 X 2 


May 2. I breakfasted and slept again at the King’s 
head [he had gone to Norwich the day before] 
About II this morning Mrs. Davy with my Niece 
came to Norwich in Lenewade Chaise, and my 
servant Will came with them on horseback. They 
went to Mr. Priest’s where they are to sleep. After 
breakfast I took a walk till l o’clock by myself. Called 
on Manning and bespoke an Urn for Nancy. Also 
a Copper Kitchen and a Copper Coal Scoup. At 
Chase’s for Skipper’s Narrative pd o o. 6. At Scott’s 
for a pair of riding gloves pd o. 2. 2. Called on my 
Mercer, Mr. Smith, and bespoke a Coat, Waistcoat, 
and Pr of Breeches, and a fishing Frock. To the 
driver of Lenewade Chaise, gave o l. 6. To my 
man Will, to go to the Play tomght gave o. l. o. At 
2 o’clock went to Mr. Priest’s and there dined and 
spent part of the afternoon with him, his Wife, and 
Family, a Mrs. Heigh of Tuddenham, Mrs. Davie 
and Nancy. We had for dinner some Codfish and 
Cockle Sauce, a foreqr. of Lamb, Tarts and Jellies. 
After dinner called at Mr. Francis’s etc. Returned 
to Tea at Mr. Priest’s. Mrs. Cooper drank tea 
there. About 6 o’clock Mr. Priest, his son John and 
myself took a walk to the Theatre. Mrs. Davie and 
Nancy went in a Hackney Coach thither For the 
Coach I pd o. i. o. We all sat in one of the Front 
Boxes The Theatre was pretty full and the Play 
was the Royal Suppliants — A new Tragedy for the 
Benefit of Mr. and Mrs Holland. The Entertain- 
ment Harlequin Touchstone Between the Play and 
Entertainment an Interlude called Buxom Joan or 
the Farmer’s journey to London. They collected at 
the Theatre for this night fifty two Pounds. I treated 
Mrs. Davie, Nancy and John Priest with Tickets. 



For four tickets I paid o. 12. o. After the Play etc. 
the Ladies etc returned to Mr. Priest’s. I went to 
my Inn, had some Rum and Water and went to bed. 

May 4 ... We [Mrs Davie is again staying at the 

Rectory] were very merry this morning with Nancy, 
making her beheve that she took a bad half Guinea 
at Norwich and which I took of her again, but gave 
her only 9/6. I soon after sent it to Cary’s and got 
10/6 for It which greatly heightened our Mirth. She 
had the i /o after 

May 10 . . Mrs Howes came after Nancy about 

I o’clock in her Chaise to carry her to Hockering to 
dinner. I rode my Mare thither, and there we dined 
and spent the afternoon with Mr. and Mrs. Howes, 
Mrs. Davy, Mr. Dawson and Wife, Mr and Mrs. 
Paine of Shipdam and Mr. du Quesne. Mr. Dawson 
IS a Clergyman and has a Living, but his Tenets are 
Presbyterian. He married Mr Howes’s eldest daugh- 
ter, hves at Wingfield. 

May 16. . . Between 7 ^ind 8 o’clock this morning 

went down to the River a fishing with my Nets. 
Ben, Will, Jack, Harry Dunnell and WiUm Legate 
(Ben’s Brother) were my Fishermen. We begun at 
Lenewade Mill and fished down to Morton. And 
we had the best day of Fishmg we ever had. We 
caught at one draught only ten full Pails of Fish, 
Pike, Trout and flat fish. The largest Fish we caught 
was a Pike, which was a Yard long and weighed 
upwards of thirteen pound after he was brought 
home. We caught about 20 brace of Pike, but 
threw back all the small ones — also we caught abt 
15 brace of Trout, the largest not more than a Pound 
and half — all the smallest we threw back — 3 brace 
also of Perch — one tolerable Tench and I dare say 



near if not quite five hundred Brace of Roach and 
Dace. Prodigious sport indeed we had today tho’ 
cold and wet. As we were fishing by Cophn’s, he 
came out and ordered my men of from his land, 
and behaved quite contrary to the opinion I had of 
him. After talMng with him some httle time he 
said I might fish, but then I would not, at which 
he seemed rather uneasy. We eat some cold meat 
which we carried about one o’clock and returned 
home to dinner at 4. For Beer at Barnard Dunnells 
of Morton, pd. o. i. o. Gave Beeston, Cantrell, 
Palmer of Morton and Barnard Dunnell some Pike, 
and most of the flat Fish to the Poor at Lenewade 
and Morton and of my own Parish Harry Dunnell 
and Will Legate dined etc. with our Folks. Paid 
them also for their labour today o. 3. o. I was rather 
fatigued this evemng by Fishing. 

-May 17. ... Mr. Priest of Norwich came to my house 
about I o’clock and he stayed and dined with us and 
spent the afternoon and in the evemng returned to 
Norwich. I was very glad to see him, as he and 
wife behaved very civil to Nancy. Mr. and Mrs. 
Howes, Mrs. Davie, and Mr. du Quesne dmed and 
spent the afternoon with us also. I gave my Com- 
pany for dinner my great Pike which was rested and 
a Pudding in his Belly, some boiled Trout, Perch, 
and Tench, Eel and Gudgeon fryed, a Neck of Mutton 
boiled and a plain Pudding for Mrs Howes. All my 
Company were quite astonished at the sight of the 
great Pike on the table. Was obliged to lay him on 
two of the largest dishes, and was laid on part of the 
Kitchen Window shutters, covered with a cloth. 
I never saw a nobler Fish at any table, it was very 
well cooked, and tho’ so large was declared by all 



the Company to be prodigious fine eating, being so 
moist. At Quadrille after tea, neither won or lost. 
At about 9 they all left us. I put a large Pike into 
the Boot of Mr. Howes’ Chaise before he went. 

May 19. My man Ben went early this mormng to 
Norwich with my white Cow and Calf to sell, he 
leturned about 3 this afternoon having sold them 
and pd me for them 5. 5. o. I gave him out of it 
o. 2. 6 

May 21. ... A Mr. Smyth, an Attorney (and who was 
with me the first time of my coming to Weston to 
settle some mattjsrs between Mrs Ridley and myself) 
called on me this evening for a copy of the Register, 
concerning his Son’s age who is now at New College 
and Fellow there His Son is going to take Orders 
soon. I never saw his Son. He stayed with me 
about half an Hour, and then walked to Peachman’s 
where he is to sleep, being his Tenant. 

May 22. ... At one o’clock took a ride to Mr. Bod- 
ham’s at Mattishall, and there dined and spent the 
afternoon with him, Mrs. Bodham, old Mr Downe 
and Wife of Dereham and their grand-daughter 
a Miss Downe from London, a fine girl about 16. 
A Mr. Gngson, a young Clergyman, Mr. and Mrs. 
Howes, Mrs. Davy and Mr. du Quesne It was 
Mattishall Gaunt today I was late to dinner. 
Mr. Downe of Dereham came in a new contrived 
machine with only two Wheels, and is drawn by one 
Horse only.. It answers both the end of a Chair 
and a Post Chaise , it has front and side Windows 
when shut up, and when down and thrown back, 
a chair. It is a very good Contrivance and cost him 
40 guineas. Mr. Gngson appears to be a sensible, 
good Young Man. We had for dinner a piece of 



boiled Beef, a foreqr. of Lamb rosted, a Pidgeon 
Pye, Custards and Tarts At Quadrille this after- 
noon, lost 0. 2. 6. To a little girl at Mr. Bodham’s 
gave o. o. 6. As I went to Mr. Bodham’s, called at 
East Tuddenham and saw the Church and the new 
Altar Piece there. It is a very handsome one (but 
put much too low). Mr. Howes’s man (Bird) and 
my man (Wdl) kept us later than we intended to 
stay, being gone to the Gaunt and not come back 
till near 9 o’clock. I did not stay for my man but 
went -with du Quesne when he did, about half past 8. 
I went with du Quesne as far as Tpddenham and then 
went home by myself — ^which I did not like. Will 
came home about ii o’clock but I did not see him 
tonight. I am very sorry that he behaves so, as the 
last time we were at Mr. Bodham’s the same was 
done and Mr. Howes’s man then (by name Tye) was 
turned of. 

May 23. ... I talked coolly and calmly to Will this 
morning and told him that it would not be in my 
Power to excuse him any more for such behaviour, 
and that he would be cautious. 

May 28. ... About 2 o’clock Mrs. Custance came in 
her coach after Nancy to go with hei to Ringland to 
dinner. Mrs. Custance wanted me to go in the 
Coach also, but I preferred riding on Horseback. 
We dined and spent the afternoon with them and 
Mr. du Quesne. We had for dinner some Maccarel, 
a Couple of Fowls boiled and a Tongue, a leg of 
Mutton rosted for the First Course. Some Pidgeons 
and Asparagus, Tartlets, Raspberry Cream, and Blanc- 
mange with Currant Jelly. We spent a very agreeable 
day at Ringland, we returned to Weston about 9 in 
the evening. Mrs. Custance made my Niece a present 



of a very fine India Fan, another for Common Use, 
but all the Fashion at London, a fine Tortoise-shell 
Shuttle and also a pretty straw Baskett for to hold 
work. Mrs Custance is very fond of Nancy and so 
is she of her. 

May 30. ... Nancy scarce eat any thing for dinner 
today, I desired her not to eat too much, and there- 
fore she would not eat after, neither would she eat 
any supper. 

June 3. ... I read prayers and admimstered the Holy 
Sacrament this morning at Weston Church being 
Whitsunday, l^t rained very heavy in the Night 
a Thunder storm, with little Thunder or Lightning, 
but much Rain All Nature seemed this mormng 
greatly refreshed by the Ram, as it was so much 
wanted Thanks be to the Lord for so blessed and 
giacious a Rain. My Squire and Lady at Church 
and at the H. Sacrament. Nancy also was at Church 
and at the H. Sacrament by my desire, and was the 
first time of her ever receiving it. My Clerk Js Smith 
dined with our Folks today. 

June 8. ... Mr. and Mrs. Custance and Mr. du Quesne 
dined and spent the afternoon with us and stayed till 
8 o’clock in the evening. Mr. and Mrs Custance 
were dressed very neat. We put their Coach m my 
Barn. I gave them for dinner, a Couple of Chicken 
boiled and a Tongue, a Leg of Mutton boiled and 
Capers and Batter Pudding for the first Course, 
Second, a couple of Ducks rested and green Peas, 
some Artichokes, Tarts and Blancmange. After 
dinner, Almonds and Raisins, Oranges and Straw- 
berries. Mountain and Port Wines. Peas and Straw- 
bernes the first gathered this year by me. We spent 
a veiy agreeable day, and all well pleased and merry. 


June 10. ... I slept but very indifferent last night. 
Very sickly time now, many very ill in Ague and 
Fever. I read Prayers and Preached this afternoon 
at Weston. I prayed for John Bowls at Church, 
almost dead by drinking. Neither my Squire or 
Lady at Church this afternoon. 

-June ll. ... To a poor old soldier who sells Matches 
by name Clem: Syms near 8o years old and who 
broke his leg about Christmas last, gave this morning 
o. o 6 He used to call on me about once in half 
a year. He has a Pension from Government of abt 
7 Pd a Year. . . 

June 13. ... I went this morning and read Prayers 
by John Bowles being ill and prayed for Sunday last 
at Church. I found him in bed, but a great deal 
better than I expected to find him, speaks very stiong, 
eats very little, is blind, and has a Pain in his Stomach 
all from drinking. To some poor children gave 002. 

June 18. ... To one Cock of Booton and another man 
also of the same place, who very lately had their 
house burnt down and lost almost their all, gave, 
o. 5 o. I gave Nancy to give to them also o 2. 6 

- In the evemng took a ride to Norwich and supped 
and slept at the King’s Head. I sent my Horses back 
to Weston by my man Will. 

June 20. . I called on Mr. Francis Senr this morning 

and talked with him about the letter he sent me to 
pay m the ,^100 to know whether he could get it for 
me by the time, but he dechned very coolly. It 
made me rather uneasy, and made me rather wish 
I -had never borrowed it at all However, I hope 
I shall manage it some way or other. I called on 
Franas also last night, but Parrott of Saham being 
there, did not talk of it ... 


June 24 Mrs Davy came after Nancy this evening 
in Mrs, Howes’s Chaise by appointment, as Nancy is 
to spend a few days with them at Hockering. Reed 
a Letter this afternoon by my Squire’s Servant from 
Mrs. Le Neve dated from Winsdor, to desire me, as 
she intends visiting Oxford soon, to send her a Ime 
or two to the Warden of New College by way of 
introducmg her to him. Her Daughters are with 
her and are to go with her Also for me to recom- 
mend an Inn to her in Oxford. Was very dull and 
low this evening and the more so, being quite alone. 

June 26. ... Abojit 6 o’clock Mrs. Custance with her 
two httle Boys and their Nurse came to my House, 
and the young Gentlemen supped here, on bread and 
milk They returned home to Weston about 9 

June 28. . . Mr. du Quesne asked me to dine with 

him as he has a large Company at his House, but 
would not ; however I promised to drmk Tea with 
them. Mr du Quesne’s man Robert a very old 
servant very ill, in the Fever that prevails so much 
in Norfolk now. Very bad at Norwich. 53 were 
buried last week there. I sent Will to wait at Table 
at dinner at du Quesne’s. I dined at home by myself 
on a Leg of Mutton rosted. , . 

June 30. ... Nancy by being vdth Mrs. Davy had 
- learnt some of her extravagant Notions, and talked 
very high all day I talked with her against such 
foohsh Notions which made her almost angry with 
me, but when we went to bed we were very good 
Friends and she was convinced. 

'July I . ... Poor Robert England Mr. du Quesne’s old 
servant died this afternoon in the Fever that rages so 
much. He drove Mr, du Quesne’s Chaise to Norwich 



and back again with Mr. Priest and Wife in it, only 
Wednesday last. Mr. du Quesne is sorely grieved 
about him. 

July 3. ... Mr. Baldwin called on me this morning, 
but did not stay long, he walked into my garden, 
I gave him some Artichokes to carry home to Mrs. 
Baldwin. . . . 

July 9. ... I took a nde this mormng to du Quesne’s, 
found him very low, and sorely vexed for his poor 
Man Robin. He was then just going of for London. 
I was wet thro’ before I got to du Quesne’s. I am 
really sorry to see du Quesne so yery much dejected. 
From du Quesne’s rode on to Howes’s to let them 
know that I should expect them at my Rotation 
tomorrow. I saw only, Mr and Mrs. Howes. Mrs. 
Davy at Norwich I returned to dinner by 3 o’clock. 

July 13. ... Mackay, Gardner at Norwich, called here 
this Even’, and he walked over my garden with me 
and then went away. He told me how to preserve 
my Fruit Trees etc. from being inj'ured for the future 
by the ants, which was to wash them well with soap 
sudds after our general washing, especially in the 

July 17. . . Mr Galland and Mr Howlett called on 

me this evening to advise them what to do with one 
Noiton who threatens to burn half the Parish, he 
has burnt this afternoon all the Break upon the 
Common that Mr. Howlett had cut to put under his 
stacks. He is a sad Rogue I beheve. I advised them 
to have a Warrant and secure him. He was therefore 
this evening secured by the Constables. 

July 18. ... Norton was had before a Justice this morn- 
ing but he was done nothing to, as the Justice could 
not have proof. . 



July 24. I read a good deal of the History of England 
today to Nancy whilst she was nettijig her Apron. 
Very dry again. I feed my Geese with Cabbage now. 

July 30. ... Nancy and myself get up every mormng 
before 7 o’clock under the penalty of forfeiting 
sixpence each day — Sundays only excepted. 

Aug. 2 ... Mr. and Mrs. Custance got into their new 

House for the first time to sleep there. But Mrs. 
Custance was taken ill before she got there Supposed 
to be in labour. 

Aug. 6 . . Nancy took a walk this morning to Mr. 

Custance’s new 4 iouse and there stayed and dined 
and spent the afternoon there. I walked m the 
afternoon there and drank Tea, and about 8 walked 
back to our House with Nancy. Begun shearing 
Wheat today. Harvest very forward Gave Mrs. 
Davie a very genteel steel Cork Screw this afternoon. 
Gave Nancy some Muslin to make a shawl. 

Aug. 8. . About 2 o’clock a strange young Man 

called at my House (shabbily dressed with one 
shoulder higher than the other) to ask me leave to 
set up a School in this Parish, said he came from 
Yarmouth and was recommended he said by a 
Mr. Gosling of Yarmouth to this Parish, brought 
no Character with him, said also he was a Scotchman. 
I told him that I thought it strange that he should 
apply without any kind of Certificate, Character etc. 
A suspicious Man I take him, and might belong to 
a bad crew, but hope not. 

Aug. 12. ... I read Prayers and preached this morning 
at Weston. Mr. and Mrs. Custance both at Church, 
and it being so hot they were afraid that they should 
be obliged to go out of Church during the Service, 
but did not. Poor John Bowles died this morning 



friendly to us Mrs. Custance gave Nancy a Pearl 
necklace and Pearl Chain to hang from the Necklace, 
a Pr of Pearl Ear-nngs and another Pr of Ear-rings. 
Mrs Custance is exceedingly kind to my Niece 
indeed We returned home about 8 o’clock in the 
evemng. After spending a very agreeable day. 

Aug. 22. ... I took a ride to du Quesnes this morning, 
stayed vnth him about an Hour, found him rathei 
low still, and fretting himself about being so tyed by 
the leg, in dancing backward and forward to Town- 
shends with his great Company. The Archbishop of 
Canterbury andJLady are there etc The Archbishop 
and Lady go from Townshends Saturday next. Du 
Quesne is then determined to visit his Neighbours, 
tho’ Townshend be ever so much affronted at it. . . . 

Aug. 25. . . Nancy had a letter this evening from her 
father, in which he mentions the death of poor Tom 
Syms by a Fall from a Horse Poor Fellow ! hope 
he is much happier than he was here 

Aug. 27. ... Nancy saw Sr Wm. Jernegan and a General 
Jernegan a German at Mr. Custance’s. The General 
is some relation of Sr William’s, lives in Germany, 
a very good kind of Man. 

Aug. 30. ... About 2 o’clock took a Walk to Mr. Cus- 
tances and there dined and spent the afternoon with 
him, Mrs. Custance, and Mr. Martineau (a man 
Midwife from Norwich) a sensible young gentleman 
and well behaved,^ and my Niece. We returned 
home in Mr. Custances Coach and Mr. with Mrs. 
Custance attended us in it — but they did not unhght. 
I was very low and dull going to bed to-night and 
could not go to sleep. We had for dinner to-day 
a Couple of Fowls rosted, a piece of boiled Beef, 
^ See p 292, foot-note 



stewed Mutton, Fricasseed Rabbitts, a Currant Pud- 
ding and Tarts. Mr, Rawlins (Mr. Custance’s 
Architect) also dined with us to-day. 

Sept. 9. ... I read Prayers and Preached this morning 
at Weston. My Squire and Lady both at Church, 
as was Nancy. As I was waiting to Church I met 
Mr, Custance’s Coach and four about half way from 
my House with Mr and Mrs Custance in it, coming 
after Nancy to carry her to Church, but she was 
gone to Church before. It was very kind of them 
by so intending. Dunng my Sermon at Church 
a poor Woman was taken in FitSj^'which disconcerted 
the whole Congregation and made me conclude 
sooner than I intended. They could not get her out 
of Church. The Woman was old Richd Bates’ Wife, 
an old Woman. One guineas worth of Bread was 
given away this mormng to the Poor of Weston. 
A Legacy of late Jn Bowles’s. A much greater 
Number of poor People at Church this morning than 
used to be owing to the above. Spraggs my Gardner 
dined with our Folks to-day, he being at Weston 

Sep. 18. ... At Noon took a walk to Mr. Custapce’s 
and to my great surprise as well as satisfaction Mr. 
Custance acquainted me that his Wife was brought 
to bed this morning of another Boy and that they 
were both extremely well. Mr. Custance desired me 
to christen the Child which I did immediately and 
by name William. He asked me to dine with them 
but could not. I returned therefore home to dinner 
and told Nancy of the good news of Mrs. Custance 
being brought to bed, she was very glad to hear of it, 
and that they were well. To Lizzy’s Mother Mrs. 
Greaves for 6 TurHes this afternoon pd o. 9. o 



Sep. 19. . Weston Bells rung yesterday and again 

to-day, on Mrs. Custance being brought to bed and 
in the New House. 

Sep. 22. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Nancy breakfasted, dined etc. etc. here 
again. To an old man of Reepham for 40 Oysters 
pd o 2 6. Mrs. Davy and with her Alexander 
Payne made us a morning visit, stayed with us about 
an Hour and returned home. To my Butcher’s Man 
Simonds for Pork at 3i pd o. 6. 6. Mr. Custance, my 
Squire, made us also a visit this morning immediately 
almost after Mrs. Davy left us, and he also stayed 
with us an Hour. Mrs. Custance brave My Name, 
I saw, inserted on the Norwich Paper this evening 
as Preacher at the Generals next Monday at Aylsham, 
the Archdeacon Dr. Berney The death of Mrs. Le 
Neve mentioned on the Norwich Paper also, as 
happening at London, and of a raging Fever. Pray 
God she be happy and send Comfort O Lord to her 
two disconsolate orphan Daughters. 

Sep. 23 ... There was a grand Funeral at Ringland 

to-day about noon. Poor Mrs. Le Neve brought 
from London there. 

Sep. 24. . . At 8 this mormng took a ride to Aylsham 
about 10 miles from Weston, with my man Will. 
Coleman , we got there about 10, put up my Horses 
at the 3 black Boys and then sent for a Barber, dressed 
myself in my Gown and Cassock and Scarf, being the 
Archdeacon’s visitation to-day, and went about ii 
o’clock to Church, where Mr. Taswell read Prayers, 
and after Prayers I ascended the Pulpit and gave 
them a Sermon. From Church we returned to the 
3 Boys to dinner. The Clergy present were as 
follows, the Revd. Mr. Greene who sat in the Chair 

321 Y 


and represented the Arch-Deacon Dr. Berney, myself 
next as Preacher, Mr. Taswell next as Reader, Mr. 
Priest of Reepham, Mr. Whitmell, Mr. Browne, 
Mr. Sandiford, Mr. Bryant, Mr. Leath, and Mr. 
Juvel. Myself and Taswell were treated by the 
Chairman. To a Barber at Aylsham, gave o. o. 9. 
Mr. Morphew, Mr. Morse, Mr. Priest’s son, Richd 
and a Mr. Robins dined with the Clergy at Aylsham. 
It was almost unanimously agreed by the Clergy 
that the Generals should be alternately at Aylsham 
and Reepham, and desired Mr. Morphew to mention 
It to the Arch Deacon. Lent servant Will at 
Aylsham this morning o. 10. 6. We broke up at 
about 4 o’clock, and then I mounted my Mare and 
returned home to Weston about 6 The Church of 
Aylsham is large and handsome and an organ at the 
West End of it and which was played. We had for 
dinner part of a Rump of Beef boiled, a Loin of Veal 
rosted, 3 Fowls rested and an Ham with some plain 
Puddings. It was a shabby dinner and overdone. 
Plates, Knives and Forks very shabby indeed To 
Mr. Morphew paid for Procurations and Pascals 
o. 9. y-J-. I drank some spruce beer of Mr. Taswell’s 
at dinner and liked it very well It was in Bottles. 

Octob. 2. I breakfasted, dined supped and slept again 
at home. Nancy breakfasted, dined etc. here again. 
To an old poor Man, Thos. Wall, gave this morn 
o. 0. 2. Ben caught a Hare in the Cover this morning 
with ye dogs. Cut my Patagonian Cucumbers this 
morning, the largest weighed 14 Pounds — the other 
12 Pounds. 

Octob. 4. ... Mr, Bourroughs of Morton called on me 
this morning to let me know that Captain Le Grisse 
had heard that I had earned from his Gravel Pit 



a large Quantity of Gravel lately, and more than was 
promised me, and that I would make some acknow- 
ledgement for the same But I believe it is Burroughs’s 
scheme to get some mony for himself. I intend wait- 
ing on Mr. Le Grisse concerning it, when I go to 
Norwich. Mrs Custance, (tho’ only brought to bed 
about a fortnight) called here this morning in her 
Coach and took Nancy with her to spend the day 
with her at the New Hall. She is very finely and 
brave indeed, am heartily glad for it. At 2 o’clock 
took a walk to Mr. Custance’s and there dined 
Spent the afternoon and evening till 8 o’clock. 
Mrs. Custance dined by herself above stairs. Mr. 
Press Custance, a Mr. Walton who is a Portrait 
Painter from London and is drawing Mr. Cuatances 
Picture, and Mr Rawlins the Architect dined with 
us there. We had for dinner, a jugged Hare, a Leg 
of Mutton rosted, stewed Beef and hashed Duck for 
the first course, besides a fine Piece of boiled Beef 
on the side table For the second Course we had 
a brace of Pheasants rosted, some grilled oysters. 
Pudding and Tarts and Custards. After Tea Mrs. 
Custance, Nancy, Mr. Custance, Mr. Press Custance, 
Mr Walton and Self played a Pool of Commerce of 
one shiUing apiece, drawing two Pences, at which 
I lost, 6d. Nancy lost i /6, having bought in a second 
time. Mrs. Custance won the Pool, in all neat 
o. 4. 6. Myself and Nancy returned home in Mr. 
Custance’s Coach We spent a very agreeable day 
at the New Hall. The weather also was very fine, 
Evening cold rather. 

Octob. 5. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Nancy breakfasted, dmed etc. here again. 
Mr. Charles Townshend of Honingham called on me 

323 Y 2 


this morning about 1 1 o’clock and walked round my 
gardens with me, and afterwards came in and sat 
with us about half an hour, and then retired. He 
caught me "on the hop, busy in my garden, and 
dressed in my cotton morning gown, old Wigg and 
Hat. Soon after Mr. Townshend left us, Dr. Thorne 
of Mattishall made us a visit, walked about the 
garden, eat some grapes, and after spending half an 
Hour with us in my Study, he went away. About 
2 o’clock Mr. du Quesne, and Mr. Priest of Reepham 
in Mr. Priest’s Chaise came to us and dined and spent 
the afternoon with us and part of the evening till 
8 o’clock and then they went on to du Quesnes. 
I gave them for dinner a Bit of boiled Beef, a boiled 
Fowl with Pork and Greens and a Hare rosted 
After Tea we played one Pool at Quadrille, neither 
won or lost This has been quite a Levee day with us 

Octob. 7 . . About 5 o’clock this afternoon who 

should come to my house but Hall, who is just come 
into Norfolk from Hampshire ; he supped and spent 
the evening with us and wanted sadly to sleep at 
my House, but it could not be. He slept at Lene- 
wade Bridge, left us about 9 o’clock. HaU fights very 
cunning about self, he loves himself too well and 
would fain get a firmer footing at my House. I never 
asked him to come to my House when he went. He 
is very bold and will not take broad Hints. He will 
do anything to save his own Pocket To a Brief for 
Fire gave o. i o 

Octob. 8. ... Mr. Hall never called here this morning 

Octob. II. I breakfasted and dined at the King’s Head. 
[He had ridden to Norwich the day before.] To 
Mr. Baker for things at his shop pd o. 19 6. that is 
— ^Tobacco Pott 4/6, 3 Quire of Paper, gilt, 2/6, 



8 Quire of Paper not gilt 3/0, 3 cork screws i/o, 
2 Pr of Nutt Crackers 2/0, glass Crackers 6d, humming 
Top I/O, Bottle of Dalmahoys Perfume l/o. Netting 
Kneedles for Nancy 9d, Small Candlestick for Wax 
I /6, Ivory thing to wind silk or thread 6d Crackers 
3d, Ivory Kneedles 6d, Bandalore 6d, in all 0. 19. 6. 
Called at Captain Le Grisse’s this morning about 
some Gravel, but he was not at home, had a long 
Chat however with his Wife. Then called at Mr. 
Francis’s, saw Mr. and Mrs Francis Junr but not 
the Senior. From thence called and saw Miss Le 
Neve in St. Stephen’s Church Yard, her Sister was 
in the country. Miss Le Neve seemed pretty well 
after her great loss of a good Mother There was 
a Man with her of about 50 yrs old and I believe is 
a Quaker as he kept his hat on all the time His 
name was [not inserted by Diarist], a near Relation 
of the late Mrs. Le Neve’s Miss Le Neve told me 
that her Mother wondered that she did not hear from 
me when she was at Windsor, but I told her that 
I did send her a letter as she desired and m it one 
to the Warden of New College by her desire The 
letter miscarried, owing to its not being properly 
directed, as Mrs Le Neve forgot to mention her 
address at Windsor and therefore I only directed it 
to her at Windsor. From Miss Le Neve went to 
Mr Hall who has lodgings near St. Peter’s Church 
behind the Market Place at a Glazier’s, by name 
Smith He was very glad to see me and pressed [me] 
to dine with him as he was just going to dinner, but 
did not as I intended dining at Priest’s, but when 
I got thither they had all dined, so I went to my Inn, 
and there made a lunning dinner about 3. Mr. Hall 
came to me soon aftei dinner and drank a glass of 



Wiae with me and about half past 4 o’clock I left 
Norwich, my man Will bringing my Horses in the 
morn’. Paid and gave at the King’s Head abt o. 1 1 . o. 
To Mr. Priest for an ounce of the best Rhubarb pd 
o. 3. o. To a Mr. Chamber for half an oz ditto pd 
o. 2. o. We got home to Weston about 6 o’clock 
and there supped and slept at home Nancy very glad 
to see me returned, having been alone all the time. 

Octob. 17. ... Gave my Men Ben and Will leave to 
go to St. Faith’s Fair to-day, they returned in good 
time in the evening. They had my Horses to go 
thither. Mr. Custance sent his Coach after Nancy 
and myself about 2 o’clock for us to go and dine 
with them by appointment and we dmed and spent 
the afternoon with Mr. and Mrs. Custance, Lady 
Bacon, Mr. du Quesne, Mr. Press Custance, Mr. 
Carter the new Clergyman of Ringland, a Mr. Walton 
who is a Painter and whom we saw before there. We 
had for dinner, the first Course, some Fish, Pike, 
a fine large piece of boiled Beef, Peas Soup, stewed 
Mutton, Goose Giblets, stewed etc. Second Course, 
a brace of Partridges, a Turkey rested, baked Pudding, 
Lobster, scolloped Oysters, and Tartlets. The desert 
black and white Grapes, Walnuts and small Nutts, 
Almonds and Raisins, Damson Cheese and Golden 
Pippms. Madeira, Lisbon, and Port Wines to drink. 
We returned home about 8 o’clock as we went. 
Du Quesne went with us and returned with us in 
the Coach he leaving his Horse at my House dunng 
the time. Nancy nor myself can make nothing of 
Mr. Carter as yet. He is a short Man, black and 
ordinary, tho’ young. Mr. du Quesne stayed writh 
us about a Quarter of an Hour and then went home 
on Horseback and a Man with him. 



Octob. i8. ... Mr. Forster of this Parrish lost a little 
boy this morning. I privately named it in January 
last It was never brought to Church to be pre- 
sented. I am sorry for it. A great negligence in the 
Parents of it I think. 

Octob. 22. . Mr Carter of Ringland made us a long 

morning visit and for the first time. He is a sensible 
man. . 

Oct 23 . . Mrs. Howes and Mrs. Davy called this 

morning abt 1 1 o’clock. Mrs. Howes so weak that she 
could not get out Mrs. Davy stayed dined and spent 
the afternoon «vith us. Mrs. Howes returned back 
again in the chaise At half past one Lady Bacon 
and Mrs. Custance in a Coach and four made us 
a morning visit, stayed with us about an hour and 
then returned home Mrs Davy was highly pleased 
with Mrs. Custance, as indeed, must everybody who 
has once seen her. Mrs. Custance brought Nancy 
a present of a leer Lawn Handkerchief and the Queens 
Lace as It is called for her Stays We had for dinner 
a Fowl boiled, and a Tongue, a piece of rost Beef, 
and a plain Norfolk Pudding 
Mrs Davy returned in the evening to Hockermg in 
the Chaise. 

Oct. 25. . . Mr. Hall called on us about noon but did 
not dine with us, tho’ I asked him, as I dine at 3 o’clock. 
He IS not looked upon in this neighbourhood so much 
as he used to be, as his visits are merely interested for 
himself, and that he never makes any kind of return 
for the same, not even the smallest Present to any 

Octob. 26. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Nancy breakfasted, dined etc here again. 
Took a ride about noon to Mr. Custance’s, saw him, 



his Wife and Lady Bacon, they were all full dressed 
and just going to Earlham to Mr. Bacon’s to dinner. 
Took a ride from thence to Lenewade Bridge and 
so home. Beckham the Net-Maker called here at 
dinner and he dined with our Folks. He fights 
cunning. He came to mend my dragg Net but I 
would not have him mend it at my House as I know 
him to be an expensive Boarder. If he has it to his 
House to mend it will cost me 1.29 which is very 
dear indeed. I told him that I would send it to his 
House, if it was to be mended by him I saw Mr. 
Custance’s new Brewhouse when there to-day. Every- 
thing on a very large 'scale, so large as to brew eight 
Barrels at a brewing, every article most convenient. 

Oct. 29. ... Mr Cary and Mr. Hardy dined with our 
Folks to-day. Clerk Hewitt of Mattishall Burgh 
called on me this even’ by desire of Mrs. Davy to 
taste some smuggled gin which I liked and he is to 
bring me a Tub this week. 

Nov. I. ... Mrs. Custance with her little Boys made us 
a short visit this morning. I gave her eldest Boy 
Hamilton an Humming Top. I gave George also 
a silent Top, wch I bought for them some time ago. 

Nov. 2. ... It rained so all the morning till two o’clock 
that I was afraid I could not go to dine at Mr. Town- 
shends but at a qr after 2 it begun to abate and then 
I dressed and took a ride to Mr. du Quesnes where 
I found Mr. Priest and after staying about half an 
Hour with them there we all three went to Mr. 
Townshends (Mr. du Quesne and Mr. Priest went in 
du Quesne’s Chaise, myself on horse back) and we all 
dined and spent the afternoon with Mr. and Mrs. 
Townshend and stayed there till 9 at night and then 
we returned and supped at du Quesnes. We did not 



dine till 4 o’clock, we had for dinner a Cod’s Head, 
a Chine of Mutton, Veal Collops, Pudding baked etc. 
Second course an Hare rosted and a Pheasant, some 
Amulet Macaroni and Tarts etc. Madeira and Port 
Wines to drink. We were at Mr. Townshends near 
an Hour before dinner, during that time we went 
into the Billiard Room and I played one game of 
Bilhards with Mrs Townshend and beat her, tho’ she 
plays very well. We dined in the dining Room and 
drank Coffee and Tea in the drawing Room which is 
hung with silk and most magnificent Furniture in it. 
The Grate in it the finest I ever saw, all of steel and 
most highly polished. It cost nineteen guineas 
After Tea we played Quadrille, neither won or lost. 
Upon the whole we spent a most agreeable day 
there. On our return to du Quesnes Mr. Priest’s 
eldest Daughter was there being returned thither 
from Norwich. I supped and spent the evemng at 
du Quesnes with him Mr Priest and Daughter. 
I got home about ii at night. Mr. Priest and 
daughter slept at Du Quesnes. My Man Will went 
with me to Mr. Tovmshend’s etc. Sent a letter this 
evening to my sister Pouncett. Nancy was well 
pleased on my going out to-day. 

Nov. 6. ... Mrs. Custance in a riding Habit came to 
my House this morn’ on foot with her two eldest 
Boys and a servant Boy with them about I 2 o’clock 
much tired and very dirty and wet as were her httle 
Boys. Mrs. Custance changed her Shoes and Stock- 
ings and had some of Nancys Mrs. Custance drank 
some warm red Wine and Water, which I hope will 
prevent her catching cold, as did the little Boys. 
Bang obliged to go to Lenewade Bridge to settle 
Dr. Bathurst’s Tithe accounts I left Mrs. Custance 



etc. at my House and went to Lenewade Bridge (but 
called at Mr. Custances in my road thither and 
acquainted Mr. Custance of Mrs. Custance and little 
Bop being at my House) and there I dined and spent 
the afternoon with Bathurst’s Parishioners and re- 
ceived their Compositions from most of them, and 
about 6 returned home to Weston, and found Nancy 
gone, as Mrs. Custance desired her to return and 
dine with her, she went m the Coach and returned 
by herself in the same between 7 and 8 this evening. 

Nov. 10. ... My Boy coming from Mr. Custance’s 
this morning found a Hare sitting, and we went with 
our Greyhounds to course it, which we did and had 
a tolerable good Course tho’ short, and Hlled it. 
I gave Jack finding her as I used to do on finding 
a Hare o i. o. Clerk Hewitt of Mattishall Burgh 
brought me a Tub of Gin this evening about 5 o’clock. 
Pd him for it i. 5. o Gave him also for his trouble 
of bnnging it o. i. o. We had nineteen Bottles and 
a Pint of the Tub 

Nov. 14. . . About noon took a ride to Norwich with 
my man Will and dined, supped and slept at the 
King’s Head. As soon as I got to Norwich I went to 
Kerrison’s Bank and there reed for cash etc. a Note 
of 137. o . o which I immediately inclosed in a letter 
to Dr. Bathurst of Christchurch, Oxford I walked 
to the Post Office, and put the letter into the Post 
which sets for London this evening at 10 o’clock. 
I then went to the King’s Head and eat a Mutton 
Chop and before I had quite dined Mr. Hall came to 
me, and we smoked a Pipe and drank a Bottle of 
Wine, took a Walk about Norwich till after nine and 
then we supped and spent the evening together at 
the King’s Head till after eleven o’clock and then 



Mr. Hall went to his Lodgings and I went to bed. 
Walking so much this evemng etc. made me rather 

Nov. IS* I breakfasted and spent the morning at 
Norwich. After breakfast took a Walk to Bakers and 
bought a smelling Bottle of burnt salts for which 
I pd o. I. o. For a Comb also at Bakers pd. o. o. 6. 
For a silent Top also at Bakers pd o. o 6. At Mr. 
Beatniffe’s, Lady’s Pocket Book for 1782 pd o, i o. 
At Mr. Tolls for a Pr of Cotton Stochngs for Nancy 
pd 0. 7* 6. Called on Mr Hall about 1 1 o’clock and 
we took a walk Mr. Tandy’s in the Market Place 
a Chymist and Druggist and bought of him i oz of 
Rhubarb o. 3. o , of ditto for a small vial of Goulard’s 
Extract pd o. o 3. The above Mr. Landy was of 
Winchester and his Mother whom I knew very well 
and often ticked with her hved in a House in College 
Street and kept a Huckster’s Shop there, and she had 
many a shilling of me. Mr. Landy is married and 
came from London to Norwich about 3 years ago. 
He has a very good shop and House. I did not see 
his Wife. I invited him over to Weston I returned 
to the King’s Head about noon, paid my Reckoning 
and set of for Weston to dinner. I asked Hall to take 
a ride with me and dine at Weston but he begged 
to be excused. Pd. and gave at the King’s Head etc. 
o 13. 10. I made Mr. Hall pay his share at the 
King’s Head I got home to Weston about 3 o’clock 
and dined, supped and slept at the Parsonage House. 
Nancy breakfasted, dined etc. at Weston. I was 
rather tired and fatigued by being out. Will informed 
me to-mght of his being ill in the venereal way. 

Nov. 17. ... Will had from Dr. Thorne’s for his com- 
plaint some Salts and some Pills. He took a dose of 



Salts yesterday morning and this evening took one 
Pill and is to take one every night tiU he has taken 
8 and then to take another dose of salts. Dr. Thorne 
says that his complaint is nothing very bad and will 
do well soon. ' 

Nov. 21 ... One Mr. AUdridge who goes about with 

a Cart with Linens, Cottons, Lace etc. called at our 
House this morning to know if we wanted anything 
in his way. He called here whilst Mrs. Howes and 
Mrs. Davy were here. I bought of him some Cotton 
6 yards for a morning gown for myself at 2/6 per 
yard, pd. o. 15. o. Some Chintz for a gown for 
Nancy 5 yds and i I pd i. 14. o. For an East Indian 
Silk Handkerchief for selE pd o. 5. 6 Nancy also 
bought a Linen Handkerchief etc of him. Mrs. Howes 
bought a silk Handkerchief of him also. 

Nov. 26. ... Mr Hall came here about 12 o’clock and 
he stayed and dined and spent the afternoon with 
us. He went away about 4 o’clock and took his 
leave of us as he goes into Hampshire Wednesday 
next, with intent to stay there with his Friends for 
some considerable time, finding it very disagreeable 
to board in this part of the Country — and which it 
must be to him. We had for dinner some Soup, 
a Turkey rosted and a Pudding. . 

Nov. 28. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home Nancy spent the day etc. at Hockering 
Mr. Custance and his wife etc. returned home this 
afternoon from Sr Edmund Bacons. I sent to enquire 
after them in the evening and they were very well. 
They sent me back the London Papers, in one of 
which there was the foUowmg bad news from North 
America ‘ that Lord Cornwallis with 7000 men were 
obliged to surrender themselves all Prisoners to the 


By Samuel Woodforde, R A. 


Amencan Army of 15000 men ’ It was not authen- 
ticated sufficiently being only mentioned in a morning 
Paper from London. 

Dec. I. I breakEasted dined, supped and slept again at 
home Nancy breakfasted, dined, etc. here again. It 
IS very true that L Cornwallis and his whole army 
and 40 Ships 160 Cannon etc are all taken by the 
Americans and French in Virginia.^ My People went 
out a coursing this morning and they brought home 
a brace of Hares, a Rabbit and a Partridge, which 
they found in a Trap They saw a great many Hares 
to-day and had fine sport. I could not go out with 
them being busy. 

Dec. 4. ... The two Miss Le Neve’s with another Lady 
called here this morning in a Chaise, but I could not 
prevail upon them to get out, as they were going to 
dine at Witchingham. I asked them to dine with us 
and eat some of my Frolic Pudding this day being 
my Tithe Audit, but they could not The following 
Farmers paid me their respective dues but Mr Dade 
and Mr. Page — ^Peachman, Hewlett, Girling, Andrews, 
Rising, Dade, Page, Mann, Pegg, Wm and Js Bide- 
well, Cary, Bush, Case, Baker, Forster, Buck, WiUm 
and Thos. Leggatt, Burroughs, Palmer of Morton 
for Brother, Beanes for Mrs. Pratt and Horner. 
They all dined and some stayed till very near 12 at 
Midnight Stephen Andrews and John Pegg very 
soon got quite drunk by strong Beer The lal;tei was 
quite beastly so and spued about the Passage etc 
Very shameful in him. I gave them for dinner 
a Leg of Mutton boiled and Capers, Salt Fish and 
Eggs, a fine Piece of rost Beef and Quantities of 
Plumb Puddings, Wine, Punch and strong Beer to 
^ At Yorktown on October 19, 1781 (See p 285, foot-note ) 



drink after. They drank 5 Bottles and f of Rum, 
4 Bottles of Wme. Nine Lemons made use of, and 
I Pound and half of sugar from Cary’s I reed, this 
day for Tithe and Glebe 240. 2. 6. ... It was rather 
too late before they went, but they waited to see 
the end of the Bowls. N.B. I filled the Bowls rather 
too full this year. We did not sup till after 12 o’clock 
and did not get to bed tdl near 2 in the morning. 

Dec. 6 . . . About 12 Mrs. Howes and Mrs. Davy 
came here and Mrs Davy was left here to spend 
a few days with Nancy. Mrs. Howes returned back 
without getting out Soon aft^ Mrs. Howes went, 
Mrs. Custance with her eldest son came here m her 
Coach and four and they stayed with us for 2 Hours. 
After that Mrs. Dunnell came here and paid me for 
Tithe and Glebe and CoU Land 20 9 6. out of which 
I paid her for odd things i 6. 2. After that just as 
we were going to dinner Mr. Mountain of Witching- 
ham called here and paid me Tithe for Bathurst the 
sum of 35. 5. o. Mrs. Davy dined, supped and slept 
here with Nancy. We had for dinner some Soup, 
a Piece of Beef boiled and a fine Hare rested. At 
Quadrille with dummy this evening won o. 2. o. 

Dec. 7. ... Immediately after breakfast I rode to 

Honingham and married a very odd Couple, a fine 
young Man about 22 years of age, by name Robert 
Martin and an old, infirm, weak Widow about 50 
years of age, by name Jane Price, by License, and for 
du Quesne, as he was not returned home yet. I reed, 
for marrying them, the usual Fee there 5. o. We 
had for dinner to-day a Neck of Mutton boiled and 
a Goose. At Quadrille with dummy this evening 
won o. 6. 

Dec. 10. ... To my Butcher Henry Baker this morning 



for Meat for the whole year till now pd 37. 2. o. 
Reed, of do. for a Calf i. 5. o. We had for dinner 
to-day a Rabbit, boiled and onions, and a fine piece 
of rost Beef. . . . 

Dec. II. ... Sr Edmund Bacon and Mr. Custance 
made us a long morning visit. I signed a Paper for 
Mr. Custance as a Witness for seeing him write his 
name About noon took a nde to Norwich and my 
man Will went with me, but he returned back to 
Weston with my Horses, as soon as I got thither. 
I dined etc. at Norwich. As soon as I got to Norwich 
I walked to Mr. f rancis’s and there dined and spent 
the afternoon with him, his Wife and Mr. Francis 
Senr. We had for dinner a couple of Rabbits boiled 
and onions, and some rost Beef. After dinner I settled 
some money Accounts with both the Mr Francis’s. 
To the Senr paid him for Acourt Dodd Esq, 
money lent me 4 or 5 yrs ago 100. o. o For 
Interest for the above at 5 per Cent, for one 
year and one month and some odd days pd him 
besides 5. 8. 6. . . . 

Dec. 12. I breakfasted and spent the morning at 
Norwich. Before breakfast walked to Lewis’s shop 
and there bought 6 yds of printed linen for my under 
Maid at 2/2 per Yard — 13/0. For a Lining i/o, 
o. 14 o. Bought also 6 yds of black ground Cotton 
for a morning Gown for myself at 2/4, o. 14. o. To 
5 yds also of Ell wide Calicoe for a Lining o 7. 6. 
After breakfast I took a walk to Miss Le Neves and 
paid them a years Rent for Coll. Land 16. 0. o. 
I stayed with them near an hour. They told me that 
they leave Norwich next week for good and are 
going to London to reside. I washed them happy. 
To my Taylor Harland, by his man Forster pd. 



4* 1 6. 6. I sent by him to his men in the shop to 
drink o. i. o. Went to the Post Office and gave one 
John Watson who is under Post-Master, my annual 
gift of 2. 6. At Chase’s for Moores Almanack for 
1782 pd o. o. 9, at ditto for Baldwins Pocket Book 
for do. pd o. I. 8. To my Barber Wileham for a new 
Wigg pd I. 5 o In the Fish Market for some 
Oysters 6 pd o. o. 3. For one Couple of Widgeon in 
the Market pd o. i. 6. My man Will came with my 
Horses this morning and at 2 this afternoon set of 
for Weston. Paid and gave at the King’s Head 
o. 6. 6. I got home to dinner 4 o’clock and there 
dined, supped and slept at the Parsonage. 

Nancy breakfasted, dmed etc. there again, Mrs. 
Davy breakfasted, dined etc. there again. We had 
for dinner to-day a Couple of Babbitts and onions 
and a fine Turkey rested. For supper one of the 
Widgeon rested and which was very nice. 

Dec. 16. . .1 read Prayers and Preached and Churched 
a Woman, my boy Jack’s Mother, this morning at 
Weston. I gave her the churching Fee and she dined 
at my House afterwards, as did a young Man by 
name FothergiU who brought a note from Mrs. Davy 
to Nancy. Neither my Squire or Lady at Church, 
the former being lU. 

Dec. 17. ... To, my Malster, Palmer of Morton for 
Malt etc. for the last year pd him this morning a Bill 
of 22. I. 6. . 

Dec. 19. ... To a poor lame Boy of my Gardner 

Spraggs gave 0. o. 6 and some Victuals and drink. 
Never known scarce such a continuation of so fine, 
mild and open Weather as we enjoy at this season. 
Spent a couple of Hours this morning in my Cover 
hunting Babbitts and laying one of my Fishmg Nets 



for them about the Furze. We caught one in the 
net and another the dogs caught, both young. 

Dec. 21. ... To poor People (being St. Thomas Day) 
of Weston that live in the Parish gave each 6d in 
all I. 2. 6. 

Dec. 24. . .1 took a walk to Mr. Custance’s this 

morning and spent an agreeable Hour with him and 
his Wife. Mr. Custance is but very poorly indeed, 
and their youngest child also very ill. They sent for 
Dr. Donne from Norwich on the Child’s account 
early this morn’. Their servant brought back a letter 
for my Niece frqjn the Post Office, from her Father, 
who acquaints her that he is greatly distressed for 
money. I paid for the letter 8d, gave the boy Edwd 
4d. o. I. o. Gave to the Carpenters at Mr. Cus- 
tances as I went into their shop at Sandy Hill to 
drink o. i. o. To John Horner for Hulver [i.e. Holly^ 
agst. Christmas o. i. o. Sent Mrs. Custance a very 
fine Colhflower this evening. 

Dec. 25. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Nancy breakfasted, dined etc. here again. 
I read Prayers and administered the H. Sacrament 
this morning at Weston being Christmas Day. My 
Squire’s Lady at Church and at the Sacrament. The 
Squire was not well enough to attend. Richd. Bates, 
Richd Buck, (Tom Cary), Tom Carr, Tom Dicker, 
Tom Cushion and Js Smith my Clerk all dined at 
my House I gave each of the poor old Men i/o, 
being o. 7. o. We had a good piece of rost Beef for 
dinner and plenty of plumb Puddings. Poor old 
Tom Cary could not dine here being iU, but he is 
another day and have i/o. Gave Nancy this evening 
for Card Mony etc. as she is going to spend a few 
days at Mattishall with Mr. and Mrs. Bodham i. r. o. 

337 z 


To Spragg’s lame son for a Christmas Carol gave 
o. o. 6. 

Dec. 26. I breakfasted and slept again at home. Nancy 
Breakfasted at home. To Weston Ringers this morn- 
ing gave o. 2. 6. About 12 Mr Bodham of Mattishall 
came after my Niece in his Whiskey and at i they 
went of for Mattishall. I gave Mr. Bodham a fine 
Hare to carry home with him in the Whiskey. I went 
with them part of the way on my Mare and my man 
Will with me. I went from them to go and see 
Mrs. Howes who is but poorly again. Saw her, 
Mr. Howes, Mrs. George Paiije, Mrs. Davy and 
Betsy. The Family there in great distress about 
Alexander Paine who made away with himself on 
Sunday last by throwing himself headlong into a deep 
Pit. He married one of Mr. Howes’s daughters, but 
his circumstances being but very badly, is supposed 
to be the cause of so rash an action. The poor Man, 
they say, had no vicious Ways whatever, but no kind 
of economy or conduct in either him or his Wife. 
I am very sorry for the poor Fellow indeed, he has 
been at my House more than once I liked him very 
well. From Mrs. Howes’s I went on to Mattishall 
and there dined, spent the afternoon, supped and 
spent the evening at Mr. Bodhams, being his Rotation 
Day. Mr. Howes, Mrs. Davy, Mr. Smith, Mr. du 
Quesne, Nancy and myself all dined with Mr. and 
Mrs. Bodham We had for dinner some boiled Beef, 
three Fowls rosted, a Pigg’s Face, stewed Loin of 
Mutton, Peas Soup and Mince Pies Mr Howes and 
Mrs Davy returned to Hockering about 9 o’clock 
and Mr. Smith took the advantage of their carnage 
to his House, as it rained then very much. Mr. du 
Quesne and myself being on horseback and the 



weather very wet about 9 o’clock, we therefore 
stayed and supped with Mr and Mrs Bodham and 
my Niece. We had for supper some Brawn, cold 
Beef and Mince Pies Mr. du Quesne and self stayed 
till after 1 1 o’clock and then it being tolerable weather 
we set of for our respective Homes I got home about 
12 and not very wet. My Niece stayed and supped 
and slept at Mr. Bodhams At Quadrille this even- 
ing won o. 2. 6 I did not get to bed till after i 
o’clock. I had my Bed warmed and was very 

Dec. 27. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. To Mr. Cary for things from Norwich 
etc pd o. 16. 5. To Betty foi bread pd o o. i. 
To Will for Turnpikes etc. pd o. o. 10. To Jack, 
Mony borrowed of him pd o i o To my Black- 
smith’s Boy a Xmas Box o o. 6 To my Butcher’s 
son, a Xmas Box o. i. o Mr. Cary dined with our 
Folks to-day as he could not on Christmas Day, not 
being well. Du Quesne sent over to me this morning 
to desire me to dine with him to-day but I begged 
to be excused. 

Dec. 28 I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Had my study Chimney Place altered to- 
day by Mr Hardy and to prevent its smoking, but 
am still afraid of it This is I believe the 4th time 
of altering it already I was hurried all day about it 
and also vexed. Mi Hardy and his Man Tom Carr 
^ined in Kitchen. 

Dec. 29. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home Pd Mr. Hardy and Man for work yesterday 
o. 2. 9. About Noon Mr. Bodham brought home 
Nancy in his Whiskey. I desired him to dine with 
me on a fine Hare, but he promised Mrs. Bodham to 

339 2 2 


return home. Nancy dined, supped and slept at 
home. To my Gardner Spraggs for work pd o. 4. 0. 

Dec. 30. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Nancy breakfasted, dmed etc. etc. here 
again. I read Prayers, Preached, and Churched a 
Woman this morning at Weston Church. My Squire 
and Lady at Church, reed for churching the woman 
o. o. 6. Jack’s Brother, Tom Wharton dmed with our 

Dec. 31. I breakfasted, dined, supped and slept again 
at home. Nancy breakfasted, dined etc. here again. 
To my Malster’s Man a Xmas Bqx gave o i. o. To 
Mr. Cary for things from Norwich etc. pd o 6 2. 
Walked out a coursing this morning with my dogs 
for four Hours , had a very fine course with one 
Hare and which we at last killed ; saw no other Hare. 
Betsy Davy was brought this morning on horseback 
from Hockering to spend a day or two with Nancy 
She dined, supped and slept here. Being the last 
day of the year we sat up this night till after 12 
o’clock ; drank our Friends health everywhere with 
many returns of the present season and went to bed. 

{As to Contimatton of the Dtary^see Prefatory Note,^. tx.) 




(For Persons, see Part II (fl), and for Places, Part II (b ) ) 
Roman numerals refer to the parts of the Index 

Abuses, 38, 46 , and v Examination 
farce, non-residence, pluralism 
Accidents, 210, 283, 319 
Accounts, 1 1, 215 , and v Charges 
Actors V Players 
Affihation, 231 et seq 
All fours, 173 

Aims, 19, 24, 36, 44, 48, S9, 103, ia6, 
19s, 198, 299, 314, 336, 337 
American war, 92, 140, 169, 194, 273, 
332, 333 

Anatomy of Melancholy^ 112 

Anchor (of rum), 198 

Apple-pye bed, 302 

Ardent^ war-ship, 261 

Anadne^ frigate, 270, 282, 283, 284, 296 

ArtstotUs Philosophy^ 280 

Armorial bearings, 78, 285, 296 

Auctions, 144, 145 

Audit (college), 169 

Audit-house, the, 169, 

Backsword v Cudgell-playmg 
Baker v Society, English 
Baldwin^ s Journal^ 178 
Ball, 62 , and v Dancing 
Band of musick, 62 , and v Music 
Bank note, 172, 184, 272 
Baptisms, 33, 45, 52, 74, 80, 92, 97, 
168, I9I, 207, 212, 24S, 271, 272, 282, 
292, 320 

Barbers, 45, 66, 133, 137, 139, 166, 
and V Wigs 

Barristers v Counsellors 
Bath chair (self-propelled), i66 
Bath Newsman, 55, 82, 105 
Battledore and shuttlecock, 87 
Bear-baitmg, 12 
Bedding, 13, 263 
Bedmaker, 133, 137 
Bedwarmmg, 339 
Beer v Beverages 

Beggar* s Opera^ 22 , and v Pla>b 
Bell-ringers, 33, 35, 132 
Beil-string-rood, 190 
Bettmg, 37, 44, 169 , and v Lottcncb 

Beverages g] 

ale, 14, 25, 28, 124, 137, 186, 193 
beer, 84, 102, 193 
Dorchester, 256 
small, 62, 137 
spruce (bottled), 322 
strong, 28, 35, 45, 62, 137, u 

brandy and milk, 259 
cocoa vel chocolate, 78, 140, 144, 

coffee, 98, 150, 1 51 
dish of, 251 

cyder, 35, 42, 43, 68, 84, yy, 102, 
137, 152, 174, et ahhi 
Geneva (Holland), 304 
(smuggled), 198 
gin, 188 
(smuggled), 328 
grace cup, 13, 121 
lamb’s wool, 148 
porter, 186 

punch, 13, 17, 26, 84, 193, 198 
arrac, 137, 143 

gin? 215 

(lemon and sugar for), 194, 334 
rum, 67, 186, 193 
(smuggled), 198, 200 
tea, 22, 26, 88, 102, 151 
(dish of), 172, 189 
green, 26, 116 
(smuggled), 197, 301 
wme and egg, 150 
wines, 102, 107, 143 
Calcavella, 276 
clarett, 14, 154 
Lisbon, 14 

^ For this index 1 am indebted to Mrs K A Patmore 


Index — General 

Beverages {conu) 
wines {cont ) 

Madeira, 14, 128, 137, 174, 270 
mountain, 31, 94, 319 
port, II, 12, 13, 14, 17, 19, 23, 
94 , 137, 174 
red, 128 
white, 128 
sack, 122 

Bills of fare, 75, 102, 121, 128, 173, 
198 , and V Beverages, Brealrfasts, 
Foods, Dinners, Suppers 
Birth register, 311 

Bishops, 38 etseq^ 6 $^ 115, 134, 149, 
204, 205, 278 

Black book (Oxon ), 135, 136, 


Bleeding, 63, 252 
Boating, 251 
Bonfires, 304 
Books, 17 
Booksellers, 21 
Bootcatch, 166 

Breakfasts, 14, 25, 78, 230, and » 
Beverages, Foods 

Brewing, 26, 36, 45, 62, 194, 195, 222, 

Bride’s bed, 127 
Bridewell, 134 
Brief foe fire, 324 

Burials, 12, 43, 45, 48, 54 , 59 > 69, 74, 
76, 80, 86, 99, 109, 1 14, 198, 230, 

^ 95 ) 5^96, 318 

Bursars, 121, 136, 144 

Cards, 66, 79, 137, 173, 206, 246, 249, 

^^ 74 , 301, 3 ^ 3 , 334 , 339 
Carols, 42, 82, 338 
Cat incident, 68, Si. 

Cattle disease, 96 
Chair V Chaise 

Chaise vel post-chaise, 13 1, 267, 290, 
298, 311 

Chaplains, 24, 165 
college, 26 

innkeepers’, 123, 124, 133, 139, 150, 


lodgings, 104, 257 
musiaans’, 134 

tradesmen’s, 23, 25, 43, 45, 66, 73, 
8i, 9S, laa, laS, 133, 135, 137, 
183, 186, 1 9 1, 222, 226, 269, 297, 
3ai, 334 a seg , 328, 331, 33a, 

travelling, 146, 149, 151, 154, 174, 

*S 3 > * 57 . *58 

Chanot, 155, 156 
Chanty sermon, 236, 278 
Cbatbam^ war-ship, 234 
Chemistry, 158, 162 
Chequer (room), 121, 122, 128, 129, 

136. 137. 141 

China ware, 268 
Chmese visitor, 162 
Christenings v Baptisms 
Christmas, 42 
dinner, 13 
(poor’s), 103, 195 
Chrononbotontbologos^ 100 
Churchmg, 28, 36, 44, 90, 191, 302, 
336, 340 

Church repairs, 252 
Church-wardens, 76, 80 
City gates (Norwich), 151 
Clothes, II, 23, 54, 58, 128, 146, 163, 
175, i9?> i95> 197, 2123, 229 j 269, 
282, 290, 299, 301, 308, 332, 335 , 
and V Livery, Mourning, Robes, 
Club, social, 145 
Coaches, 154, 230, 234, 235 
(Hackney), 149, 308 
Cock fighting, 86, 1 14 
Coffee house, 135, 149, 263 
Coffin, 295 
Coffin incident, 115 
Comic song, 144 

Common rooms, 17, 26, 28, 122, 130, 
*33. *34, *38, 141, *43, *44, *48, 
*64. *7* 

Concealment of birth, 52 
Concert, 62 , and v Music 
Concubines v Mistresses 
Conntsseur^ tbe, 68 
Convocation, 169 
Cookery, 102, 210, 322 
Coronation day, 89 
Coroner’s inquest, 52, 53 
Counsellors, t e barristers, 16, 60 
Coursing, 33, 78, aao, 303, 330, 333, 


Court martial (naval), 240 
Court of chancery, 156 
Criminals, 16, 19, 24, and v. High- 
waymen, Murders, Trials 
Cudgell-playmg, 90, no 
Curacy, 24, 27, 32, 33, 34, 35, 

Curios, 226, 268, 270 
Curlmg tongs, ii, 302 
Curl papers, 114 
Customs, 120, 1 21, 187, 230. 

Cutlery, 217 

Index — General 

Damp sheets, 297 
Dancmg, 61, 75, 78, 83, 103 
Deafness, 83 
Deans, 17, 120, 164 
Defflamations, 15, 19, 147 , (editorial), 

Defamation, 70, 291, 293 
Degrees, 26, 36, 46, 64, 122, 159, 160, 
163, 169, 170, 171, 172 
Dilapidations (eccles ), 155, 171, 182, 
187, 191, 194 
* DisabeUe 227, 267, 324 
Deserters, 259 

Dianst V 11 a Woodforde, James. 
Diary, mislaid, 178 
Diligence, * e vehicle, 259 
Dinners, 35, 71, 130, 208, 214, 
235, 237, 242, 246, 287, and V 
Beverages, Foods, Ordinary 
Disapline, 17, and v Iihpositions, 
Penance, Proctors 

consumption, 57, 64, 123 
gout, 144, 300 
influenza, 172 
King’s evil, 175 
measles, 87 
rheumatism, 123 
stone, 104 
venereal, 331 

and V Epidemics, Small-pox. 

Dog incident, 183 

Dog’s accident, 21 1, 231, 303 

Dole, 320 

Dreams, 119, 120, 186, and v 1 I<? 

Corpe, Stacy 
Dnlling, 1 15 

Drunkenness, 12, 16, 17, 19, 25, 26, 
27 j 32j 405 68, 99, 1 01, 105, 

114, 116, 120, 134, 13s, I4S, 168, 
175, 191, 201, 225, 231, 266, 314, 
333, etalibt 
Drunken pigs, 222, 223 
Dues (eccles ), 193 
(farmers’), 333 
Duns, 19, 23 
Dutch sLps, 188 
war, 303 

Earache, 307 
Early rising, 36, 62 
Easter dinner, 307 
Eaton [Eton] team, 14 
Effigy burnt, 81 
Eggs incident, 190 

of Chancellor (Oxon.), 1 1 5. 

liberty of, 96 , and v 11 a Wilkes 
Oxon , 73 

petition, 90, 91 , and v Parlia- 
Emetic, 105 
Engine (pumping), 210 
Entertainments, 145 , andv Dancing, 

Epidemics, 64, 67, 315, 321 
Epitaph, 1 13 
Equestrian feat, 13 
Esq (use of), 71 
Examination farce, z 59. 
Examinations, 25, 171 
Execution v Hanging 
Expulsion, 55 

Fainting fit, 60, 1 86 
Fairs, 48, 1 14, 194, 212. 

Fancy dress, 62 
Farmers’ dues, 333 
Farmers’ feast, 270 
Fasts, Lenten, 200, 201 
Good Fnday, 200, 201 
Fast, public, 16, 221, 273, 302 

(clencal), 28, 31, 36, 37, 43, So, 82, 
99, ISO, 249, 272, 302 
(legal), 97 
(masonic), 129 
(medical), 191, 192 
(ordination), 26 

Fellows, 17, 23, 29, 34, 121, 164, 


Female soldier, 224 , and v 11 a Snell, 
Ferry, 265 
Fete-champetre, 217 
Fire-engine, 21, 81 , and v water- 

Fires, 242, 314 
Fire-scare, 174, 231 
Fireworks, 89, 90, 282, 286 
Fishing, 222, 255, 289, 309. 

Fives, 37 
Fives-place, 76 
Fly incident, 266 
Foods [eg] 
bread and buttei, 122 
bread and cheese, 201 
bread and milk, 315 
cheese, 94 
parmezan, 248 

cakes, plumb, 43, 121, 148, 184. 

plumb and carraway, 230 
eggs, 75, 102 


Index — General 

Foods {cont ) 
fishi, 79, loz 
carp, 222. 

cod vel codd, 121, 128, 173 
crabs, 184, 251 
cruzers, 222. 
eels, 31 1 
gudgeon, 311 
hernngs, 191 
lobster, 128, 148 
(hot), 305 
maccarel, 229 
oysters, i8, 35, 84, 3*3 
(Colchester), 274 
pickled, 35 
pike, 276 

'with pudding in his belly’, 


salmon, 208, 303 
smelts, 188 
souls [52c], 121 
trench, 184 
trout, 126 

fruits, 137, 143, 174 
apples, 268 
beefans [biffins], 277. 
chernes, 56 
damson cheese, 273 
grapes, 324, 326 
melon, 268 
mulbernes, 261, 
oranges, 313 
peacffies, 119 
pears, 261, 268 
pine-apple, 60, 65 
small nuts, 268 
strawberries, 184, 313. 
wallnutts, 265, 268 
maccarom, 270 

beans and bacon, 185. 
beef, 42, 99, 121, 124, 187, 190, 
193,195, etaliht 
potted, 246 
stakes, 43 
surloin, 95 
brawn, 301, 303, 339 
calf 8 head, 273 
chicken, 173 
ducks, 89, 196 
fawn, 118 

fowl, 29, 52, 79, 99, 104, 190 
Wild (dun), 273 
goose, 95, 98, 137, 198 
graus, 31 

Iwm, 29, 52, 75, 79, 84, 99. 
hare, 13, 18, 146 

lamb, 28, 1 21 
(London), 195 
larkes, 174, 273 
leverett, 139, 140 
mutton, 43, 80, 93, 128, 137, 188, 
et ahht 

and batter pudding, 313 
(coU), 137 
hash, 237 
stakes, 220 
partridges, 174, 187 
pheasant, 268 
pidgeons, 108, 128. 

picklcdj 206 

pigg’s face, vel face and greens, 
203, 285 

pork, 80, 102, 190 
ancj^peas, 303 


chicken, 128 
gibblet, 246 
meat, 235 

rabbits, 13, 93, 121. 

and omons, 198 
sheep’s heart, 35 
smpe, 174 
swan, 273 
sweetbreads, 128 
tongue, 75, 173 
tongue and udder, 24 
turkey, 174, 195 
veal, 75, 84, 128 
coUops, 248 

venison, 20, 29, 40 , et edtbt 
Norfolk dumphngs, 190, 240 
rice milk, 190 

caper, 208, 313 
catchup, 239 
cockle, 308 
currant jelly, 273 
high, 128 
oyster, 121, 173. 
sweet, 254 
soup, 173, 276 
green pea, 137 
peas, 121 

apple fritters, 201 
blancmange vel blamange, 273, 
291, 313 

and currant jelly, 312 
cheesecakes, 254 
custards, 312 
jelhes, 128, 174 
lemon cream, 249 


Index — General 

Foods {cont ) 
sweets {cont ) 
pancakes, 148 
apple, 79 
apricot, 257 
baked, 318 
batter, 196 
currant, 198 
custard, 270 
* frolic *, 333, 

New College, 137. 

Norfolk, 327 
orange, 121, 174 
orange-apple, 248, 
plain, 198 

plumb, 42, 74, 75, 95, 187, 
z^o, 193, 195 , et alwt 
raisin, 64 ^ 

sewet ^el suet, 242, 275. 
puffs, 249 

currant, 254 
♦gooseberry, 252 
mince, 93, 121, 245, 299 
raspberry cream, 312 
stewed pears, 237 
sugar plumbs, 114 
syllabubs, 128, 174 
tarts, 84, 188 
apple, 89, 102, 318 
apricot, 128 
codim, 137 
plumb, 102 

\egetables, 36, 64, 137, 173, 


artichokes, 313, 316 
asparagus, 128, 184, 235, 248 
beans, 64, 3x9 
cucumber, 99, 128 
patagonian, 322 
green, 64 

mushrooms, 128, 276 
peas, 313 

potatoes, frilled, 7$ 
in shells, 235 
roots, 128 

sallad vel sallet, 99, izi 
Spanish omons, 36 
watercress, 174 

Footpad, 300, and v Highwa>- 

Fortune^ sloop-of-war, 255 
Four-in-hand, 276 
Franked postage, 235 
French prisoners, 263* 
war, 273, 300. 

I Gallery [church] dispute, 79, 84, 85. 

: Games, 14, 37, 48, 73, 7^9 7^} 81, 87, 
j 106, 137, 138, 141, ^73i 186, 

ct alibt and v Cards 
Gardening, 36, 43 ) ^S^) 3 ^^? 3 ^^) 


Gardens, 32, 135 

Garden temple, 25, 3Sj ^ 85 ) ^89 

Garden tent, 19, 49 

Garters, 36, 191, 302 

Gentlemen commoners, 13, 59, 130, 

134, 13s, > 4 - 7 . 163 
Cantab , 179, 
incident, 135 
Girls* school, 31, 205 
Glebe, 153, 154, 155, i 9 ^y 334 - 
Gloves, 109. 

Gordon riots, 283 et seq 
Gossips [sponsors], 249 
Gownsmen, 128, 129, 13® 

Grace cup, 13, 121 
Guineas, George IIIj 88. 

Gunpowder Plot, 81. 

Haberdashery, 32, 225, 325 
Hairdresser, 19, 257) and v Baibcr, 
Handbell ringer, 242 
Handbolts, 82 
Handcuffs v Handbolts 
Hanging, t 6 , 148, 248, 306 
Hangman, 209 , and v 11 Jack 

Hardware, 308 
Harvest customs, 1879 2-30 
feast, 230 

Harvesters, vel shearers, 230 
Heraldry, 297 

Highwaymen, 116, 294) 3 ®^) 3^7 
Hop V Dancing 
Horned-cattle session, 97* 

Hornsby’s thermometer, 174 
Horsc-doctoring, no, 252, 289, 290, 
hire, 126, 132 
Horses, pnce of, 176 
Horse- racing, 47, 138 
Hospitals, 61, 82 
Hotwells (Bnstol), 59 
Hounds, 246 
House of industry, 305 
Hussar, frigate, 44 
Hydropathy, 104, 123 

Impositions, 14, 17, 135 ) H7* 
Indigestion, 245, ^ 5 ^) ^S 3 > ^^ 5 ) 

Inhospitable inn, 94 
Innkeepers v Charges, Inns* 


Index — General 

Inns Ansford Inn, 68, 73, 102, 104 , 
Ansford Half Moon, 94, Attle- 
borough Cock, 180, Bath 
Angel, 146, Bear, 83, 127, King’s 
Arms, 47, White Lion, 127, Castle 
Cary Angel, 93 , George, 84, 209, 
Bridgwater Piper’s Inn, 65 , Ever- 
shot King’s Anns, 12, London 
Turk’s Head Coffee House, Strand, 
149, Norwich King’s Head, 15 1, 
180, Maid’s Head, 207, Oxford 
Blue Boar, 210, 264 , Cross Inn, 14 , 
Sherborne George, 256, Tedbury 
White Hart, 140, Thame Red 
Lion, 178 , Tring Rose and Crown, 
178, Wells Swan, 90, Weston 
Hart, 280, 281 , Weymouth King’s 
Head, 257 , Yarmouth Wrestlers, 

Inoculation, 37, 40, 41, 76, 77, 86, 
190, 192, 244 

‘Jericho ’ [pnvy], 280 
Jewellery, 319 
Jews, 165 
Jilt, 168 

Kennersly’s, 13 
King’s accession, 156 
birthday, 204, 226 
evil, 86 , ani v Diseases 
Ktng George^ war-ship, 22 
Kmg’s speech, 96* 

Lady of the manor, 78 
Lease, t*e couple, 12 1 
Lther valorum, Ecton, x 1 1 
Light, mystenous, 103 
Litigation, 84, 97, 98 
Livery, 61, 74, 182 
Loans, 85, *781 SHj 335 

Londiner [s*c], 86 
Lotteries, 89, 172 
(racmg), 138 

Machine, t e vehicle, 122, 123, 144, 
- i49> 233 j *56, 267, 311 
Manciple, 23 
’ Man Satire ’, 240 

Manners, ao, 25, 26, 27, 33, 34, 43, 
5 *. S 3 , 55 , 56, 68, 73, 75, 79, 81, 83, 
84, 86, 87, 93, 98, loi, 105, 1 18, 
129, 130, 134, 137, 266, 275, 310 , 
and V Drunkenness 
Manuscripts, 21 

Marriages, 82, 119, 131, 141, 292, 334 
Marriage settlement, 167 
Masonic initiation, 129 

Masquerade, 62 

Masters of Schools (Oxon ), 1 57 
Mayor, Norwich, 286 
Mayor’s feast, 287 

Medicaments, 63, 81, 87, 104, 105, 
107, 108, 141, 172, 17s, 190, 192, 
193, 212, 247, 252, 273, 298, 299, 

307, 33 * 

Methodists, i8, 19, 30, 59, 148, 177, 
*36, 273 
Midwife, 168 
man, 292, 319 
ani V lla Martineau 
Militia, 65, 228, 266 
Mistresses, 203, 249, 278, 282, 286, 

Monmouth^ war-ship, 279 
Monster pig, 245 
Monster pike, 310 
Monster tiffkey, 302 
Monument, 113, and v lla Wood- 
forde, Samuel 
Moords Almanack^ 336 
Mortgage, 175 

Moummg, 15, 80, 99, 109, 145, 230, 
248, 295, 318 
Mourning gloves, 109 
rings, 20 
Mummers, 83 

Murders, 46, 166, 167, 250 , andv lla, 

Music, 73, 75, 83, 91, loi, 102, 103, 
134, 135, 235, 286 , and V Band, 
Charges, Sttccardo pastorale^ Triple 

Mutiny, 228 

Napery, 209 
Naval engagement, 261 
Necessary-house inadent, 94 
Newspapers, 18, 21, 213, 254, 272, 
282, 332 , and V Bath Newsman 
New Year, 299 
New Year’s eve, 340 
Non-residence, 38, 39 
Northern lights, 201 
Notes of hand, 88 

Oath of abjuration, 1 53 
Oaths V Swearing (profane) 
Offertory, 120 
Omens, 103 

Oratorios Esther^ 1 1 , Hercules^ 134 
Ordinary (at inn), 66 
Ordmations, 26, 40 
Orgamst, blind, 154 
Owl incident, 117 


Index — General 

Oxford building improvements, iii, 

Oxford Journal^ 133 
Oxford Magazine, 133 

Pamphlets, 82 
Papists, 44, 45, 65, 292 
Parish bounds, 280 ei seq 
officer, 232 

Parhamentary candidates, 68, 73 
elections, 65, 73, 139 
voting, 67 

Parhament, dissolution of [1780], 291 
Peace (of Pans), 24 
Peacock’s tail, 75 
Peasants’ descents, z8i, 182 
Penance, pubhc, 68, 69 
Pensions (govt ), 21 
soldier’s, 314 
Perfume, 325 
Pew incident, 287 
Pewter, 78 

Physician’s charges, 104 
Pictures, 157, 251 
Pillion, 257 
Planetary transit, 86 
Players, 58, 100, 123 
Plays, 153 
All m the Wrong, 18 
Beggar^ s Opera, 57, 62, 100 
ton, 202, 219 
Buxom Joan, 308 
Camp, Ube, 274 
Cats, 42 

Clandestine Marriage, 

Deuce is in him, ziy 
Hamlet, 100, 116, 274 
Harlequin Touchstone, 304, 308 
Hob in the Well, n6 
Love a la mode, 1 57 
Love in a Village, 56 
Maid of the Oaks, 217 
Merchant of Venice, 157 
Orphan, 56 
Padlock, 133 
Plain Dealer, 304 
Provoked Husband, 56, 219 
Richard III, 100 
Royal Suppliants, 308 
Tancred and Sigismunda, 201 
Pluralism, 38, 39, 80, iii 
Pond close, 65 , a alibi 
Poors’ overseer, 82 
Popds Works, 101 
Portraits, 323 
Poser (Winton), 89, 1 1 5 
Practical jokes, 256, 275, 301, 309 

Presbyterians, 22, 309 
Presents, 27, 31, 33, 35, 36, 42, 45 ^ 4 ^, 
835 955 975 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 

127, 131, 133, 136, 139, 144, 152, 

154, 156, 166, 168, 175, 178, 183, 

187, 188, 190, 195, 198, 235, 262, 

285, 290, 317, 319 , and V Alms 
Press gang, 289 
Png, a, 189 
Pnnter, King’s, 150 
Pnsoners, 16 

Private soldier (relative), 21 

Pnze, Naval v Tyger 

Procession (academic), 122 

Proctor (eccles ), 187 

Proctors (Oxon ), 16, 127, 134, 147 

Profile (silhouette), 163 

Prostitutes, 70, 134, 157, 258, 286 

Protection, 197 

Prussian tailor, 182 

Pugihsm, 86 

Purging, 140 

Purse incident, 277 

Puzzles, 304 

Quakers, 226, 325 
Quarantine, 268 
Quebec, Taking of, 12 
‘ Quebec ’ [* folly ’], 305 
Queen’s [Charlotte] birtlida), 216, 

Queen’s [stay] lace, 327 

Rape, 213, 293 
Rat-catching, xSz, 189 
charges, ibidem 
Rates (poors’), 57. 

Rejoicings (pubhc), 89, 99, 304 
Religious customs, 152 
Religious observances, 13, 16, 18, 21, 
27. 2S, 33, 34, 36, 40, S3, 59, 61, 
67, 68, 70, 80, 81, 82, 85, 92, 93, 
lOX, 103, 1x7, Z20, I2I, 128, I4I, 
152, 186, I9I, 200, 203, 215, 221, 
25*, 275, 276, 299, 307, 313, 314, 
320, 337, 340, and V Baptisms, 
Churchings, Marriages, Ordinations, 
Rents, 73 
Rent dinner, 73 
Robes, 86 

(academic), 122, 134, 149, 170, 171, 

(clerical), xo2, 321 
(legal), 157 

Roman Catholics v Papists* 
Rotation day, 206, 285. 


Index — General 

Royal address^ X69 
box, 157 
portraits, 49 

Sapphic metre, 14 

Savings, 4S, 54, SS 

Scholars, 13, 89 
Schoolmaster’s fees, 194 
Schoolmistress, 306. 

Sea- water dnnlang, 153* 

Sedan chair, 156 

Sermons, 27, 171, 172, 134, 135, 141, 
255> 217 Ij 278, 321 
Servant incident, 130, 

Servants, 104, 144, 182, 189, 190, 
194, 196, aoi, 225, 234, 235, 236* 
237, 271, 272, 275, 340 
Shaving acadent, 247, 

Shaving-box, 122 
Shaving inadent, 85 
Shooting, 215, 216, 241 
Simpson’s rooms (Bath), 83 
Singers (church), 92, 93, 95, 152* 
Skating, 23 

Small-pox, 13, 80, 186, 192, 244, 305 , 
and u Inoculation 
Smobng, 24, 26, 29, 130, 143, 155, 
(Indian bark for), 29 
Smoky chimney, 339 
Smugghng, 197, 282 
Snuff, 19 1 
Snuff-box, 13, 18 
Snuff-box inadent, 189 
Society, Enghsh, 29 et seq 
Somerset v Wilts cockfight, 108 
Spanish war, 273 
Spider inadent, 141 
Spmnet, 13, 18 
Spittmg basm, 70 
boxes, 64 

Sports, 13, 14, 65, 75, 79, 86, 90, 240 , 
and V Cock-ffghting, Coursing, 
Fishing, Games, Women’s event 
Spurious [natural] children, 302 
Spying glass, loi 
Standish, 12 
Stationery, 12, 220, 325 
Statuary, 113 , andv lla Ford 
Stays, 28a 

Steward (New Coll ), 23 
Sttccardo pastorale (quasi-zylophone), 

Stipends, clerical, 24, 34 
scholastic, 1 19 
Substitute (mihtary), 247 
Subwarden (New CoU ), 14, 120* 
Suiades, 195, 250, 338 

Summons, 97 

Sumptuary regulations (Oxon ), 136 
Suppers, 14, 28, 83, 84, 235 , and v 
Beverages, Foods 
Surgery (amateur), 81 
Swearing (profane), 90, 105, 108, 254 

Tahourdm’s, 15 
Tailor V Taylor 
Tax collector, 88 
Taxes, 44 
cyder, 66 
hearth, 58 
income, 58 
inhabited house, 58. 
land, 57, 175 
men servants, 234* 
windows, 88 

Taylor, 28, 53, 335 , and v Prussian 
tailor ^ 

Theatre box, 157 
Theatre (Oxon ), 134, 135 
Theatre Royal (Drury Lane), 18. 
Thermometer maker, 282 
Thieves, 97 
Thimble, 15, 18 
Thirteen (New Coll ), 172 
Thirty-mne articles, 26, 153 
Tithe-dinner, 214 

Tithes vel Tythes, 37, 172, 19^ 214, 

a39>^94, 334 ^ 

Toads inadent, 199, 200 
Tobacco, 94, 141 
Tom Jones, 68 
Toothache, i83t 
Tooth-drawer, 183 
charges, 183 
Toys, 226, 328 
Trade depression, 300 
Tradesmen v Charges 
Travelhng, 12, 15, 17, 18, 20, 22, 65, 
78, 88, 104, 105, 1 16, 122 et seq, 
131, I3Z, 146, 149, 152, 153, 156, 
165, 166, 174, 178 , and V Charges. 
Treasure-trove, 212 
* Treatmg ’ a lady, 47 
Trisds, 16, 19, 167, 213 , andv Coroner. 
Triple-harp, 102, 103 
Trvotum, 159 
Tupee, 64 

Turnpike dues, 45, 127, 133, 152, 188 
Tyger, war-ship, 22 

Undergraduates (Cantab ), 179 
Undergraduates (Oxon ), 14, 17, 164, 
179, ando Gentlemen Commoners, 


Index — General 

Undergraduate’s not, 163, 164, 172 
Unemployment, 300 
University system, 158 seq 

Vails, 77, 198 , and v Presents 
Valentine’s day, 198, 274 
Values, comparative, 43, 71, 72, 131 , 
and V Charges 

Vehicles v Chaise, Chariot, Coach, 
Diligence, Machine, Waggon, 
Venison feast, 29 
Venus, transit of, 86. 

Verses, 15, iS, 148 
Vetennary v Horse-doctonng 
Village life, 7 

Visitations (eccles ), '59, 204, 205, 


Voting, 164, and V Elections 

Wagers, 18, 99 , and v Betting 
Wages, 68, 74, 117, 126, 182, 183, 
189, 196, 236, 271 
Waggon, London, the, 176 
Walh lectures^ 46 
War alarms, 261, 239 
War contributions, 217 

Water-engine, 21 

Wax-candle, large, 103 

Wealth, comparison of, 22, 167 , and 

V values 

Weather (exceptional), 23, 44, 69, 
104, 105, 107, 124, i73» 174? 243, 
2475 249 j 313? 336 

Weddings v Marriages 
Wheel [milometer], 203 
Whiskey, t e vehicle, 338, 339 
Wiggs vel wigs, 19, 122, 139, 165, 307 , 
andv Tupee 

Wilkes riots, 75, 91, 93, 96, 99 , and 

V Ha Wilkes 

Wills, 106, 1 1 7, 145, 282, 296 
Winchester scholar, 22 
team, 14 
warden, 34 
and V Poser 
Windmills, 15 1 

Windows, 3 1 1, (New Coll ) 264 
Wines V Beverages 
Winnings at play, 1 14 
Women’s event, 90 
Woollen manufactor}- , n8 
Workbox, 235 

W^orkhoiise v House of Industry 



A page number preceded by ed refers to an editorial portion 
« after a name stands for undergraduate 


Ackman, Rev — , 250 
Acton, M , 163 
Adams, Mr , 121, 142, 143 
Adcock, Joe (sen ), and wife, 288 
Aimes, Miss, 21 
Alcock, « , 172 
Alexander (tax-survey or), 88 
Alldndge, 332 
Allen, 185, 200 
Ben, 282 
Capt R N , 234 
M P , 90 
Mr, 66 

Ames (cooper), 186 
Anderton, Dr , 127 
Anderton, Mr , 78 

Andrews, Chanty, 82. 

Harry, 193 

Michael, 187, 193, 243, 289 
Richard (smuggler), 197, 198, 201, 
221, 282 
sen , 193, 195 

Stephen, 193, 214, 2x5, 230, 269, 

318, 333 

Anne, aunt, 64, 104 

(and Susannah) [Li Histone], 302 
Aram (gardener), 202 
Archbishop (Cantuar) v Seeker, ed 

Comwalhs, ed 3x8, 319 
Arnold, Dr , 88 
Arthur, Solomon, 45 

Index of Persons 

Ashford, Wm 92 
Attle, Rev — ,251 
Atterton, 280 
Atwell, Jno , 13 
Austin, Rev — , 259 
Awbery, u , 143, 172 

Bacon, 285 

Sir Edmund, ed 227, 233, 249, 
^72, 273, 332 j 335 
Lady, 248, 249, 272, 273, 288, 326, 
327, 328 

Mr , 291, 318, 328, 

Mrs , 31 
Baggs, 28 
Baily, 62 
Wm , 256 

Baker, 193, 281, 333 
Betsy, 68 
Betty (Mrs ), 68 
Henry, 334 
Jno , 214 
Mrs , 57 

(shopkeeper), 229, 304, 324, 331 
Miss, 68 
Sukey, 68 
(Merton CoU ), 16 
Baldwin (daughter), 225 
Mr , 195, 205, 220, 231, 233, 

Mrs , 220, 237, 246, 316. 

Nancy, 237, 246 
Vertue, 231, 237 
(pubhsher), 336 
Ballard, Dr , 127 
Banks, Mr , 29 
Barnard, Luke, 61, 68. 

Barnes, Thos , 99 
Barney, 200 
Barrow, 5. 

Barton, Miss, no 
Bates (baili£E), 185, x86 
Richard (sen ), 195, 215, 271, 

299) 337 
Mrs , 320 
Bathurst, Ben, 14 
Dr, 196, 213, 294, ed 295, 

303 ) 329 ) 33O) 334 
Earl, ed 295 
Henry, ed 295 
(jun ), 143 
Mr , 164 
(sen.), 143 
Beanes, 333 

Beatniffe (shopkeeper), 331 
Beauchamp, Mr , 267 
Sir Thos , 249. 

Beauchamp-Proctor, Sir Wm , ed 227 
Beaufort, Duchess of, 102 
Duke of, 102, 140 
Beaver, Pope, 26 
Beckham (net-maker), 328 
Bedford, 28, 30, 31 
Beeston, 310 
Bell, u , 17 
(villain), 248 
Beloe, 201, 202 
Bennett, Stephen, 75 
Bentham, Dr , 171 
Berkeley, Lord, 171 
Berney, Archdeacon, 321, 322 
Bertelet, Jno , 36, 37 
Mrs , ed 37 
Bertie, 13 
Capt , 138 

Betty, (servant), 102 
(another)^ 282 

Bews, 17 , and v I Machine 
Bidewell, 193 
Jas 5 333 

Wm , 214, 222, 333 
Biggin, Nancy, 16 
Nathaniel, 97 
Robert, 97, 209 
Bignell, Nancy, r6 
Bingham, ^ , 143, 172 
Bircham (brewer), 195 
Birchenden, Dr , 136, 137. 

Bird (servant), 312 
Black Jack (gamekeeper), 21 1, 303, 


Blacks tone. Dr , 13, 141 
Blackstones, 264 
Bhsse, 127, 129, 138, 141, 143 
Miss, 258 
Blofield, 205 
Board, Misses (2), 208 
Bodham, Rev — , 210, 222, 229, 241, 
{and brother, 252), 267, 275, 279, 

iSS. 307 > 3 Ui 3 «> 337,338. 339 
Mrs , 311, 337, 338, 339 
Boddy (villain), 248. 

Bolton, Mr , 206 
Bond, Sally, 97. 

Bosworth, Dr , 123 
Boteler, Capt R N , 261 , and u , 


Boulter (shopkeeper), 226 
Bourroughs (Burroughs), 322, 323, 

Bower, farmer, 34 

, 35 , 37 , 44 * 

Lewis, 37,44 

Bowerbank, 128, 136, 137 


Index of Persons 

Bowls, Canon, 258 
and daughter v Windham and 
wife, tbtd 

Bowles, Jno , 189, 191-3, 2 i 4 -J 5 > 

314, 317, 318, 320 
Mrs , 192 
Boyce, 122 
Boys, 169 
Bragge, 143 

Brainthwaite, Justice, altos * Gobble 

Branton, Rose, 292 
Bray, Dr , 130 
Brereton, 150 
Brewer, « , 1 5 
Bridges, Eliz , 70 
(priest- vicar), 42 
(villain), 248 

Brookes (upholsterer), 195 
Brookman, 127 
Broome, u , 135, 136 
Browne, Mr , 193, 322 
Browning (player), 100 
Bruce, Capt , 250 
Bryant, Mr , 322 
Buck, 333 

Richard (sen ), 195, 215, 271, 281, 

^ 99 ) 337 
Robin, 187 
Buckle, Mr , 286 
Bull, 136 
Burge, 44 
family, 114. 

James, 63 

Jno , 59, 260, ed 262, 

Mary Russ, 52 
Mr , 17s 
Mrs , 90 
Seth, 4S, 

Tom, 82 
Will, 48 

Wm , sen , 82, 85, 99, 207 
Wm , jun , 176 
Burland, Sergeant, 66 
Burnet, Bishop, 38 
Burney, Dr , ed 284 
Burns, Mr , 149, 150 
Burroughs, farmer, 333 
Burrow, Mr , 234 
Burrows, Dr, 136, 137 
Mr , 193, ai4, 234 
Burton, 193, 215 
(deceased), 112 
Eleanor, 112 
Mr , 222, 234, 

Mrs , 112. 

Busby, u , 143, 172 

Bush, farmer, 333 
Bushell, 306 

Puxton, Justice, 216, 232, 277 

Caldecott, 142, 156 
Cambridge, Mr and sisters (2), 261 
Cantrell, 310 
Careless (dog), 223 
Carr, Mr , 102, 191, 282 
Mrs , 80, 102, 149, 191, 282 
Thos (sen), 195, 215, 271, 281, 

299 > 337 
Tom, 200, 339 
Carnngton, Rev — , 278 
Carter, Rev — , 326, 327 
Cartwright, Wm , 24 
Cary (of Shepton), 22 
(of Weston), 191, 193, 199, 206, 
221, 236, 243, 252, 270, 282, 297, 
299, 301, 309, 328, 333, 334, 339, 

Thomas vel Tom, 214, 271, 281, 

299 ) 337 , 339 
Case, 193, 333 
Wm , 214 

Caxton, Elizabeth vel Betty, 236, 238, 
244, 275, =^79, 287, 293, 300, 301, 
305, 339 
brother, 275 
father (deceased), 275 
Chamber (druggist), 326 
Chambers, Miss, 102, 127 
Mrs , 80 
(tailor), 269 
Chandler, 257 
(schoolmaster), 194 
Charles, Rev — , 257 
Charles (servant), 241 
Charlotte, Queen-Consort, 272 
Chase (bookseller), 308, 336 
Cheese, lUchard, ed 37, 43, 45 
Chesterfield, Lord, 199 
Chiche, Milly, 40 
Mr , 60 

Chicheley (organist), 1 54 
Chriche, Eliz , see Crich 
Christopher (infant), 191 
Church, 206 

Clark, Melliora, ed 177, and v 
Woodforde, Jno , Mrs 
Clarke, Agatha, 65, S3 
Chas , 116 

Chas (Imendraper), 209, 

Dr , 33, 40, Sh 67* 70 > 7 ^, 79 » 
86, 87, 88, 94, 107, 117, 130, 13a, 


Index of Persons 

Clatke {cont ) 

Mrs — 5 born Woodforde, Sobieski, 
ed 40 
(farmer), 56 

Jas , S 3 . 59 . 60, 61, 63, 81, 87, 94, 

III, 1 16, 176, 207, 208, 254, 262, 

James, Mrs , 125 

Jenny, 40, 101, 105, 117, las, 1*7. 

Jo, 118 
Miss, 141 

Mr , 42, 49, 61, 86, 132, 

Mrs , 40, 56 
Nancy, loi 

Richard 53, 208, 209, 1 16, 1 17, 292. 
and Mrs , 254 
(pn ). 55. 93 

Sam (jvm), 56, 83, 117, 208, aog, 
267, ed 268, 271, 272, 273, 274, 
27s. 276, 277. 

sister [bom Woodforde], loi, 117, 
1 18, 125, 168, 202, 203, 254, 255, 
267, 268, 269, 27X, 272, 273, 274, 
275. 276, 277, 278, 279, 283 
Sophy, 292, 296. 

(painter), 116 
(tailor), 194 
(of Arlington), 28 
Cleaver, Mr , loi 

Clerke, altos Mrs Midnight (player), 


Clothier, Eliz , 42, 45, ed 55, 106 
Cobbe (ratcatcher), 189, 214. 

Cock (of Booton), 314 
Cocks (Farmer), 61 
Coker, 137, 138, 140 

(]un.). 143 

(sen ), 142, 143, 264, 265 
Coleman, Capt , 304 
Ellis, 25s 
Jno , 92, 132 
Mrs , 132 
Robin, Mrs , 260 

Will, 132, 176, 183, 184, 194, 196, 
198, 199, 200, 202, ed 207, 210, 
212, 213, 215, 21 6, 222, 225, 226, 
229, 230, 235, 238, 240, 241, 244, 
247, ed 251, ^52, 253, 260, 261, 
266, 268, 275, 276, 279, 281, 285, 
286, 287, 289, 290, 291, 293, 
294, 296, 303, 305, 306, 308, 309, 
314 33^6, 329, 

330, 331 , 336, 339 
Coleridge [Wm ], 146 
Coles, Roger (carpenter), 43 
Roger (sen.), 10 1 

Collins, aunt, 145 
Fanny, 92 
Michael, 92 
Richard, 67 
Colmer, Mr , 53 
Cook (jun ), 122 

Cooke, 128, 136, 143, 148, 152-5, 
157. 169. 

Mrs ,45 
(sen ), 137 
Cooper, Mrs , 308 
Cooth (Coothe), u , 128, 143 
Coplm, 310 

Comwalhs, Archbishop and Mrs ,318, 

Lord, 332, 333 
Corpe, farmer, 175 
Wm , 97, 109, 130 
Cotton and his brother, 27 
Misses (4^ 27 
Mrs , 27 
Courtney, 150 
Coward family, 117 
Cox, jumper, 172 
Lt -Col , M P , 66, 67, 71, 90. 

(sen ), 66 
Cream (horse), 35 
Creed, 60, 127 

Justice vel Squire, 56, 57, 65, 68, 71, 

73. 75. 76. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82, 84, 87, 

88, 90, 97, 100, loi, 103, no, n6 
Squire (jun ), 145 
Mr , 89, 96, 1 14 

(sen ), 56, 65, 68, 74, 75, 76, 79, 88, 
97 . loi* 

Crich, Betty, 46, 133 
Eliz,ed ss, 117,126, 139 
Mary, 36, 139 
Crocker (earner), 132 
Crocker (Wadham Coll ), 165 
Croker, 89, no 
Jonathan, 92 
Cropp, 19 

Cross, Squire, 32, 33, 34 
Mrs , and children (3), 32, 33 
Richard, 33 
Croucher, i6 
Crow, Rev — , 14 1 
Crowe, 264, 265 
Crozier, 15 
Cummin (jun ), 143 
(sen ), 143 

Curtis (thatcher), 168 
Curtiss, Miss, 36 
Cushion, 337 

Tom (sen), 215, 271, 281, 299, 

Index of Persons 

Custance, Edward, 292, 294, 295, 296 
Geo , 328 

Hambleton, ed 227 
Hambleton Thos , 248, 272 
vel Hamilton, 328 
Jno (grandfatier), ed 227 
Jno , squire [of Ringland], ed 227, 
228, 233, 235, 242, 248, 249, 266, 
267, 269, 272, 273, 276, 280, 281, 
282, 285, 287, 288, 291, 292, 293, 
294, 295, 296, 299, 301, 302, 306, 
313, 314, 317) 318, 3^9) 32O) 32I) 
3^3) 326, 327) 328, 33O) 332, 335) 
337) 340- ^ 

Mrs ,ed 227, 228, 235, 242, 248, 249, 
251, 267, 269, 271, 273, 276, 282, 
285, 286, 287, 291, 294, 295, 299, 
301, 302, 306, 312, 313, 314) 3^5) 
317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 323, 32d, 
3^7) 328, 3^9) 33O) 332, 334) 337) 


Press, Mr , 184, 186, 187, 203, 204, 
242, 249, 272, 273, 278, 280, 285, 
287, 288, 290, 294, 295, 296, 297, 
3213) 32^6 
Wm , 320, 337 

Dade, 193, 215 
Mr , 214, 280, 333 
Mrs , 300 
Wm , 318 
Darck, 86 
Darcy, 122 

Darlang (highwayman), 16 
Daubenny, 163 
Davies, Miss, 134 
Davis (fruiterer), 258 
Davy vel Davey, Davie, Davis, 241 
Mr , 293 

Mrs , 152, 154, 189, 199, 205, 210, 
241, 252, 290, 293, 298, 299, 301, 
302, 305, 308, 309, 310, 315, 316, 

317. 327, 328, 334. 336 j 338 

and children 

Betsy, 241, 290, 300, 301, 302, 306, 

Nunn, 241 

Dawson (Re\ ), Mr and Mrs , 279, 


Dickens, Colonel, 217, 218 
Dicker, Thos (sen), 215, 271, 281, 
299) 337 

Dimsdale, Baron and Doctor, 76, 77, 


Dixon, Dr , 107 
Dod (baker), 45 

Dodd, Acourt, 335 
Dr (forger), 199 
Dolton, parson, no 
Donne, Chas , 241 
Miss, 206, 210, 222, 229, 241 

, 337 

Mr, 196, 198, 206, 208, 210, 217, 

222, 229, 241, 290 
Mrs , 168, 195, 208, 290 
Downe (sen ), and wife and grand- 
daughter, 311 
Downing family, 191 
Mr , 192, 193. 

Drake, Sergeant, 192 
Duck, 89 

Dumas, altas Darking, 16 
Dunford, 58 
Dunn, Dr , 127 
Mrs , 127 
Dunnell, 183 
Barnard, 185, 293, 310 
Harry, 185, 192, 200, 211, 212, 214, 

215, 222, 242, 309, 310 
Mrs , 242 

man and wife, 152 
Mrs , 187, 190, 214, 334 
Thos , 187, 197 
Dupne, 130 
Du Quesne •o Q 
Durnford, 92 

Dutchess (greyhound), 303 
Dyer, 18 
Dyke, Ned, 35 

Eaton, 143, 264, 265 
Edmonds (author of Heraldry), 297. 
Edward (servant), 337 
Elton, Abraham, Sir, 66 
Empress of Russia [Catherine], 76 
England family, 212 
(rector), 212 

Robert (servant), 315, 316 

Fanny [Fox-Strangeways], 22 
Farr, Esq , 71, 83, 88 
Miss, 83 

Mrs , 75, 83, J03 
Ferdinand, Prince, 49 
Ferman, Mr , 24$ 

Field (barber), 305 
Figges, Mr , 138 
Mrs , 125, 139. 

Fisher, Mr (Univ Coll ), 144-5 
Mr, 134 
Fitch, 24, 27 
Henry, 59 
(sen ), *5 



Index of Persons 

Hardy {cont ) 

Mrs , 2X4 

Mr and Mrs , 282, 306* 

Hargrove, Major, 47 
Harland (tailor), 335 
Harper, Sir Harry, 138. 

Harris v Parking 
Hartley and Robinson vel Robinson 
and Hartley, 23 
Harvey, Rev Dr, (deed ), 282. 
Haugl^ Sir Wm , 66 
Haw, 19 , and v I Methodists. 
Hawkins, u , 129. 

Hayes, 100 
Hays, Philip, 13. 

Hayward, 34 
Head, 156 
Hearst, 13, 17 

Heigh, Mrs (of Tuddenham), 308 

Helhar, 136 

Hernng, Mr , 19X, 214. 

Hewish, Mr , 25 
Hewitt, Mr , 290. 

Mrs , 290 
(clerk), 328, 330 
Highway, Mr , 134, 135, 147 
HiU (merchant) and son, 269. 
parson, 37 

Hmdley, Mr , 78, 79, 89, 100, 102 
Mr (Oxon ), 136, 137 
Hinton, Lord, xoi 
Hitchcock, barber, 45 
Hix, farmer, 92 
(jun ), 9* 

Hoare, 10 1, 301. 

(banker), 32, 77, 269 
Hole, Miss, 125. 

Hol^am, Mr , 229 
Holland, Lord, 60 
Mr and Mrs (players), 308 
Holmes, 128, 129, 130, 134, 143, 


Holton, 20 
Jerry, 2i, 


Hooke, 1 19 
u , 14, 25, 26. 

Hooker, 92 
Hooks, 133 

Hopkins, Rev — , ed. 37 
Homer, Jno , 214, 333, 337. 

Horwood, Mrs , 144 
Hossy, Nancy, 262 
Howard, 19 

Howes (curate), 147, 152, 153, 171, 
172, 196, 198, X99, 2 o6, 210, 222, 
229, 241, 242, 245, 252, 266, 279, 

285, 290, 298, 301, 302, 309, 310, 
3x1, 312, 316, 338 
daughter v Dawson 
Mrs , X52, 182, 184, 196, 199, 206, 
207, 2X0, 222, 229, 24X, 245, 252, 
279 > 290J 30 h 3099 310, 3 1 1, SI 5 , 
316, 327, 332, 334, 338 
Hewlett, 293, 316, 333 
Hubbard, Robin, 281 
Hume, ;Bp of Oxford, 26. 

Humphrey, 232 
Hunt, Dr , 26 
Mr (* little *), 256 
Huson (highwajmian), 294 
Hutchins, Geo , 74, 78, 83, 87, 

Sam, 43, 45 
Thos , 46, 48 

Ilchester, Countess of, 22, 100 
daughter v Fanny 
Earl of, 7X 

Jack (odd boy), 133 
(another) v. Warton, Jno 
(horse), 289, 290 
Jackson, 25. 

James (servant), 92* 

Jane, aunt (of Bath), 282. 

Jane vel Jenny, sister [Woodforde], 
13, 18, 20, 21, 37, S4, s6, 82, 83, 89, 
loi, 105, 109, 116, 131, 132, 138, 
139 , and V Pouncett, Mrs 
Jeffenes, 203 
PrisciUa, 139 

Jeffnes, X38, 163, 164, 173 
Jernegan, SirWm , 213,217, 218, 2x9, 

2^77, 319 

General (‘ a German ’), 319 
Jervase, 265 
John (infant), 19 1 
John (servant), 281 
Jonathan (barber), 137 
Jones (coach-dnver), 149 
Jordan, Miss, 62. 

Juno (dog), 288 
Juvel, Mr, 322 

Kelly, Capt , X38. 

Kemp, 133 
Kendall, 179. 

Keppell, Admiral, 240, ed 241, 246. 
Kerr, Mr , 267, 268, 278, 287, 28S 
Mrs , 267, 278 
Kernson (banker), 294, 330 
Ketch, Jack, 148. 

King, 143 



Index of Persons 

Kingston (bursar), 269 
Kirbjr, SaUy, 144 

Landy (druggist), 331 
and wife and mother, tbtd 
Laud, Archbp , zi. 

Leach, Parson vel Mr, 61, 94, iii, 

Leath, Mr , 322. 

Lea, 3+ 

Lee, « , 172 

Legate, Benjamin, 189, 190, 19I9 X93, 
Z94, 200, 202, 203, 204, 216, 221, 
222, 230, 231, 234, 253, 266, 268, 
27s, 281, 289, 290, 294, 296, 309, 
31 1, 322, 326 
(jun ), 193, 214. 

Thos , 333 

Wm , 189, 204, 281,294, 333 
Wm. (jun ), 309, 310 
(sen , son of Ringland), 193, 214 
Legge, Mr , 49 
Le Grisse v G 
Le Neve v N. 

Lewis, Edmund, 209, 258, 297 
Jas , 20, 209, 223, 224, 225, 238 
258, 259, 288, 290, 297, 306, 

(sen ), 259 
(shopkeeper), 335, 

Lillis tone, Aime vel Nancy, 237, 238 
246, 232, 271, 291, ed 293, 302 
Lmley, Molly, 134 
Locke (silversmith), 265 
Lockyer, Mr , 94 

Loder (innkeeper), and Mrs , 257 
Lodginton, Capt , 279 
Loggin, « , 15 
Lovel, 149 
Lowthe, 143 
Loyd, 25, 26 
Mr , 246 
Mrs , 246 

Lubbock, Mr Percy, ed. 227, 

Lucas, Jas , 92. 

Mr , 143, 257 
Mrs (sen ), 257 

Maby, David, 76, 80, 86, 131 
(overseer), 57 
Machhn, Miss, 257 
Mr, 157 

Mackay (gardener), 316. 

Maggs, Parfitt, 86 
Mayne, Ann, 213 
Major, Farmer, 33 
Jno > 34 

Man, 193 

Mann, Mr , 214, 215, 283, 333 
(churchwarden), 292, 318 
Mannmg (hardware dealer), 308 
Mansfield, Lord, 156, ed 283 
Marriott, 155 
Marsh, Chas , 257 
Mr , 256 

Martin (dragoon), 202 
(lawyer), 176 
Robert, 334 

Martmeau (man-midwife), 292, 319 
Mary, Mr , 220 
Mary (servant), 52, 53 
Masey, 146 
Masham, 217, 218 
Mason, 242. 

Master, 24 
Masters, Mr , 264 
Meach, Mr<f^ 55 

Melliar, Counsellor, 20, 65, 66, 67, 70 
Miss, 83 
Mr , 60 

Mrs , 63, 67, 68, 78, 83, 97, 100, 

Wm , 20, 65, 66, 67, 100 
Mercer (jun ), 25 
Mrs , 25 
(sen ), 25, 26 
Messiter, Mr , 13 

Midmght, Mrs , 56, 58 , and v 

Mildmay, 66, 71 
MiUachip (brazier), 64 
Millard, 256 
Betsy, 125 
Miss, 280 
Mr , 151 

Mrs [born Salter], 125, 150, 151, 

Milton, 122 
Mr , 142 
Mines, Mr , 128 
Minx (dog), 221 
Molly [Salmon], 189, 190, 196 
Moore, Michael (villain), 307 
Miss, 37 
Morris, Mr , 128 
Morse, Mr , 322 

Moss, Chas , Dr. [Bp. of Bath and 
Wells], 256 

Mottram (stay-maker), 282, 

Mountam, Mr , 334 
Moysey, Dr., 104 

Murphy \pel Morphew] (eccles, proc- 
tor), 187, 191, 293, 32* 

Murray (Prussian tailor), 182 


Index of Persons 

Nancy, 132. 

Neale, Dr , 231 
Nelthorpe, 266 
Le Neve, Mrs ,315, 321 
and daughters, tbtd , 325, 333, 335. 
Nevil, Mr , 1 18 
Newdigate, Sir Roger, 73 
Newman, Anne v Burton, Mrs. 

Esq, 13, 1 12 
Nicholl, 28 
Nicholls, 128 
Nicolls, 13, 14. 

North, Lord, 115 
Norton, 193 
(coroner), 52 
(mcendiary), 316 
Norwich, Bishop of, 149-50. 

Oakely, 130, 143. 

Oakley, 133 
Oglander, 143 
Dr , 247, 248, 252, 

(jun ), Z7 

Harry, 169, 170, 171 
(sen ), 26 

Orford, Lord, ed 251, 253 
Orton (innkeeper), 153, 188 
Overton, — , Rev , 62 
(of PiU), 132. 

Owens (barber), 19, 127, 139 

P,, Mr , 146 
Page, 318, 333 

Paine vel Payne, Alexander, 321, 


Mrs , tbtd 
Frank, 122, 137. 

Geo , Mrs , 338 
Paine, Mr , 229 
Mrs , 138, 229 
Mr and wife, 290 
(of Shipdam), 309 
Paley, Mr , 289 

Palliser, Sir Hugh, 240, ed 241, 246 
Palmer, 195, 333 
Jno , 271 
Mr , 2x4. 

Sarah, 271 

Thos (‘malster'), 297, 310, 333, 336, 

(parish officer), 232, 236 
Parferoy (gardener), 294 
Parfitt, Mr , 146. 

Parr, aunt, xo8. 

Mrs , 106 

Parrott (of Saham), 314. 

Parsons, Dr., 148* 

[ Partridge (villain), 248 
! Paulett vel Pawlett, Lady, 101. 

Lord, 81, lox. 

Vere, loi. 

Payne vel Paine, Frank, 122, 137. 
Miss, 75. 

(of Brackley), 29. 

Peachment vel Peachman (church- 
warden), 190, 193, 214, 215, 31 1, 
318, 333 

Pearce, Mrs , 85 , and v Rooke 
Peckham, 156 

Peckham, u , 12, 15, x6, 26, 27 
Peddle, u , 135, 136, 147 
Pedraho (thermometer maker), 282 

Peggj m 

Jno, 214, 215, 270, 318, 333 
Mrs. (sen ), 248. 

Penny, Dr , 140, 258, 260 
Jno and little daughter, 43 
Mr, 21 

parson, 46, 102 
Thos , 92 
Perry, 127 
Geo , 74 
Jno , 100 
Mr , 100 
Mrs , 70 
Mrs (sen ), 260. 

Peter (choirman), 92 
Pew, Hannah, 114 
Molly, 56 
Wm (jun ), 92 
PhiHipps (servant), 204 
Pickering, Rev — , 165 
«, 24 

Pitcairn, 127 

Pitt, the elder, 49, 55, and ed 
Pitters, 26 
Plummer, Miss, 83 
Pompey (dog), 2ii 
Pompier, Capt , 107 
Portman, 80 
Pott, Mr , 89. 

Potter, Archdeacon, 21. 

Mrs., 242 

Pouncett vel Pounsett, Mr , 124, 125, 

136, 137, nh *3*» 138, 139. 166, 

175, 176, 303, 307, 308, 309, 334, 
335, 338, 229, 335, 353, 354, 359, 
260, 363, 396. 
infant, i66, i68 

Mrs Jane vel Jenny [bom Wood- 
forde], 13I) 13*) 166, 176, 306, 
207, 308, 309, 334, 335, 226, 238, 
339, 330, 23s, 238, 24«, 243, 248, 
*53. *54. *6^ *7*. *73. 


Index or Persons 

Pouncett) Mrs Jane (cant*) 

282, 283, 288, 292, 296, and V, 
Jane, sister 

Mrs. (of Cole), 168, 296. 

Mrs (born Guppy), 208. 

Rachel, 168. 

(sen.), 208. 

Powel (innkeeper), 178. 

Mrs , 78, 107, 119 
Lady, 40 
Pratt, 193 
Mrs , 333 

widow [born Cary], 293 
Price, Jane, 334. 

Pndeaux, Humphrey, D D ,288 andtd 
Mr., 288. 

Priest, 304, 326 
daughter, 206, 329. 

Faimy, 240 
Jno , 240, 308 

Mr , 154, 201, 202, 219, 240, 274, 
308, 309, 310, 316, 325, 328, 329 
Mrs., 154, 206, 219, 240, 245, 308, 
310, 316 

Mr (of Reepham), 220, 240, 266, 

274, 324 

Rebecca, 240 
Richard, 322 
St John, 229, 266 
Prince, Daniel, 12, 21 
Mrs , 149, 150, 151 
Proviss (Jun ), 66 
Prowse, Major, 20 
Mrs , 20. 

(sen ), 20 

Pryer (steward), 23 
Pryor, Mr., 29 

brother, sister, and niece, tbtd, 
Purcell, Rev — , 261 
Putt, Major, 66 
Pye, Mr , 14 
Pyle, Mr , 247 

du Quesne, 171, 184, 185, 196, 198, 
202, 205,206, 211, 212, 213, 2x6, 
2x7, 219, 220, 228, 229, 236, 238, 
24X, 252, ed 253, 266, 269, 274, 
276, 277, 279, 282, 28s, 303, 309, 
210, 311, 312, 313, 315, 316, 318, 
3 i 9 » 3*45 3*65 3*85 3*95 3345 338 ; 

Mrs , 2X0, 2X1. 

Quicke, 157 

Radnor, Earl of, 115. 

Rawbone, 128. 

Rawkins, parson, 116, 256. 

Rawl, Mr , X38 
Rawhns (architect), 320, 323. 

Reed, Capt , 22. 

Reevans, Mr. and Mrs , 236. 

Reeves (farrier), 289, 290. 

(tooth-drawer), 183. 

Reynell, , 19, 26. 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 265. 

Rice (tailor), 23, 28, 29, 53 
Mrs., 28, 29 
(musician), 102, 103. 

Ridley, Dr , 141 . 

Mrs , 171, 173, 187, 191, 194, 311. 
Rigby, 128 
Rmggar, Royal, 214 
Rising, Farmer, 333 
Roach, Thos , 80. 

Robbard, Justice, 46 
and son, tbtd* 

Robert (servant), 288 
Robin (servant), 198 
Robins, Mr , 322 

Robinson and Hartley vel Hartley 
and Robinson, 23 
Rock, Dr , 263. 

Rodbard, Harry, 127 
Rodney, Sir George, 287 and ed 
Rooke, Miss, 56, 88, 92, 93, 94, 99. 
Nancy, 18 
Tom, 18. 

Roop [Roupe ?], Mr., 189. 

Rose, Miss, 230 
Roupe, Chas , 290, 291. 

Miss (* little ^), 279 
Turner, 290, 291 
[Roop ?], Mrs , 205 
Rush, IMUss, 235. 

Russ, Andrew, 45, 53, 82, 89, 105, 1X6, 

Joany, Mrs , 272 
Mr , 12. 

Russell, 24, 80. 

Russen, Rev Benjamin, 2x3. 

Ryal, 202, 2o8. 

Sale, *4, 34, 78 
Salmon v Molly [Salmon]. 

Salter, Dr , X50 
Sam [Clarke, q 208 
Sampson, Jack, X39 
Sandford, X43 
Sandi|ord, 322. 

Sandwich, Lord, 249, ed. 250. 

Sanford, Parson, 34, 35. 

Mrs and children, 35. 

Sansom, Mr., 90. 

Sarah (servant), 97. 


Index of Persons 

-Sairle, Geo , Sir, ed. 283 
SaviUe, Miss, 157 
Scott (glover), 308. 

Scrogg, 78, 

Selstoncj Mr , 128, 1 37 
Seymour, Lady Francis, 115 
Lord, 115, 163. 

Mr j po. 

Shackleford, Mr , 12$ 

Shaddelow, Mr , 243. 

Sheffield, Mr , 28 
Shelford, Mr , 203 
Sherman, Miss, 186, 203, 282, 287 
Shute, ensign, 237. 

Shuter, 157. 

Simonds, 321 
Smglehurst, 306 

^ er, Mr and son, 260, 261. 

^ ^ er, Wm (villain), 307 
Slade, Mr , 257 
Small (Freemason), 143 
Smith, 338 
Smith, M P , 90 
(glaaer), 325 
(mnkeeper), ed 231, 269 
James, 195, 201, 214, 213, 230, 242, 
271, 299, 307, 313, 337 
Tane, Mrs , 221 
(mercer), 308 
Shadrach, 19 
Tom, 127, 259 
widow, 149 
Smyth (attorney), 31 1 
(his son. Fellow of New College), 

Snell, Hannah, 224 
Snooke, Geo , 18, ed 32. 

* Spamsh Charles * v Townshend, 
Chas , ed 

Spaule (blacksmith), 203. 

Speed, Chas , n, loi 
Wm , 86. 

Spencer, Mr , 10 1 
Misses, 101 
Mrs , loi 
Spincks (boy), 283 
Spraggs (gardener), 320, 336, 340 
(son of), 336, 338 
Springal, Wm , 213 
Spnngle (merchant), 269. 

Squire, Capt R N , 270, 296, 298 
Stacy, Ahce, 109, 119, 139 
Stavordale, Lord, 78 
Stephen (servant), 275. 

Stephens, Grace, 106 
Sterling, Mr., 286 
Stmton, Mr , 129 

Stockman, PhiU and child, 59. 
Strahan (prmter), 150 
Strangeways, Wm ,116 
Strong, Mr., 55. 

Strop, Geo., 148. 

Subwarden (New Coll ), 14, 120. 
Sukey [Bosly], 199, 215, 216, 232, 
233, 236, 237. 

(sister of), 216 

Susannah (and Anne) [Lillis tone], 302. 
Swanton, 133, 137, 143. 

Sweete, Robt , 92. 

Sybbyll (servant), 255, 296, 

Syms, Clem , 314. 

Tom, 319 

Tahourdm, 15 
Taswell, Rev — ^ 321, 322. 

Taimton, 44. 

Taylor, Anne, 221. 

Jas , 212 
Peter, 66 
u , 130 

Thomas, Cass, 52 
Mr , 45, 209 
(of Cary), 256, 259. 

(of l>ereham), 289 

Thome, Dr, 192, 301, 324, 331, 


Thorpe, 134, 135, 142, 157. 

Thurlowe, Dr (Bp of Rochester), 

, >36, 137 

(Mayor of Norwich), 278. 

Thurston, Thos (sen ), 214 
Toll (shopkeeper), 331 
Tom, aunt, 56, 127. 

uncle, 22, 67, 1 19, 282. 

Tompkins (grocer), 165 
Mrs , 165 
Sukey, 165 
Tompson, Wm , 171 
Tooley and family, 305 
Tottie, Farmer, 49 
Toulmin, Mr , 239, 240 
Townshend, (Dhas , ed. 2ii. 

Chas , Honble , 21 1, 212, 217, 2x8, 
219, 269, 270, 277, 280, 288, 303, 
, 307 » 318, 3191 3 ^ 3 , 324., 328, 329 
Mrs , 212, 269, 288, 328, 329. 

Jas j 133 ? 13^? 137? 138, 148. 

Lord, 217, 218. 

Mr (wine merchant), 133 
Trenchard, 149 

Trevihan vel Trevylyan, 68, 73. 

Troit, Mr , 145 
Trotman, 128, 143. 

Turner (jun ), la 


Index of Persons 

Tyc, 291, 

(servant), 312 

Tynte, Chas , Sir, 66, 67, 71, 73 
Uncle, 20 

Unity (servant), 97 
Uttens, Mr , 293. 

Uvedale, Samj Capt » 1549 155* 
Mrs., 155, 156. 

Vice-chancellor (Oxon ), 16, 160. 

Wamhouse, Rev — , 90, 

Walker (beadle), 170. 

Wall, 143. 

r>r , 133, 138, 142, 163, 265 
Thos , 322 

Walpole, Geo v Orford 
Walton (artist), 323, 326 
Warden (New Coll ), 13, 29, 78, 120-2, 
2475 ^52, 315 
Warden (Winchester), 34 
Waring, « , 24, 31. 

Warton vel Wharton, Geo , 186, 281 
Jno. vel Jack, 186, 190, 191, 200, 
252, 281, 296, 309, 330, 339, 340 
Mrs , 336 
Tom, 340. 


Wason, Jenny, 112 
Nancy, 112, 114, 116, 119 
Waters, Miss, iii« 

Mr,a 57 

Watson, Jno , 336 
Watts, Rev. — ^ 209 
Weaver, Mr and Mrs , 29 
Webber, 26, 31, 127, 128, 129, 134, 
13s, 136, 264, z 65 
(proctor), 138. 


Webster, 167, 168 
Mrs , 167, 168 
Welch, u , 14 
Weller, Geo , 15 
Wesley, ed., 177 
West, Dr., 137 
White, 20, 61 
Ann, 263 

Betsy, Miss, iii, 119, 125, 127, 
132, 138, 14s, 167. 

Bill, i3«. 

(infant), 88 
Jas , 263 
Jenny, 88. 

(lawyer), 168 

Mr , 88, 125, 131, 145, 176, 256, 262 

Mrs , 53, 1 1 8, 208. 

Robert, 292, 296 
Robin, 61 
Sam (Mrs ), 53 

Sister, 88, 106, 125, 131, 132, 138, 
167, 176, 209, 256, 259, 260 
Whithead, Mr , 22 
Whitmell, Rev — , 205, 322 
Whitmore, Dean, 17, 18, 28 
Wickham, Mr., m, 114, 115, 117, 119, 
Betty, 260 
Fanny, 260 
Mrs , 125, 260, 261 
Rev — , 255, 256, 260, 261. 

Tom, 2^, 263. 

Wight, 144 
Osborn, 149 
Wileham (barber), 336. 

Wilkes, 75, 91, 93, 99 
WiUen (schmolmaster), daughter and 
son, 223 

WiUiam (servant), 126 
Wilhaxns, Dan, 138. 

(]un), 31,137, 143 
(sen), 172 
u , 15, 18 

WiUmott, Judge, 19 
Mr , 18 

Wilmot, Jos , 86 
Wilson, Mrs , 213 
(sen ), Rev , 184, 213 
Windham, Jack and wife, 257 
Wm , 217, 218 
Wittick, Farmer, 97 
Mrs , 97 
Sarah, 97. 

Wittys, Farmer, 85. 

Witwick, Rev — ,62 
Wont, Jno , 292 
Wood, 148 

Woodco(^, Robt , 29 1 
WooDFORDE, James, dtartst 

[Note The sub-headings are in 
logtcal^ not alphabetical order ] 

descent of, ed i 
birth, ed 10 

attnbutes, ed vu, ed ix, ed 6 
generosity o. I. Alms, Presents 
loyalty v Charlotte, queen-con- 

and Oxford, 11-32, iii, 120, 127, 
132, 140, 145, 157 et seq^ 168 
et seq 

as proctor, 135, 136, 147 
and clerical office, 33 et seq^ 181 
et seq 


Index of Persons 

and parish troubles, 79, 81, ed 84, 
9Z, 23a, 233 

and family do v Woodforde, Jno , 
and I Drunkenness 
unhappy love affair, 168 , and v 
White, Betsy 

and gastronomic consolations v 
I Bills of fare 
and hospitahty v thtd 
incident of gallantry, 262 , and v 
Hossy, Nancy 

and poor relations, 20, 2i , and v 
Lewis, James 

pastimes v I Cards, Fishing 
and contraband • v Andrews, 
Richard, and I Smugghng 
and squirearchy v Creed, Custance, 
Townshend (Honble Charles) 
"knd visits to Bath, 104 , London, 
17 , Somerset, 253 
and relatives v mfra 
Woodforde, Ann, 13. 

Bill, 56, 176, 178, 183, 184, 185, 
186, 187, 188, 189, 192, 194, 195, 
201, 203, 204, 206, 207, 208, 213, 
215, 216, 217, 218, 220, 221, 223, 
224, 225, 226, 228, 229, 230, 231, 
*32, 233, 234, 23s, 236, 237, 238, 
239, 240, 244, 2SS, 268, 271, 272, 
282, 2S3, 284, 285, 296, 298, 301 
Bob, 44, 82 

Frank, 22, no, 118, 127, 131, 132, 
168, 207, 292, and wife, 292 
Heighes (ancestor), ed. 2 
Heighes (brother of diarist), 53, $6, 
60, 62, 81, 93, 95, 97, 98, 100, loi, 
102, 107, 125, 132, 139, 141, 167, 
168, 17s, 176, 207, 208, 209, 254, 
271, 301, 31Q, 337 
James, dtartst v supra* 

Jane » Jane, sister, and Pouncett, 

Jno (ancestor), ed i. 

(brother of dianst), 22, 47, 49, 52, 
S3> 54. 59. 60, 61, 63, 64, 65, 67, 
68,73.75.80,83, 85,87,88,93, 
100, 105, 107, 109, 1 13, 1 16, 132, 
141, 145, 175,177,207,218,254, 

Mrs , 14s, 254. 

Juliana, 254 

Nancy ed. 175, 254, 262, 267, 268, 
269, 271, 272, 273, 274, 276, 277, 
279, 280, 281, 283, 284, 288, 291, 
294, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 306, 
307, 308, 310. 312. 313. 314, 3*5. 
317. 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 

324, 325, 326, 327. 329, 330, 331. 

332, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340 
R E H (descendant), ed vii,ed 297 
Robert, ed i 

Samuel, Rev , D D (ancestor), ed i. 
Samuel, Rev (father of dianst), 20, 

21, 35j 475 5^5 53» 54j 59> 

64, 82, ed 85, ed 88, 104, 105, 
106, 107, 108, 109, 1 13 
wife of (mother of dianst), 41, 42, 

475 5^5 53) 54 
Sam (jun.), 125, 132, 168, 176, 208, 

Thos (of Taunton), III, 245 
Tom, 100 
Wm vel Bill, q v 
Woodhouse, Sir John, 217 

« 5 1345 135 

Woodward, 157 
Worth, Dr , 134 
Wragg, Mr , 256 
Wray, Miss, 249, ed, 250 
Wnght, Mr , 70 

{b) NAMES 

Abbey Milton, ed 12 

Abingdon v Abington 

Abington vel Abbington, ed 12, 23, 


Acde, 285 
Adderbury, 264 
Alford Well, 175 
Allhampton Field, 167. 

Amesbury, ed 253 
Andover, ed. 264 

Ansford, 2, 10, 11, 12, 18, 19, 20, 21, 

32, 33, 34, 40, 45. 47. 54, 59. 60, 62, 
68, 7°, 73, 78, 79, 83, 85, 95, 100, 


102, 103, 104, 106, 107, 109, no, 

II3. I15, II7, I18, H9, 120, 124, 

125, 126, 127, 131, 132, 138, 139, 

144, *45. *65. *66, 168, 174, 175, 

176, 1 81, 182, 186, 206, 207, 209, 

210, 224, 253, 258, 259, 262, 263, 


Ardington, 28 
Attleborough, ed 207. 

Attiebndge, 185, 186, 200, 289. 
Avord, 45, 49, 61 
Aylesbury, ed. 207, ed 253, 

Aylsham, 321, 322. 

Index of Peaces 

Babcary, 33, 35, 36, 37, 43, 44, 46, 53. 
Badminton, 102, 140, 

Baldock, 178, ed, 207. 

Barbary coast, 268 

Barton Mills, 1 50, ed 207, ed» 253 

Batcombe, ed 1x7. 

Bath,<46, 47 . 1 ^ 7 % 83, 104, loj, 

114, X 22 , 124, 2 X 0 , 258. 

Beeston, 225 
Bell-string Rood, X90 
Bentley, 38. 

Berkeley, 20 
Bethnal Green, 2x3 
Bibury, X44 
Bicester, 13 
Bmsey, 265 
Biandford, xix. 

Bodmin, 165 
Booton, 314 
Boston (Mass ), X73. 

Bourne Bridge, 150 
Boxmoor House, x 54 
Boy’s Water, 25 
Brand, 275, 307 
Brest, ed. 262. 

Bndewell, X34 
Bridgwater, 65, 66, 90 
Brinton, 259 

Bristol, 32^ 47, 59, 202, 258 
Bun’s Gardens, Norwich, 282. 
Burford, 47, X23, 144, X65 
Butly, 85. 

Bradkley, 29. 

Bruton, 22, 45, 71, 80, X26, X46, 176, 

Cambridge, King’s College Chapel, 

Caribees, 303, 

Cary vel Castle Cary, 2, 10, 21, 46, 47, 
481 S*. S 3 > 64 ) 6s, 67, 68, 69, 81, 82, 
84, 86, 89, 90, 92, 93, 99, 100, 207, 
209, 254, 260. 

Cary’s Pitt, 203 
Catsashe Hundred, 88 
Catcott, 65, 66 
Charleston (Carolina), 285 
Charlton, xx6. 

Cheddar, 260, 261 
Chesterton, 29 
Chippenham, xxo 
Cirencester, X23, X44. 

ClanviUe, 45 
Cley, ed 251. 

Cole, 1x6, X25, 138, 254. 

Copsely, 277 
Corton, 257 

Cuba, 22. 

Cucklington, xxo 

Dereham, 189, 2x8, ed 251, 300, 304, 


Dimmer, 272 
Ditchet, 86 

Dorchester (Dorset), 256 
Draton, 31 

Duke Street, Westminster, 149 
Dunstable, X78, ed 207 
Durham, 222. 

Earlham, 227, 233, 3x8, 328 
East Charlton, 35, 36, 40, 44 
East Indies, 279 
Easton, 236, 305 
Easton Reeds, 216 
East Tuddenham, 198, 236, 312* 
Elmham, 2§^ 

Elsixeld, 23 
Elsmg, X84. 

Enson, X23. 

Epping Forest, 150. 

Evercreech, 46, 52, 125, X41, 289 
Everly, ed X2, 133, ed 207 
Evershot, X2 
Exeter, 261 

Falkland’s Island [Falkland Islands], 

Famborough, ed 12, ed 207. 

Four Acres Field, 106 
France Green, 280. 

Frome, 234. 

Gadmgton, 134. 

GaUhampton, 70. 

Gannard’s Grave, 86, 259. 

Garveston, 275, 305 
Greenwich, 173 
Grove Place, 6x 

Hambridge, 63 
Hampshire, 324, 332 
Harding, 63, 64, 107. 

Harlowe, 150 
Hartford, 86. 

Harwich, 206 
Hatspen, 100 
Havann^, 22 
Henbndge, 60, 1x2 
Hertford v Hartford 
High Hall, Wimbome, 59 
Hinton, 8i. 

Hitchm, 179, ed. 207 

36 z 

Index of Places 

Hockemg, 15a, 171, 185, 196, 199, 
24.7, 290, 302, 309, 315, 327, 332, 

338. 340 

heath, 306 
Holland, 76 

Honingham, 21 1, 223, 236, 269, 277, 
318, 3 ^ 3 , 334 
Horsington, 10 1 
Houghton Hall, ed 251 
Hounslow Hea&, 116 
Hungerford, ed* 12, ed 207 
Hyde Park Corner, ed 17 

Ipswich, 155, 156 

Jersey, 300 

Keenton, 36 
Kilkenny, 259 
Kingsettle All, loi 
Kingsgate (Kent), 60 

Lad’s Lane, London, 232 
Lenwade, 310 

Lenwade vel Lenswade vel Lenewade 
Bndge, 180, 225^237, 281, 324, 328, 
329, 330 

Lenwade Mill, 309 
Leonard vel Leonade, 185, 200, 213 
Ling vel Lyng, 220, 231, 233, 237, 239, 
240, 244, 246, 269 
Little Melton, 236 

London, 303, 311, 321, 323, 331, 335 
Longeville Pnory, Normandy, ed i8i 
Long Lane, ed 207 
LoVmgton, 56 

Lower House (Ansford), 21, 52, 53, 
et altbt 
Lydford, 59 
Lynn Regis, ed 251 

Maidenhead, 149 

Mattishall, 190, 267, 290, 294, 311, 
324, 328, 330, 337, 338 
Milhome Port, 257 
Morton, 195, 199, 281, 293, 309, 310, 

Mousehold Heath, 202 

Needham, ed 154 

Newbury, ed 253 

New Hall, Ringland, 323 

New Markett, 1 50, ed 207, ed 253 

Newton-Purcell, 24, 27 

Newtown, ed 12 

North Tuddenham, 203. 

Norwich, 151, 153, 184, 187, 194, 195, 
ed 201, 202, ed 204, 206, 212, 216, 
217, 233, 234, 236, 239, 240, 266, 
267, ed 268, 271, 274, 278, 279, 
285, 286, 291, 292, 294, 298, 299, 
300, 303, 304, 306, 307, 310, 314, 
3 i 5 > 3 i 9 > 323 je<i 324 j 33 o> 33 Ij 

335 > 337 » 339 
North America, 332 
Nottingham, 20, 21, 209, 306 

Old Downe, 124, 127, 165. 

Ottery St Mary, 146 
Overton, 248 

Oxford Apodyterium, 170 , Blue 
Boar Inn, 210, 264 , Botley Road, 
70, 265 , Castle, 16, 24, 148 , 
Colleges Balhol, 147, B N C-, 135, 

148, 173 , Christchurch, 26, 120, 

134, 146 , C C C , 25 , Exeter, 129, 
130 , Magdalen, 13 , Merton, 16, 

135, New College, n, 31, 34, 78, 
80, 118, 119, 122, 130, 136, 164, 172, 
178, 181, 247, 248, 257, 264, 265, 
et altbt ^ Queen’s, 24, 59, 136, 
(fire) 242, Saint Mary Hall, 135, 

149 , Trimty, 209 , University, 
129, 134, 144 , Wadham, 14, 
(ed ) 147, Worcester, 130, Corn 
Market, 46, 144, 165 , Cross Izm, 
14, George Lane, 129, High 
Street, 28, 265, Hohnwell (Hol>- 
well), 15 , Magdalen Bridge, 265 , 
New College Lane, 12, New Inn, 
128 , Pig-market (Schools), 170 , 
Port Meadow, 14, 265 , St Giles’ 
Church, 19 , St Giles’ [Street], 
265, St Thomas* Church, 16, 
Shotover, 237, 285 , Theatre, 134, 
135 , University Church, 171, 265 , 
Wootton, 205 

Pembroke, 229 
Petersburg, 76 
Petty France, 124, 140 
Pill, 132 
Plymouth, 261 
Pond Close, 65, 107 
Pondicherry, 225 
Pool, 55, 

Portsmouth, 260 

Quantrell’s Gardens, Norwich, 286 
Quebec, 12 

Quebec * folly *, Dereham, 305 
Queen Camel, 257 


Index of Places 

Radstock, 83* 

Reepham, I95, 220, 234, 321, 322, 

Ringland, 191, 234, 249, 266, 272, 276, 
280, 288, 291, 292, 294, 312, 321, 
326, 327 
Rising, 280 
Rivett’s Estate, 191. 

Royston, 179, ed 207, ed 253 

Saham, 238, 314. 

St Albans, 63, 107 
St Eustatia, W 1 , 303 
St James’s Palace, 156 
St Martin’s, W. 1 , 303 
Salisbury, ed 263, ed 264 
Sandford Orcas, 73 
Sandy Hill, 337 
Sanforde, 18 

Scotland altas North Britain, 288 
Seme [Ceme Dorset, 55 
Shapmck (Somerset ?), 12 
Sharvord [Shawford ^], 12 
Sheerness, 270, 296, 298 
Shepton Mallett -Del Shepton, 21, 66, 
III, I2S, 127, 138, i 4 S> >67, 255 
Shepton Montague, 255 
Sherborne, ed 32, 89, 202, 256 
Shipdam, 309 
Somerton, 88, 202 
Southampton, 23 
South Cadbury, 112, 257, 25S 
South Cary, 260 
Spargrove, 117 
Sparham, 205, 242. 

Spithead, 268 
Stanstead, 150 
Stanton Woods, 13 
Stock, 88 
Stockbndge, 263, 

Stonehenge, 87 
Stourton, 32 
Stow, 27- 

Sutton vel Sutton Montis, Ii2« 
Swa^am, ed 251, 296 

Tame [Thame], 178, ed 207 
Taimton, 27, 65, 67, 107 
Taverham, 205 

Tedbury [Tetbury], 123, 140, 174 
Thame v Tame 
Thames, 23 

Thetford, 150, ed 207, 306 
Thurloxton, 24, 27, 32, 33 

Townshend’s Clumps, 303 
Tring, 178, ed 207 
Tuddenham, 266, 312, and v East 
T , North T 
Twidkenham, 149 
Twyford, 10 1 

Upper Grosvenor Street, 149 

VauxhaU, ed 17 
Virgima, 333 

Walford, 35 
Wantage, 28 

Wells (Somerset), 79, 81, 90, 115, 165, 
260, 261 

Wells (Norfolk), ed 251, 269 
Wensum river, ed 181 
West Camel, 43 
Westcombe, 208 

Weston Longeviile vel Weston, 14^^ 
14*5 147531485 1S*5 *7*5 *845 *855 
186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 195, 
196, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 204, 
206, 210, 21 1, 212, 213, 221, 223, 
224, 227, 229, 230, 232, 235, 237, 
239, 24a, 251, 252, 253, ed 265, 
ed 269, 271, 273, 275, 276, 278, 280, 
282, 28s, 288, 289, 291, 292, 294, 
*995 30*) 3035 3065 3075 3**5 3*35 
3*45 3*S5 3*75 3*05 3**5 3**5 3*^5 
3305 33*5 3355 3365 3375 34® 
Weston-on-the-Green, 27 
Weymouth, 102, 256, 257 
Whaddon Chase, 29 
Wick Bridge, 254 
Wiley, 133, ed 207 
Wimbome, 59 
Winborough, 251, ed 252 
Win canton, 47, 62 
Winchester, ed 22, 29, 115, 263, ed 
264, 331. 

Windsor, 315, 325 
Wingfield, 309 
Wmterbum, ed 12 
Witchingham, 196, 200, ed 294, 333, 

Witney vel Whitney, 123 
Wood-Norton, 205 
Wootton (Oxon.), 2.0$ 

Yarlington, 6i 

Yarmouth, 153, 188, 226, ed 268, 
272, 283, 284, 285, 317 
York Town (Va ), ed 333